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Erweiterte Adjektive [Extended Adjectives]
Practice Exercises

Participles as Adjectives

Extended Adjectives
More Examples of Extended Adjectives

Practice Exercises

Present or Past Participle Choose whether the English expression is best translated with a present or a past participle

Relativsätze ==> Erweiterte Adjektive 1 Turn the short relative clauses in this exercise into extended adjectives

Relativsätze ==> Erweiterte Adjektive 2 Turn the longer relative clauses in this exercise into extended adjectives

Deutsch ==> Englisch Choose the best translations for the extended adjectives in this exercise

Gefräßige [=voracious] Wundheiler Choose the best translations for the extended adjectives in this article about a stunningly gross way of treating wounds that won't heal easily.

Englisch ==> Deutsch Come up with extended adjectives to translate these Englsih sentences

Participles as Adjectives

Present Participle: kochen ==> kochend ==> das kochende Ei the boiling egg
Past Participle: kochen ==> gekocht ==> das gekochte Ei the boiled egg

Reminder/Warning about Present Participles

Although the present participle is the counterpart to the English -ing form, it is very rarely used, except as an adjective in the manner described here. Thus you should still ordinarily express -ing forms with the regular present or past tense in German:

Ich gehe I am going/I go;
Ich ging or Ich bin gegangen I went/I was going

Note on Past Participles

Past participles of intransitive verbs (verbs that cannot take an object--see the grammar terminology handout for examples) have an “active” meaning as adjectives (if they can be used as adjectives at all):

der angekommene Zug the train that had arrived
die ausgeschlafene Studentin the well-rested student (the student who got enough sleep)
das gestorbene Schaf the dead sheep (the sheep that died)

Past participles of transitive verbs (which can take an object) have a “passive” meaning as adjectives:

das verbrannte Schloss the burned castle (the castle that was burned)
der verkaufte SPAM the SPAM that was sold
das getötete Schaf the sheep that was killed

More Examples:

das sinkende Schiff the sinking ship
das gesunkene Schiff the sunken ship
der sterbende Tenor the dying tenor
der gestorbene Tenor the dead tenor
die schlafenden Hunde the sleeping dogs
die geschlafenen Hunde [makes no sense]
das verlierende Paradies [makes no sense]
das verlorene Paradies the lost paradise
eine aussterbende Kultur a dying culture [dying out]
eine ausgestorbene Kultur an extinct culture [died out]

Extended Adjectives

[also called extended participial modifiers = erweiterte Partizipialbestimmungen]

1. Adjectives formed from participles can be extended quite freely by adding e.g. adverbs (schnell, allerdings, genau, gern...) and prepositional phrases (von mir, mit der Hand, unter dem Bett, ohne zu atmen, anhand eines Kalenders, trotz aller Warnungen...) in front of the participle

das sinkende Schiff ==> das schnell sinkende Schiff ==> das trotz aller Bemühungen schnell sinkende Schiff ==> ...
the sinking ship ==> the quickly sinking ship ==> the despite-all-efforts-quickly-sinking ship ==> ...
ein zerbrochener Stift ==> ein von mir zerbrochener Stift ==> ein von mir aus Wut absichtlich zerbrochener Stift ==> ...
a broken pen ==> a by-me-broken pen ==> a by-me-out-of-anger-purposely-broken pen ==> ...

2. To translate an extended adjective into good English, use a relative clause and go backwards:

ein (1) von mir aus Wut (2) absichtlich (3) verlorener (4) Stift
a (4) pen, (3) which was lost (2) on purpose (1) by me out of anger
das (1) trotz aller Bemühungen (2) schnell (3) sinkende (4) Schiff
the (4) ship, (3) which was sinking (2) quickly (1) despite all efforts

3. A noun can be modified by several adjectives, and this remains true if one or more of these adjectives is an extended adjective. The extended adjective may precede or follow the “unextended” ones:

Der schnelle, von meiner Mutter anlässlich meines Geburtstags gekaufte Hund The fast, by-my-mother-on-the-occasion-of-my-birthday-bought dog
Der von meiner Mutter anlässlich meines Geburtstags gekaufte, schnelle Hund

4. Adjectives, which describe nouns, take adjective endings.

Adverbs, which describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, do not take endings.

