92-93 LS&A Bulletin

Chapter II: Degree Requirements And Graduation Procedures

The College awards three basic degrees, the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.), the Bachelor of Science (B.S.), and the Bachelor in General Studies (B.G.S.). The Bachelor of Science in Chemistry (B.S. Chem.), a special degree, also is granted.

The Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science degrees require competent use of the modes of thought which characterize each major area of knowledge, and a deep understanding of at least one subject area. Each student is required also to achieve competency in the use of the English language and to acquire second-year college-level proficiency in a language other than English. Beyond these general requirements, which serve not to limit but rather to enhance the value of the educational experience, students are free to choose elective courses to complete a minimum 120 credits. The difference between the A.B. and B.S. degrees is that the B.S. degree requires 60 credits of approved courses in the physical and natural sciences and/or mathematics. A secondary teaching certificate requires the A.B. or B.S. student to earn additional credits (see the School of Education Bulletin).

The Bachelor in General Studies degree encourages students to take responsibility for structuring their own multidisciplinary academic programs within guidelines emphasizing upper-level courses elected in three or more departments. This degree also requires a minimum 120 credits, and includes the College English Composition requirement. At least 60 credits of courses numbered 300 or above must be completed, and no more than 20 of these 60 credits may be in one department.

The Bachelor of Science in Chemistry is described in Chapter III under Chemistry.

This chapter describes the requirements of the A.B., B.S., and B.G.S. degree programs as well as the procedures for graduation. Chapter VI describes associated academic policies. Honors students must always consult the Honors Program about special degree requirements, courses, policies, and procedures, and petition the Honors Program for any exceptions to the rules.

Students are always responsible for knowing and meeting degree requirements. A student may either comply with the degree requirements stated in the Bulletin effective during the first term of enrollment in the College or with those in the Bulletin effective at the time of graduation. Students should also consult the most current Bulletin for concentration requirements since the applicable rules are determined at the time the student declares the concentration.

Degrees and the Selection of a Degree Program

Students must submit a Declaration Form (available in 1213 Angell Hall) indicating their choice of degree program to the LS&A Academic Counseling Office, sometime between the second term of the freshman year and the beginning of the junior year. It is generally done after consultation with a concentration or B.G.S. academic adviser.

Common Requirements for the A.B., B.S., and B.G.S. Degrees

Credits and Grade Point Average

To qualify for a degree from the College, a student must complete a minimum 120 credits with a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 (C). The overall GPA of courses included in the field of concentration (see Concentration Policies below) for an A.B. or B.S. degree (unless stated differently for particular concentrations in Chapter III) or counted toward the 60 credits of upper-level courses required for a B.G.S. degree must be at least 2.0. (GPA is explained in Chapter VI).

English Composition: College Requirement

All students admitted to the College for the Fall Term of 1979 and all terms thereafter must fulfill the LS&A writing requirement. Administered by the English Composition Board (ECB), the composition requirement consists of two parts.

Part I: Introductory Composition. During their time of Orientation to the University and College all LS&A students and all students required by their program to take English 124 or 125 or the equivalent will write an essay to be evaluated by the ECB. According to the quality of their performance in this essay, students will be placed in one of four sequences: (1) required to complete practicum work (ECB Writing Practicum 100-105 or ECB Transfer Writing Practicum 106-109), then assemble a portfolio which will either place them into Introductory Composition, another ECB Practicum, or exempt them from Introductory Composition; or (2) required to enroll directly in Introductory Composition; or, (3) exempted from Introductory Composition but required to attend the ECB Writing Workshop until certified for exemption; or (4) exempted from Introductory Composition.

The Introductory Composition requirement is met when the student has completed one of the four placement tracks described above. Note that Introductory Composition courses include English 124, 125, and 220, and University Course 101. Residential College and Inteflex students meet the requirement with RC Core 100; Honors Council students with Great Books 191 or Classical Civilization 101; Pilot students with Pilot 165.

The required entrance essay cannot be waived. Neither the student's scores on standardized tests (such as ACT or SAT) nor transfer credit from another college or university determines placement into or exemption from the practicum and Introductory Composition courses. Advanced Placement and transfer credits are applied toward graduation but not toward the writing requirements.

