92-93 LS&A Bulletin

Department of Biology

1121 Natural Science


Professor Wesley M. Brown, Chair

Professor Stephen S. Easter, Jr., Associate Chair for Curriculum

Associate Professor Kathryn W. Tosney, Associate Chair for Space and Facilities


Julian P. Adams, Population genetics

Richard D. Alexander, Animal behavior, entomology

Sally L. Allen, Microbial genetics

William R. Anderson, Systematics of neotropical angiosperms

Robert A. Bender, Microbiology

Robert E. Beyer, Biochemistry

Wesley M. Brown, Molecular evolution

John B. Burch, Malacology

Bruce M. Carlson, Regeneration in vertebrates

James N. Cather, Invertebrate embryology

Howard A. Crum, Plant taxonomy, floristics, bryophytes

William R. Dawson, Environmental physiology

Harry A. Douthit, Bacterial physiology

Stephen S. Easter, Jr., Neuroscience

George F. Estabrook, Biometry

Carl Gans, Functional morphology

Brian A. Hazlett, Animal behavior, invertebrate zoology

Robert B. Helling, Genetics, bacteriology

Hiroshi Ikuma, Plant cell physiology

Peter B. Kaufman, Plant developmental physiology

Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Molecular biology

Arnold G. Kluge, Systematics, herpetology

John T. Lehman, Aquatic ecology

Michael M. Martin, Chemical ecology

Thomas E. Moore, Entomology

Larry D. Noodén, Plant developmental physiology

Ronald A. Nussbaum, Herpetology

Bruce Oakley, Neuroscience

Robert B. Payne, Ornithology

T. M. Rizki, Developmental genetics

Robert L. Shaffer, Plant taxonomy, basidiomycetes

David G. Shappirio, Comparative physiology and biochemistry, cellular and developmental biology

Gerald R. Smith, Ichthyology

James A. Teeri, Plant ecology

John H. Vandermeer, Ecology

Edward G. Voss, Plant taxonomy, floristics, vascular plants

Paul W. Webb, Physiological ecology and bioenergetics of animals

Earl E. Werner, Ecology and evolutionary biology

Michael J. Wynne, Phycology

Charles F. Yocum, Cell biology, photosynthesis

Associate Professors

Byron A. Doneen, Endocrinology

William L. Fink, Ichthyology

Robert D. Fogel, Plant taxonomy, hypogeous fungi, fungal ecology

Deborah E. Goldberg, Plant ecology

Richard I. Hume, Developmental neurobiology and cellular neurophysiology

John P. Langmore, Molecular biology

Philip Myers, Mammalogy

Barry M. OConnor, Entomology, parasitology, acarology

Beverly J. Rathcke, Community ecology

Kathryn W. Tosney, Developmental neurophysiology

Assistant Professors

Rolf Bodmer, Molecular genetics of the developing nervous system

Robyn J. Burnham, Paleobotany

Douglas J. Eernisse, Malacology

George W. Kling, Limnology

John Y. Kuwada, Developmental neurobiology

Mary C. McKitrick, Phylogenetic systematics and morphology of birds

Ruthann Nichols, Molecular genetics of neuropeptides

Eran Pichersky, Molecular genetics

John W. Schiefelbein, Jr., Plant molecular genetics and development

Stuart Tsubota, Molecular genetics

Priscilla K. Tucker, Mammalian organismal, chromosomal, and genome evolution


Anton A. Reznicek, Systematics of the cyperaceae

Santhadevi Jeyabalan, Genetics and development

Eric Mann, Cellular and molecular biology

Professors Emeriti John M. Allen, Reeve M. Bailey, Charles B. Beck, William S. Benninghoff, Irving J. Cantrall, David C. Chandler, Francis C. Evans, David M. Gates, Helen Gay, Karl F. Guthe, Emmet T. Hooper, Kenneth L. Jones, Norman E. Kemp, Robert J. Lowry, Rogers McVaugh, Robert R. Miller, Erich E. Steiner, Robert W. Storer, Alfred S. Sussman, Frederick H. Test, Warren H. Wagner, Conrad S. Yocum.

Associate Professor Emerita Lois A. Loewenthal.

Concentration Programs. The Department of Biology offers the following four concentration programs:

1. Biology

2. Botany (Professional Concentration Program)

3. Botany (Cultural Concentration Program)

4. Cellular and Molecular Biology

In addition, the Department is a participating unit in the Microbiology Concentration, an interdepartmental concentration program described in this bulletin under the heading, "Microbiology."

Advising and Counseling. Students who are interested in any of the concentrations offered by the Department should consult a general counselor during the freshman year and a concentration advisor during the second term of the sophomore year. It is not necessary to complete every prerequisite before declaring a concentration.