Compare:

Der schnell laufende Hund The quickly running dog
Der schnelle, laufende Hund The quick, running dog

In the first case, “schnell” refers to “laufen”: the dog is running--how?--quickly. “Schnell” is thus an adverb, and takes no ending. In the second case, “schnelle” and “laufende” both refer directly to the dog: it is quick, and it is running. Hence both are adjectives and take adjective endings.

Another example:

Der von meiner Mutter anlässlich meines Geburtstags gekaufte, schnelle Hund
Der von meiner Mutter anlässlich meines Geburtstags schnell gekaufte Hund

The first dog is quick, and was bought by my mother for my birthday; the second dog was bought quickly by my mother for my birthday, and this dog may or may not be quick.

5. Although extended adjectives usually involve (present or past) participles, they need not do so, as here:

An der Wand hing ein meiner Meinung nach ohne Zweifel sehr teures Bild On the wall hung an in-my-opinion-without-a-doubt-very-expensive picture

6. The combination zu + present participle indicates that the action indicated by the verb can be done, is to be done, or must be done. With an adverb it indicates how the action is to be done.

...ein noch zu bestimmender Redner... ...a still-to-be-determined speaker
...das links im Bild zu sehende Insekt... ...the insect that can be seen on the left side of the picture
...eine ernst zu nehmende Bedrohung ...a threat that must be taken seriously
...eine nicht zu missachtende Möglichkeit ...a possibility that cannot/must not be ignored

More Examples of Extended Adjectives

Die erst vor kurzem geöffnete Grenze wurde wieder geschlossen. The border, which had been opened only recently (the only-recently-opened border) was closed again.

Barney aß das laut um Hilfe schreiende Kind.
Barney ate the child, which was screaming loudly for help (the loudly-for-help-screaming child).
Barney aß das laute, um Hilfe schreiende Kind. Barney ate the loud child, which was screaming for help (the loud, for-help-screaming child).
Zu diesem Zweck wird die noch nicht vollkommen entwickelte Knospe geöffnet. For this purpose the not yet fully developed bud is opened.
Die soeben besprochenen Ergebnisse fasste Mendel in zwei Gesetze zusammen. Mendel summarized the just discussed results in two laws.
Die von einigen Astronomen vor Jahren beobachteten “Kanäle” auf dem Mars waren eine Enttäuschung. The canals on Mars, which were observed by some astronomers years ago (the by-some-astronomers-years-ago-observed canals on Mars), were a disappointment.
Küchenschaben und Schildkröten können unter den von Wissenschaftlern auf der Erde simulierten atmosphärischen Verhältnissen des Mars überleben. Cockroaches and turtles can survive under the atmospheric conditions of Mars, which were simulated by scientists on earth (the by-scientists-on-earth-simulated atmospheric conditions of Mars).
Von dort sind sie auf schwer zu ergründenden Wegen in die ganze Welt gewandert. From there they migrated into the whole world on paths which are difficult to fathom [on difficult-to-fathom paths].
Man hat darin eine Analogie zu der vermutlich gleich unwahrscheinlichen, aber nicht ganz und gar unmöglichen konvergenten Evolution von Intelligenz gesehen (Note: "vermutlich gleich unwahrscheinlich" and "nicht ganz und gar unmöglich" both modify "konvergente Evolution" in this example. Neither of them involves a participle!). One has seen in this an analogy to the convergent evolution of intelligence, which is probably equally improbable, but not entirely impossible (the probably-equally-improbable-but-not-entirely-impossible-convergent evolution of intell.).





   
 

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