The Composition Requirement should be completed in the first year.

Part II: Junior/ Senior Writing Requirement. Upon attainment of Junior standing (55 credits), LS&A students should enroll in a Junior/Senior writing course as early as possible, preferably in their junior year. The college strongly recommends that the course be in their area of academic interest or concentration. All LS&A students must complete the College's Junior/Senior Writing Requirement. Courses or programs in advanced writing are offered by departments throughout the College. A list of these courses appears in each publication of the LS&A Course Guide. In order to ensure credit for the writing requirement, it is essential when registering at CRISP that students use the modifier "ECB" for the course that they will take to meet the requirement.

English Composition Board: Writing Workshop

ECB faculty who teach ECB Writing Practicum also provide consultation and instruction in the Writing Workshop. During the hours that the Workshop is open, experienced teachers of composition are available for half-hour appointments (on a drop-in or scheduled basis) to discuss writing with any undergraduate. Extended appointments are available for graduate students whose immediate needs cannot be met in half-hour sessions.

Instructors in the Writing Workshop do not make assignments and will not work as editors or proofreaders for their student clientele. They will discuss with undergraduates the meaning of and approaches to writing assignments made in any course in the College, and then help those same students to be aware of appropriate rhetorical, syntactical, and grammatical choices as they write their papers.

Race or Ethnicity: College Requirement

All students admitted to the College for the Fall Term of 1991 and all terms thereafter must meet the new Race or Ethnicity requirement. The requirement is met when, at some point before graduation, the student has passed one course from a list of approved courses published each term in the LS&A Course Guide. The Curriculum Committee of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts is the approving agency for courses, and the expectation is that a wide variety of courses offered by departments and programs throughout the College will be approved each term. Students who are working toward an A.B. or B.S. degree may elect a course to meet the Race or Ethnicity Requirement that also counts toward meeting the Area Distribution or the Concentration or Composition requirements. Likewise, students who are working towards a B.G.S degree may elect a course to meet the Race or Ethnicity requirement that also counts among their 60 credits of courses numbered 300 or above, or toward the Composition requirement.

Courses approved to meet the Race or Ethnicity requirement will address issues arising from racial or ethnic intolerance. In approving the requirement, the faculty of the College made the following statements:

1. Required content. All courses satisfying the requirement must provide discussion, consistent with disciplinary approaches, of: (1) the meaning of race, ethnicity, and racism; (2) racial and ethnic intolerance and resulting inequality as it occurs in the United States or elsewhere; (3) comparisons of discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion, social class, or gender.

2. Required focus. (1) Every course satisfying the requirement must devote substantial but not necessarily exclusive attention to the required content. Courses may meet this requirement by various means consistent with disciplines or fields of study, and faculty members from all departments are urged to think creatively about how their fields might contribute to the requirement. (2) Although it is hoped that many of these courses will focus on the United States, it is not required that they do so. Courses that deal with these issues in other societies, or that study them comparatively, may also meet the requirement.

Non-LS&A Course Work

To qualify for a degree, a student must complete a program of study which includes primarily LS&A courses or equivalent LS&A transfer credit.

LS&A courses are listed in this Bulletin. Courses offered by other academic units (e.g., Business Administration, Education, Engineering, Natural Resources) of the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and not listed in this Bulletin are non-LS&A courses. Non-LS&A course work should not be confused with transfer credit (defined in Chapter VII). Out-of-residence credit may transfer to the College as credit equivalent to LS&A courses or non-LS&A courses.

Non-LS&A course work earns credit toward a degree and honor points according to the following policies:

1. Candidates for an A.B. or B.S. degree must complete a minimum 108 credits of LS&A courses, thus allowing 12 credits of non-LS&A course work in the minimum 120 required for the degree. Non-LS&A course work elected to meet concentration requirements may be elected beyond the 12 credit limit if the concentration adviser provides written approval. This approval represents that the non-LS&A credit is required by the concentration either in substitution for courses from the department of concentration or as required cognate credits. In no case may a student exceed 20 non-LS&A credits in the 120 required. Candidates for an A.B. or B.S. degree with a secondary teaching certificate must complete a minimum 104 credits of LS&A courses.

