Basic Scientific Vocabulary

Notes on the vocabulary list Suggestions & Resources for learning this vocabulary: Practice exercises for the quizzes

Remember that before doing these, you should first study one section at a time, and do the matching exercises for that section.

Quiz 1 covers "Quantities, Measuring" and "Laws, Theories, Experiments, Proofs"
Quiz 2 covers "Quantities, Measuring" through "Genetics & Misc. Biological Terms"
Quiz 3 covers "Quantities, Measuring" through "Electricity, Machines"
Quiz 4 covers the entire list.

Übungen für Quiz 1 Übungen für Quiz 2
[==> To study for Quiz 2, you could also review Übungen für Quiz 1]
Übungen für Quiz 3
[==> To study for Quiz 3, you could also review review Übungen für Quiz 1 & 2]
Übungen für Quiz 4
[==> To study for Quiz 4, you could also review Übungen für Quiz 1, 2 & 3]

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The list--section by section
 

Quantities, Measuring Laws, Theories, Experiments, Proofs
Connections Between Things Science, Scientists, Research(ers)
Genetics & Misc. Biological Terms Space
Motion, Friction, Mechanics Electricity, Machines
Chemical Elements Materials and their Properties
Miscellaneous  

Quantities, Measuring

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ab•nehmen, er/sie/es nimmt ab, nahm ab, hat abgenommen to decrease (for becoming less, not for making something less)
fallen, er/sie/es fällt, fiel, ist gefallen to decrease (for becoming less, not for making something less)
die Anzahl amount, quantity (for things counted in whole numbers)
berechnen  to calculate (something)
rechnen to do arithmetic
bestimmen to determine
der Betrag, ¨-e amount, quantity (for money and some measurements)
der Durchschnitt average
erhöhen to raise (temperature, pressure, speed, concentration, amount, taxes)
genau exactly
gesamt  whole, entire
insgesamt altogether, in total
gewaltig huge
riesig huge
die Größenordnung, -en order of magnitude
messen, er/sie/es misst, maß, hat gemessen to measure
reduzieren to reduce, to lower (temperature, pressure, speed, concentration, amount, taxes)
senken to reduce, to lower (temperature, pressure, speed, concentration, amount, taxes)
verringern to reduce, to lower (temperature, pressure, speed, concentration, amount, taxes)
schätzen to estimate
schätzungsweise approximately
unendlich infinite
ungefähr approximately, roughly
etwa approximately, roughly
wiegen, wog, hat gewogen to weigh
die Waage, -n scales (for weighing)
winzig tiny
zu•nehmen, er/sie/es nimmt zu, nahm zu, hat zugenommen to increase (for becoming more, not for making something more)
steigen, stieg, ist gestiegen to increase (for becoming more, not for making something more)

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Laws, Theories, Experiments, Proofs

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allgemein general
an•wenden, wandte an/wendete an, hat angewandt/angewendet to apply (a formula or a theory; not for applying for jobs etc.)
die Anwendung, -en application
behaupten to claim, to assert
beliebig arbitrary
merken to notice
bemerken to notice
beobachten to observe
bestätigen to confirm
der Beweis, -e proof
beweisen, bewies, hat bewiesen to prove
die Erfahrung, -en experience
erfahren, er/sie/es erfährt, erfuhr, hat erfahren to experience, find out
das Ergebnis, -se result (Plural: results, data)
das Experiment, -e experiment
der Fall, ¨-e case
die Folge, -n consequence
gelten, er/sie/es gilt, galt, hat gegolten to be valid (see Superwörter III for more details)
gültig valid
das Gesetz, -e law
prüfen to test (e.g. a hypothesis); to check (if something is working right)
der Satz, ¨-e law, theorem, sentence
streng strict, rigorous
die Untersuchung, -en investigation
untersuchen to investigate
die Verallgemeinerung, -en generalization
die Vermutung, -en supposition, hypothesis
vermuten to suppose, hypothesize
der Versuch, -e experiment; attempt
der Vorgang, ¨-e process, procedure
der Zweifel, - doubt
zweifeln an to doubt
bezweifeln to doubt
zweifelhaft dubious, doubtful

