This course is intended for sophomores learning research and laboratory techniques, working under close supervision of a faculty member. It may also be used for directed readings at an appropriate level. It includes reading on a significant topic and regular consultation with the faculty member chosen to supervise the work. The required paper could be on the scientific literature in a broad field, on biological issues on which the student may want to do continuing work, or on the detailed results of research in a biological specialty. Conferences, seminars, readings, and assigned writings are used to develop critical perspectives on modern biological problems and to provide breadth and sense of historical continuity in biological thought.