2. Candidates for a B.G.S. degree must complete a minimum 100 credits of LS&A courses, thus allowing 20 credits of non-LS&A course work in the 120 required for the degree. Candidates for a B.G.S. with a secondary teaching certificate also must complete at least 100 credits of LS&A courses.

3. A cross-listed course is sponsored by two or more academic departments or programs and may be elected in any one of the participating units. Courses cross-listed between LS&A and another school or college of the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) count toward the required number of LS&A credits if elected in the participating LS&A department. If elected in the non-LS&A department, the course counts as non-LS&A course work. Students in their final term in residence may request the Senior Auditors to change a completed election to an alternate cross-listing.

4. Division of Kinesiology courses, except Movement Science (division 882) 330, 340, 440, and 542, are recorded as "not for credit" (no credit hours toward graduation, no honor points) for LS&A students.

5. School of Music ensemble courses yield degree credit but not honor points.

6. Military Officer Education Program: The College of Literature, Science, and the Arts does not grant degree credit for any courses offered through the Officer Education Program except for those courses which are cross-listed in other academic units (effective September 1, 1971).

Requirements Particular to the A.B. and B.S. Degrees

By the end of the sophomore year, students should have met the language requirement, made substantial progress toward completing an area distribution plan, and completed prerequisites for a concentration.

The Language Requirement

Second language study contributes importantly to a liberal education, not only as a means of access to the cultural and intellectual heritage of the world's non-English-speaking majority, but also as a way to gain a new reflective understanding of the structure and complexity of English itself.

Fourth-term proficiency in a language other than English is required and may be met by any one of:

1. Certified proficiency on a University of Michigan reading and/or listening test. Students with previous experience in a language they want to use to meet the language requirement must take a language placement test. A student may not elect for credit a language course below this placement level without departmental permission.

2. Credit for a University of Michigan fourth-term language course listed below with a grade of C— or better.

3. Credit for a University of Michigan language course which presumes a fourth-term proficiency in a language (except for 305 and/or 306 in French, German, Italian, and Spanish).

In meeting the language requirement, students must earn a grade of C— or better in the prerequisite course to proceed on to the subsequent course. Any exception to this rule must be granted by a designated faculty representative in the department. The language requirement cannot be fulfilled by out-of-residence credit which is elected after the student has begun degree enrollment in LS&A unless the appropriate language department has approved that plan in advance.

Arabic (401) Kurdish (416)
Armenian (272) Latin (222, 232)
Chinese (202, 362) Macedonian (262)
Czech (242) Ojibwa (323)*
Danish (236) Persian (402)
Dutch (232) Polish (222)
French (230, 232) Portuguese (232)
German (230, 232, 236) Punjabi (212)
Greek Russian (202, 203)
Classical (301 and 302) Sanskrit (310)
Modern (202) Serbo-Croatian (232)
Hebrew Spanish (230, 232)
Biblical (402) Swedish (234)
Modern (302) Tagalog (208)
Hindi-Urdu (206) Thai (202)
Indonesian (204) Turkish (402)
Italian (232) Ukrainian (252)
Japanese (202, 362) Yiddish (202)
Korean (202)  

* Students need to be careful about electing Ojibwa to meet the language requirement. The requisite courses may not be offered on a regular basis.

Students who wish to meet the requirement with proficiency in a language not listed above should contact the Office of Academic Actions. A foreign student whose native language is not English and who attended a high school where that language was the language of instruction is considered to have met the requirement.

Area Distribution

By means of this requirement the College seeks to instill an understanding and an appreciation of the major areas of learning. Students are not expected to master all areas in detail, but should develop a coherent view of essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods which typify these disciplines.

Courses offered by the academic departments and programs of the College are divided into three area categories: the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. Each of these divisions represents a different perspective on human knowledge and learning; some departments and programs overlap these divisions while others may stand outside them.