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Connections Between Things

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(un)abhängig (in)dependent
ab•hängen von, hing ab, hat abgehangen to depend on
die Beziehung, -en relationship
der Grund, ¨-e reason (as in: "why?"; not as in "rationality," "logic")
die Verbindung, -en connection, (chemical) compound
verbunden connected
verursachen  to cause
die Wirkung, -en effect
der Zufall, ¨-e chance, coincidence

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Science, Scientists, Research(ers)

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entdecken to discover
die Entdeckung, -en discovery
forschen to do research
der/die Forscher(in), -/-innen researcher
die Naturwissenschaft, -en scientific discipline (e.g. Physics), "science"
die Wissenschaft, -en science (can include social science and even literary "science")
der/die Wissenschaftler(in), -/-innen scientist 

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Genetics & Misc. Biological Terms

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sich an•passen an to adapt to
gut an ... angepasst well adapted to
die Art, -en  species
das Eiweiß protein, albumen, egg white
die Entwicklung, -en development
erben to inherit
die Fortpflanzung reproduction
das Gehirn, -e brain
das Gen, -e gene
das Geschlecht, -er gender, genus
der Körper, - body (also in the sense of "a moving body")
künstlich artificial
der Missbrauch, ¨-e abuse
missbrauchen to abuse (in the sense of "misuse" or "cruelly misuse"; not in the sense of "insult")
das Säugetier, -e mammal
der Stoffwechsel metabolism
die Zelle, -n cell

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Space

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entstehen, entstand, ist entstanden to come into being
das Licht light
die Lichtgeschwindigkeit the speed of light
der Planet, -en planet
der Raum space 
der Weltraum space
die Schwerkraft gravity
die Gravitation gravity
die Sonne, -n sun
der Stern, -e star
der Urknall big bang
das Weltall universe
das Universum universe

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Motion, Friction, Mechanics

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die Bahn, -en path (of a moving object); train
beschleunigen  to accelerate
die Beschleunigung, -en acceleration
die Energie energy
die Geschwindigkeit, -en speed, velocity (use context to pick the right one)
der Impuls momentum, impulse
der Schwung momentum [non-/less scientific term]
die Reibung friction
rückwärts backwards
vorwärts forwards
die Ruhe state of rest, quiet, silence
ruhend in a state of rest
träge inert
die Trägheit inertia
der Widerstand resistance

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Electricity, Machines

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an•machen to turn (something) on
aus•machen to turn (something) off
an•schalten to switch (something) on
aus•schalten to switch (something) off
der Schalter switch
an sein to be switched on
aus sein to be switched off
die Atomenergie nuclear power
die Kernkraft nuclear power
der Draht, ¨-e wire
das Kabel, - thick wire, cable
die Elektrizität electricity
elektrisch electric
funktionieren to be working (as intended) [as in: functioning]
gehen, ging, ist gegangen to be working (as intended) [as in: functioning] [also means: to walk, of course!]
laufen, er/sie/es läuft, lief, ist gelaufen to be running [e.g. a program, an engine, a washing machine]
leiten to conduct, to lead (e.g. an expedition, a team of researchers)
die Leitung, -en conduction, (water-)pipe (for tap water etc.), leadership (e.g. of an expedition or a team of researchers)
der Motor, -en motor, engine
der Schalter, - switch
der Strom electric current/power
der Stromkreis circuit
die Technik technology
technisch technical

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Chemical Elements

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der Kohlenstoff; die Kohle, -n carbon; coal
der Sauerstoff oxygen
der Stickstoff nitrogen
der Wasserstoff hydrogen

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Materials and their Properties

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bestehen aus to consist of
dicht dense OR not letting anything through (e.g. watertight)
undicht leaky
die Dichte density
die Eigenschaft, -en characteristic, property (not in the sense of "owning")
enthalten, er/sie/es enthält, enthielt, hat enthalten to contain
fest solid (also means: firm, tight)
flüssig liquid
gasförmig gaseous
leicht light; easy
schwer heavy; hard
die Mischung  mixture
mischen to mix

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Miscellaneous

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aus•drücken to express (quantities in certain units; genes; ideas...)
derzeit jetzt
die Erhaltung conservation (e.g. of energy, of a species)
erhalten, er/sie/es erhält, erhielt, hat erhalten to conserve; to receive
verschwinden, verschwand, ist verschwunden to disappear
die Welle, -n wave

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