Getriebe I & II: Vokabelliste

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das Getriebe, - transmission
schalten [an•schalten/aus•schalten] to shift (gears) [to switch on/off]
die Übersetzung, -en; übersetzen gear ratio, translation; to translate, transmit (power--with the implication that there is a gear ratio involved)
das Zahnrad, ¨-er gear
drehen to turn
die Hauptwelle, -n main shaft, output shaft [the gears on this shaft spin freely on bearings until a gear is engaged by the Schiebemuffe, which forces the shaft to turn with that gear]
die Vorgelegewelle, -n countershaft, layshaft [below the Hauptwelle. This shaft is directly connected to the input shaft from the engine. This shaft and the gears on it all spin together as one unit; each gear on this shaft causes the corresponding gear on the main shaft to spin, but does not cause the main shaft to rotate until the Schiebemuffe engages one of the gears on the main shaft.]
der Leerlauf idle, idling, engine idling, neutral (gear position)
die Synchroneinrichtung, -en synchronizer [refers to the whole assembly], syncromesh mechanism
der Synchronring, -e synchronizer ring [sometimes just called "synchronizer." The gear is on one side of this ring, and the Schiebemuffe and Synchronköper (synchronizer hub) are on the other side of this ring. To put in a gear, the Schiebemuffe pushes the synchronizer ring into contact with the gear. The conical inside part of the synchronizer ring fits over the conical Synchronkegel/ Kupplungskörper (synchronizer cone) on the gear, and friction between them causes their speeds to become the same. The dog teeth on the Schiebemuffe can now smoothly engage the teeth on the gear.]
der Synchronkörper, - synchronizer hub [this is connected to the Hauptwelle and always spins with it. The Schiebemuffe slides left and right on this hub, but always remains connected with it and thus also always spins with the Hauptwelle.]
der Synchronkegel, -; der Kupplungskörper, - synchronizer cone [conical protrusion located on the gear. When it comes into contact with the conical inside part of the Synchronring, friction equalizes their speeds, making it possible for the Schiebemuffe's dog teeth to engage with the holes in the gear. When you hear a grinding noise when you're shifting, you're shifting into a gear that's so wrong that this process can't work]
die Schiebemuffe, -n; die Schaltmuffe, -n collar, sliding sleeve, synchronizer sleeve, selector sleeve [The collar sits on (and thus rotates with) the Synchronkörper, which rotates with the Hauptwelle. The collar's "dog teeth" need to be fitted into the corresponding holes in the gear wheel to engage a gear; the synchro makes this a smooth process]
das Druckstück, -e; der Synchronriegel, - synchronizing key, clutch key [there are usually three of these little "keys"; the Schiebemuffe pushes the Synchronring against the Synchronköper/ Kupplungskörper on the gear by pushing on these little keys. ]
das Losrad, ¨-er idler gear [i.e. any gear that is spinning freely on the main shaft, not engaged by the Schiebemuffe]
das Festrad, ¨-er fixed gear [i.e. a gear on the main shaft that has been engaged by the Schiebemuffe and so is now making the main shaft spin with it]
die Reibung friction
der Drehmomentwandler, - torque converter
das Leitrad, ¨-er stator [at the center of the torque converter, where it reverses the direction of the fluid flow and increases the torque at low speeds, and just "gets out of the way" at high speeds]
die Antriebswelle, -n drive shaft, input shaft [in this context, the shaft coming directly from the engine that drives the torque converter; further below, the shaft driving the planetary transmission]
die Abtriebswelle, -n output shaft [in this context, this is the shaft powered by the torque converter; further below, it's the shaft driven by the planetary transmission]
die Fliehkraft, ¨-e centrifugal force
die Schaufel, -n vanes, blades (of a turbine); shovel
umgekehrt the other way around, reversed
die Strömungskupplung, -en fluid coupling, fluid clutch
das Planetengetriebe, - planetary transmission
das Sonnenrad, ¨-er sun gear
das Planetenrad, ¨-er planet gear
der Planetenradträger, -; der Steg, - planet carrier
das Hohlrad, ¨-er ring gear, internal gear
[die Lamelle, -n] [fin, slat; in the plural this is the name for "sipes" in a tire tread, i.e. the little slits between the tread grooves]
die Lamellenkupplung, -en multi-plate clutch [used within the planetary transmission, as well as in limited-slip differentials and 4wd vehicle power distribution systems; hydraulically operated in this case]
fest•halten, hielt fest, hat festgehalten to hold in a fixed position, to keep a firm hold on
wahlweise in turn, alternately
das Wandlergetriebe, - a transmission that uses a torque converter
die Wandlerüberbrückung, -en torque converter lockup
die Wandlerüberbrückungskupplung, -en torque converter lockup clutch

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der Gangschaltungsvorgang, ¨-e the process of putting in a gear
die Schaltstellung, -en refers to the position of the components once a gear has been put in
der Strömungswandler, - flow converter, torque converter [used here to emphasize that the torque converter being described is hydrodynamic]
das Trilok-Prinzip, -e refers to the kind of torque converter described in the text that uses a stator with a one-way clutch and possibly adjustable blades [TRILOK was the name of the research partnership that came up with the idea.]
die Festwelle, -n fixed shaft
eine Übersetzung ins Schnelle would usually just be referred to as "overdrive" in English. The noun "overdrive" is translated as "der overdrive" or "der Spargang" or "der Schongang" or "der Schnellgang."