The College offers three patterns for meeting the requirement. Students should discuss the patterns with an academic adviser and begin electing courses to complete one of them. Students meeting the Pattern I requirements do not need an academic adviser's approval for the area distribution plan. Requests for exceptions should be directed to the Office of Academic Actions. Students meeting the Pattern II or Pattern III requirements must have an academic adviser's written approval for their plan and any subsequent changes.

The area distribution requirement is 30 credits of courses outside the field of concentration according to one of:

Pattern I. For this distribution requirement, each course listed in Chapter III of this Bulletin has one of the following seven "distribution designations": (NS), (SS), (HU), (N.Excl), (Excl), (LR), (Introductory Composition). A student must complete at least three courses in each of the first three "distribution designations", for a total of at least nine credits in each designated area: (1) Natural Science (NS), (2) Social Science (SS), and (3) Humanities (HU). A course labeled as (Excl) can be used by exception if an authorized representative of the sponsoring department completes and submits a Distribution Authorization Form. The three credits required to bring this total to 30 may come from any of the three aforementioned areas or may include a course or courses "Not Excluded" (N.Excl). Courses designated excluded (Excl), language (LR), and introductory composition do not meet the requirement. The only exception to this rule for Pattern I is that a fourth-term "Language 232" course elected in a second language other than English may be counted as a humanities course.

Pattern II. A student must complete the equivalent of one course (three or more credits) in each of the five areas listed below. The remainder of the 30 credits must be chosen from at least four of the areas: (1) Natural Science, (2) Social Science, (3) Humanities, (4) Mathematics and Logical Analysis (e.g., mathematics, statistics, computer science, logic), and (5) Creative Expression (e.g., performance classes in art, dance, music, or drama; creative writing). A Pattern II plan must be developed with the assistance of an academic adviser, and a Distribution Worksheet signed by the student and the adviser must be filed with the LS&A Academic Counseling Office. A Distribution Worksheet is an agreement between the student and the College, and the courses specified may be completed immediately or in the student's remaining terms. An academic adviser may excuse a student from courses in a particular area on the basis of previous experience equivalent to college-level work. Any waiver must be explained on the Worksheet. But in any case, the distribution plan must include 30 credits of courses.

Pattern III. With the assistance and approval of a committee of specially designated academic advisers, a student may work out an individual plan that reflects exposure to a variety of methodologies and approaches to intellectual experience. The plan should include courses from at least five departments and no more than two courses from one department. A student interested in this pattern must file an individual distribution plan with the LS&A Academic Counseling Office by the end of the sophomore year.

General Policies for Area Distribution Plans

An area distribution plan may include:

1. prerequisites to concentration elected outside the department of concentration.

2. courses elected pass/fail, credit/no credit, or by any other non-graded pattern.

3. courses elected to satisfy one of two concentration plans by students who elect a double concentration (see Double Concentration below in this chapter).

4. Transfer credit from other schools and colleges of The University of Michigan and from other academic institutions (see Residence Policy in Chapter VI).

5. a course elected outside the department of concentration or concentration requirements to meet the Junior-Senior Writing Requirement.

An area distribution plan may not include:

1. any course from the department of concentration.

2. required cognates in a concentration plan.

3. Experiential courses, Independent Study, Pilot courses, and University (Division 495) mini-courses.

4. Advanced Placement credits.


The concentration requirement provides an opportunity to pursue a thorough investigation of a subject or problem. If education is to be a connected, developmental experience, then fundamental skills, abilities, and knowledge must be used continuously. Concentration programs organize students' work in such a way that later experiences relate to and extend earlier ones.

Students normally declare a concentration during the second term of the sophomore year, although some students make a decision earlier. To declare a concentration, a student should develop a plan with a concentration adviser and then submit a Declaration Form signed by the adviser to the LS&A Academic Counseling Office. A student may, with the approval of a concentration adviser, change the plan. Students who wish to change concentrations must discuss their plans with a concentration adviser in the new concentration and submit a new Declaration Form.

Concentration Policies

1. Each A.B. or B.S. student must develop a concentration plan in consultation with a concentration adviser, who must also approve it.