Teaching Certificate. Students interested in obtaining a secondary teaching certificate with a major or minor in Biology should consult the "Teacher Certification Program" section in this Bulletin and the School of Education Office of Academic Services.

Writing Requirement. The LS&A Junior-Senior writing requirement in Biology may be fulfilled by completing Biology 301, Writing for Biologists, with a grade of C or better. Enrollment is open to prospective concentrators who have completed the prerequisites for Biology 301 as well as those who have formally entered one of the concentration programs in Biology. Biology 301 also counts 3 credits toward the biology concentration.

Field of Concentration. For purposes of calculating grade point average, the term "field of concentration" (for all Biology concentration programs) means the following:

1. All Biology and Biological Station courses, including cross-listed ones, at the 200-level and above.

2. All required cognate courses (if any).

3. All mandatory prerequisites.

Introductory Biology Credit Limitation: The maximum amount of credit that can be earned in introductory biology courses is 10 hours. Students interested in concentrating in biology or a related science must complete either Biology 195, an intensive one-term course for 5 hours credit, or Biology 152-154, a two-term sequence for a total of 8 hours credit. Those who initially enroll in Biology 100 and subsequently decide on a science concentration are advised to elect Biology 195 rather than 152-154 so that no credit will be lost.

Supporting Facilities. Modern teaching and research laboratories house electron microscopes, controlled environment rooms, analytical and preparative centrifuges, spectrophotometers, and other tools essential for modern research in all areas of the biological sciences. In addition, the Herbarium, the Museum of Paleontology, the Museum of Anthropology Ethnobotanical Laboratory, the Museum of Zoology, and the Matthaei Botanical Gardens supplement the instructional and research programs. University-owned research facilities in the vicinity of Ann Arbor include Saginaw Forest, Edwin S. George Reserve, Stinchfield Woods, and Mud Lake Bog. The Biological Station provides additional facilities for instruction and research. The University of Michigan is also a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies.

Biological Station. The curriculum at the Biological Station places a strong emphasis on ecology, systematics, field biology, and environmental studies. Courses are taught during the Spring and Summer Terms (IIIa and IIIb) at the Biological Station on the shores of Douglas Lake in northern Lower Michigan. The Biological Station occupies a 10, 000 acre tract between Burt and Douglas Lakes and is the world's largest inland field station for instruction and research in biological science. Located in the transition zone between coniferous forests to the north and deciduous forests to the south, it is surrounded by a remarkable variety of natural communities.

The Biological Station offers students and faculty an opportunity to study together the biota of the regions with a full appreciation of the dynamics of the natural systems involved. The small community of students, faculty, and scientists shares knowledge during meal and recreation times as well as in the classroom, field, and laboratory.

Experience at a field station is strongly recommended for students concentrating in Biology and especially to students interested in ecology, systematics and evolution, and resource ecology. Many courses offered at the Biological Station can be used as part of a concentration plan in biology or botany with approval from a concentration advisor.

Two courses in college biology are normally required for admission to Biological Station courses, all of which are either upper level or graduate level and are offered for 5 credits. A normal load at the Biological Station is two courses (10 credits). Each formal course occupies the entire days assigned to it. Field work is supported by modern equipment, vehicles, boats, laboratories, and a fine library.

The campus office is located at 1111 Natural Science Building, 763-4461.

Spring and Summer Field Courses. The University of Michigan Biological Station on Douglas Lake offers courses during the spring and summer. Most of the courses can be counted toward Biology concentration programs, and a spring or summer at the Station is strongly recommended. The Station's curriculum is described in this Bulletin under the heading, "Biology."


May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The Department of Biology offers a program which develops an appreciation of the level of organization of life, its diversity, and the processes by which life has achieved its present forms. The program is recommended for those who wish to study biology as part of a liberal education, to prepare for a teaching career in secondary schools, or to prepare for graduate study in biology or the health professions.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Chemistry 210, 211, 215, and 216; Mathematics 113 and 114 or Mathematics 115 and 116; Physics 125/127 and 126/128 or Physics 140/141 and 240/241.

Concentration Program. 30 credits distributed as follows:

1. Required courses in genetics and biochemistry: Biology 305 and Biology 411 or Biol. Chem. 415.

2. Select at least one course from three of the four groups A-D. (See Course Listings A-D for the available courses in each group.)

A. Molecular and Cellular Biology

B. Anatomy, Physiology and Development

C. Biological Evolution and Diversity

D. Ecology and Population Biology

3. Select additional Department of Biology courses at the 200-level or above (except Biology 302, 412) to bring the concentration total to at least 30 credits. Two counselor-approved cognate courses may be used. A partial list of these may be obtained from the Biology Office, 1121 Natural Science, or from any concentration advisor.

4. A minimum of three laboratory courses. Library "research" and introductory biology laboratories do not qualify. Three credits of independent research under the direct supervision of a faculty member (Biol 300/400), or, on approval of a biology department counselor, three credits of independent research under a faculty member of another University of Michigan department, may be used as one of the three laboratory experiences.

Course Listings by Biology Distribution Group

A. Molecular and Cellular Biology: 206*, 224, 320, 408, 415, 416, 422, 427, 428, 429*, 512.

B. Anatomy, Physiology and Development: 209, 210*, 252*, 275*, 306*, 307, 308*, 325, 326*, 351*, 409, 410*, 413*, 414, 418, 419*, 420, 421*, 424, 425, 435*.

C. Biological Evolution and Diversity: 255*, 256, 330*, 341*, 355*, 356, 380, 390, 431*, 433*, 437*, 438*, 440*, 442*, 450*, 451*, 457, 458*, 459*, 460, 462*, 468*, 471*, 472*, 491*, 532*, 556*.

D. Ecology and Population Biology: 331*, 381*, 382*, 383*, 453*, 482*, 483, 484*, 486*, 487*, 488, 489*, 490, 492, 493*, 494, 495, 496*, 497, 498, 499, 585*, 589.

* Laboratory courses or courses that include a laboratory.

Students planning careers in biology are encouraged to choose a variety of courses involving the study of plants, animals, and microbes; basic courses in genetics and biochemistry are required. It is recommended that students with concentrations in the Biology Department give serious consideration to spending a summer at a field station, especially the University of Michigan Biological Station, or a marine laboratory. The training and experience provided by such facilities are particularly valuable for students interested in ecology, systematics, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology.

Honors Concentration. A student pursuing a concentration in biology who wishes to be admitted to the Honors program should notify the Biology Honors Chair by the end of the junior year. To be considered for Honors, the student must:

1. Maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0, and at least a 3.3 average in the field of concentration, including all prerequisites. (No more than 3 hours of independent study/research courses may count toward Honors gpa.)

2. Elect a total of at least 4 credits of undergraduate research with a Biology faculty member who agrees to serve as research advisor. Relevant courses include Biology 300 or 400; Honors 390 or 490.

3. Obtain, as soon as a faculty sponsor is identified, written commitments to serve as readers from two other faculty members, one of whom must be in the Department of Biology, knowledgeable in the area to be investigated.

4. Submit a well-written scientific paper on the results of the research, incorporating pertinent literature. Four identical typewritten copies are to be provided, at least two weeks before the last day of classes of the student's last term, to the Biology Honors Chair, the research advisor, and the two readers.

Advising and Counseling. Appointments with concentration advisors are scheduled at the Biology Counseling Office (1121 Natural Science Building). Office staff are also prepared to answer questions about various aspects of the program. Questions about content and appropriateness of course elections should be directed to individual instructors or counselors.

Teaching Certificate. Students interested in obtaining a secondary teaching certificate with a major or minor in Biology should consult the "Teacher Certification Program" section in this Bulletin and the School of Education Office of Academic Services.


May be elected as a departmental concentration program.

The Professional Concentration Program is designed for students who plan to pursue graduate study and careers in the plant sciences, while the Cultural Concentration Program is intended for students who seek cultural enrichment or who are preparing for careers in botany-related fields but who do not require the amount of specialization built into the Professional Concentration Program.

Prerequisites to Concentration. For the Cultural Concentration Program: Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Biology 102 or 255 or 355; one term of college chemistry; one term of college mathematics.

For the Professional Concentration Program: Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Chemistry 210, 211, 215, 216; Mathematics 113 and 114, or 115 and 116, or the equivalent; Physics 125/127 and 126/128, or 140/141 and 240/241 (or the equivalent).

Cultural Concentration Program. Students interested in plants (but not contemplating graduate work in botany) who would like to be better informed about their living environment may prefer the Cultural Concentration Program. This program is not designed to prepare students for a career in the plant sciences or for advanced training in botany.

A minimum 30 credits, including:

1. At least one course from each of the following groups:

a. Biology 209 and 210, 275 or 305;

b. Biology 381 (or the equivalent);

2. Two (or more) advanced botany courses, including at least one of the following: Biology 456, 459, 461, or 462.

3. At least 8 credits of intermediate or advanced courses in cognate fields. Recommended cognates include (but are not limited to) courses in zoology, natural resources, geology, biophysics, human genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, statistics, chemistry, and anthropology. Courses designated as "Biology" are usually not accepted as cognates.