2. Course requirements of the various concentration programs range from 24 to 48 credits, of which no more than 30 will be in one department. The required courses outside the department for departmental concentration programs are called required cognates. Students will often take more than the required courses, but no more than 60 credits in a concentration (including courses in one department and the required cognates) may be counted toward the 120 for the degree. When an academic department has two or more divisions (e.g., Anthropology, Biological Sciences, Romance Languages and Literatures), a student may count a total of 60 credits from that department, not from each division.

3. The 60 credit limit on courses elected in one concentration may be exceeded when these credits are used to meet the language requirement. In no case, however, can more than 60 credits in one language be counted in the 120 required for a degree.

4. Students electing an area, interdepartmental, or special concentration may count no more than 60 credits in any one department.

5. Students may not elect courses in a concentration plan, including required cognates, by the pass/fail or any other non-graded pattern. All concentration courses must be taken for a grade A-E.

6. Courses in an area distribution plan may not be included in a concentration plan (see, however, Double Concentration below in this chapter).

7. A student must earn an overall GPA of at least 2.0 in courses taken in the field of concentration. This includes all courses taken in the department of concentration (prerequisites, required courses, and electives) and any required cognates. Any exceptions for particular concentrations are specified in Chapter III.

8. A course or courses that are part of the student's concentration plan may also meet the Junior-Senior Writing Requirement.

Students may choose a concentration from:

Area Concentration Programs

Departmental Concentration Programs

Actuarial Mathematics History
Ancient and Biblical Studies History of Art
Anthropology Iranian
Arabic Islamic Studies
Astronomy Italian
Biology Japanese
Botany Latin
Cellular and Molecular Linguistics
Biology Mathematical Sciences
Chemistry Music
Chinese Oceanography
Classical Archaeology Philosophy
Classical Languages and Physics
Literatures Political Science
Communication Psychology
Computer Science Pure Mathematics
Economics Russian
English Scandinavian Studies
French Sociology
General Physics Spanish
Geological Sciences Statistics
German Theatre and Drama
Greek Turkish

Interdepartmental Concentration Programs

Afroamerican and African Studies Latin Americanand Caribbean Studies
Anthropology-Zoology Medieval and Renaissance Collegium (MARC)
Biophysics Microbiology
Comparative Literature Social Anthropology
Film and Video Studies Studies in Religion
Judaic Studies Women's Studies

Special Concentration Programs

In order to elect this special program, a student must meet special admissions requirements and be formally admitted to the program.

Individual Concentration Program

Students with academic interests outside existing area, departmental, inter-departmental, and special concentration programs may propose their own field of concentration and, on approval, elect the Individual Concentration Program which is described in Chapter III.

Double Concentration

A student electing a double concentration must meet all requirements for both concentrations. Courses, including cognates, elected as part of one concentration plan may be used, when appropriate, to satisfy the requirements of the second concentration. However, one of the two concentration plans must be independent of the area distribution plan. Each concentration plan must be developed in consultation with and approved by a concentration adviser.

A Concentration Release Form (see Graduation Procedures below in this chapter) for each concentration declared should be submitted to the Senior Auditors before the final term in residence. A double concentration is recorded on the transcript only if both release forms are received before graduation. If a student who has submitted a Diploma Application completes the requirements for only one of the two concentrations and wishes to defer graduation to complete the second, the Senior Auditors must be notified. Otherwise a degree is awarded in one concentration. After the date of graduation, a student completing additional work which fulfills another field of concentration can have the additional field entered on the transcript. The student will need to file an additional concentration release form with the Senior Auditors.

Requirements Particular to the B.G.S. Degree

Within the 120 credits required for the degree and the minimum 60 credits of courses numbered 300 or above, specific guidelines must be met:

1. No more than 60 credits may be elected in all divisions of a department.

2. No more than 20 credits of upper-level courses may be counted from one department. If a department has several divisions, a B.G.S. student may elect up to 20 credits of upper-level courses from each division. These statements should not be interpreted to mean that as many as 20 credits of upper-level work from one or more divisions must be completed or that it is impossible to incorporate more than 20 upper-level credits from one division into a B.G.S. degree. It is entirely possible to complete the degree with fewer than 20 upper-level credits from any division as long as the upper-level credits from all divisions total 60. Similarly, the B.G.S. degree may be completed with more than 20 upper-level credits from a division by electing more than the required 60 upper-level credits (e.g., 25 credits of upper-level courses may be completed in a division as long as 65 upper-level credits are completed).