Professional Concentration Program. This program provides undergraduates with training in those areas of science that are essential to an understanding of modern botany. It is intended to prepare students for graduate study or professional work in basic and applied areas of the plant sciences and related fields, such as ecology, genetics, microbiology, and biochemistry.

A minimum of 30 credits, including:

1. One course from each of the following categories:

a. Biochemistry (Biology 411 or Biological Chemistry 415)

b. Genetics (Biology 305)

c. Plant physiology (Biology 209 and 210; both lecture and laboratory are required and are considered as a single course for the purpose of this category)

d. Plant structure and development (Biology 275 or 462)

e. Systematics and evolution (Biology 255 or 459)

f. Cryptogamic botany (Biology 408/Microbiology 401, 458, 468, 472, or a course in cryptogamic botany taught at the Biological Station, approved by a concentration advisor)

g. Ecology (Biology 381 or a comparable course approved by a concentration advisor. Some courses taught at the Biological Station may be used to meet this requirement)

2. One additional intermediate or advanced course at the 300-level or above in anthropology, biological chemistry, biology, botany, chemistry, computer science, geological sciences, human genetics, microbiology, natural resources, oceanography, statistics, or zoology. This course must be approved by a concentration advisor.

Each professional concentration student is also strongly encouraged to elect at least two credits of independent instruction or research (Biology 300 or 400) and to enroll for a summer session at the Biological Station.

Honors Concentration. This program is open to students who have demonstrated superior academic ability and who desire the challenge of original work to supplement their standard courses. Students in the College Honors Program and others who qualify are invited to participate in the botany Honors program early in their junior year. (Potential Honors students should be sure to notify a concentration advisor of their interest.) Eligible students must enter the program by the beginning of their senior year. The program consists of:

1. Prerequisites and Concentration Program: Either the Cultural or Professional program as described above.

2. Independent Study: at least 4 credits in Biology 300 and/or 400, including preparation of a senior thesis, to be completed at least two weeks before graduation, under the direction of faculty member.

3. Grade Point Average: A cumulative 3.0 and at least a 3.3 average in the field of concentration are required for admission to and continuance in the program.

Advising and Counseling. Professor L.D. Noodén is the advisor. Appointments are scheduled at 1121 Natural Science Bldg. Office staff are also prepared to answer questions about various aspects of both programs. Questions about content and appropriateness of course elections should be directed to individual instructors or counselors.

K.L. Jones Award. Since 1977, this award has been made each year to the outstanding botany undergraduate. The Kenneth L. Jones Undergraduate Award for excellence in botany was endowed by colleagues, friends, and alumni upon the retirement of Professor Jones and consists principally of a sum to enable the recipient to purchase books or equipment of his or her own choice.

J.T. Slater Award. Since 1983, this award has been given to systematic and/or field botanists from among upper division students. Awards are made on the basis of excellence in classes as well as field work, and are in the form of a check. The award was financed by Professor Slater of the University of Puget Sound, expert in field studies of northwestern ferns. Awardees may be in any school at the University of Michigan, so long as individuals selected excel in the targeted fields.

Cellular and Molecular Biology

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The curriculum in cellular and molecular biology offers students an integrated program of study and training in the biological and physical sciences. It is a pathway to graduate study in areas of biology and medicine which emphasize a quantitative and analytical approach to the life sciences.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152 and 154, or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Chemistry 210, 211, 215, 216, and 302; Mathematics 115 and 116 (or the equivalent); Physics 140/141 and 240/241 (or Physics 125/127 and 126/128). It is recommended that students interested in pursuing graduate work acquire a reading knowledge of French, German, or Russian. The prerequisite work in the basic sciences and in meeting the language requirement should be completed before the junior year.

Concentration Program. Must include Biology 305; 411 (or Biological Chemistry 415); Biology 427 or 428; and Biology 429 (or Biological Chemistry 416); Chemistry 340 (or 197 or 348); Chemistry 468 and 469; and Mathematics 215 and 216. Requirements are flexible enough to accommodate a range of diverse interests in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences.

Honors Concentration. Qualified students may elect an Honors concentration. This program requires a thesis which describes and analyzes independent experimental work. The research topic and advisor must be approved by a counselor in Cellular and Molecular Biology. Students in this program are expected to maintain an overall grade point average of 3.3 and at least a 3.3 in field of concentration, including prerequisite courses.

Advising and Counseling. Professors S. Allen, E. Pichersky, J. Schiefelbein, D.G. Shappirio, S. Tsubota and C.F. Yocum are the concentration advisors. Appointments are scheduled at 1121 Natural Science Building.

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