3. At least 40 of the required 60 upper-level credits must be in LS&A courses.

Second Bachelor's Degree

Individuals with a bachelor's degree who want to earn a second degree must obtain permission from the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Normally at least two calendar years will have transpired between the awarding of the first baccalaureate degree and the beginning of the second baccalaureate degree program. Applicants must pursue an academic program significantly different from that of the first baccalaureate degree. Except in the case of joint degrees (see Chapter IV), the College does not award concurrent bachelor's degrees. Students interested in two concentrations should read the section "Double Concentration" above.

For graduates of schools and colleges on the Ann Arbor campus the two baccalaureate degrees should be different (for example, not two Bachelor of Arts or two Bachelor of Science degrees). The second degree program cannot be a BGS degree. Applicants who already have an LS&A degree must earn at least 30 credits in residence in LS&A beyond the credit hours required for the first degree, and at least 15 of those must be in the new field of concentration. Graduates of a different Ann Arbor unit must earn at least 30 credits while registered in LS&A, all of those over and above the credit hours required for the first degree, and the second program must include a minimum of 108 LS&A credits. To be considered for admission to a second baccalaureate degree program, all applicants who have a baccalaureate degree from the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan must have the same minimum grade point average as the College requires of cross-campus transfer students.

Applicants whose first degree comes from any other institution (including UM-Dearborn and UM-Flint) will be required to complete at least 60 credits in residence at the Ann Arbor campus. The student must be registered in LS&A for at least 30 of these, and all 30 credits must be over and above the credits required for the first degree. The second degree program must include a minimum of 108 LS&A credits. To be considered for admission to a second baccalaureate degree program, these applicants must have the same minimum grade point average as the College requires for students who transfer from institutions other than The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor campus.

Dual Registration

Students who wish to be dually enrolled, that is, enrolled simultaneously in LS&A and another division, school, college, or university, must request permission from the Office of Academic Actions in advance of registration. But qualified seniors who are interested in the Concurrent Undergraduate-Graduate Studies (CUGS) Program must see below in Chapter IV.

Students enrolled in two colleges or schools of the University must complete a separate registration for each academic unit. These students are assessed tuition based upon the number of credits elected in each unit, normally to a maximum of the higher full program fee.

Graduation Procedures

Students who have completed 90 hours Credit Toward Program (CTP) should submit the Diploma Application and Concentration Release Form or B.G.S. Senior Release Form in the term preceding the one in which they expect to graduate. In this way students can have an audit of their degree requirements prior to registration for the final term.

Degrees are conferred in May, August, or December, though graduation ceremonies are held in May and December only. To qualify for graduation, a student must meet degree requirements and submit a completed Diploma Application to the Course Elections Office in 1221 Angell Hall. Candidates for an A.B. or B.S. degree must submit a signed Concentration Release Form and candidates for a B.G.S. degree must submit a B.G.S. Senior Release Form. The deadline for submitting these forms is four weeks after classes begin in a term (one week after classes begin in the Summer Half-Term). Students who meet the deadline will be listed in the Commencement Program, will have an expedient audit of degree requirements, and will be able to receive the diploma following approval of the final degree list (7-8 weeks after Commencement).

Students whose forms are received after the deadline but before the last day of classes in the term of expected graduation may still be considered for graduation but their degree certification cannot be processed as quickly and they should not expect to be included in the Commencement Program. The degree audit will be delayed. In some instances, it will be necessary to defer graduation.

Students who do not complete degree requirements in the term a Diploma Application has been filed must file a new Diploma Application in order to be placed on any subsequent degree list. Students who have met the degree requirements but have not yet been graduated may obtain a Letter of Certification from the Senior Auditors in 1401 Mason Hall. Such a letter is usually acceptable as evidence that requirements have been met and a degree will be awarded.