92-93 LS&A Bulletin

Chapter IV: Special Degrees And Pre-Professional Studies

Several special degree programs are offered by the joint cooperation of LS&A and some other college or school within the University. Admission to some of these programs is highly competitive. Because many of these programs require specific courses for admission, it is important for students to identify program interests early in their undergraduate careers, and often at the freshman level. Although the basic requirements are summarized in this chapter, students should consult academic counselors associated with the various programs.

Many LS&A students are interested in applying for admission to a professional school either after two years of liberal arts studies or after completing an LS&A degree. The second half of this chapter describes several pre-professional courses of study. Pre-professional counseling is available at both the LS&A Academic Counseling Office and the Office of Career Planning and Placement.

Special Joint Degree Programs

Architecture (Joint Program in Liberal Arts and Architecture)

Students enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts wishing to consider joint degree programs, in which the B.S. or M.Arch. degree is awarded by the College of Architecture and Urban Planning and a second degree is awarded by the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, are advised to contact the architecture program chairman in A&UP and the concentration advisor in LS&A. (This program is distinct from the Pre-Professional Program in Architecture described later in this chapter.)

Dentistry and Medicine (Joint Program in Liberal Arts and Dentistry or Liberal Arts and Medicine)

The joint degree program in liberal arts and either medicine or dentistry is designed to enable students admitted to the Medical School or the School of Dentistry at the University of Michigan to complete the requirements for a bachelor's degree from LS&A. Students may apply up to 15 credits of courses elected during the first two years of medical or dental school toward a degree. To be eligible for the bachelor's degree under this joint program, a student must have been admitted to either the Medical School or the School of Dentistry at the University of Michigan and have completed 105 credits toward an LS&A degree with a GPA of at least 3.0. For the A.B. or B.S. degree the 105 credits must include all but 6 credits of a concentration plan. For a B.G.S. degree the 105 credits must include at least 50 upper-level credits, of which 40 must be LS&A. All other requirements for graduation from LS&A must be met, and at least 45 of the 105 credits must be earned in residence in the College. A student's program must have the approval of the pre-professional counselor, the concentration adviser, and the Director of Academic Counseling. In addition, a student must complete all of the required courses for the Medical School or the School of Dentistry with at least a "C" average.

When the above requirements have been met, the College grants a bachelor's degree by accepting up to 15 credits from first-year and second-year Medical School or School of Dentistry courses as approved by the Committee on the Joint Program in Liberal Arts and Medicine/Dentistry.

Only students attending Medical School or the School of Dentistry at the University of Michigan are eligible for this program. Applications for admission to the joint program may be obtained in the LS&A Academic Counseling Office.

Engineering (Joint Program in Liberal Arts and Engineering)

This program is designed to enable students to develop a course of study which offers broader academic opportunities than those offered by either college. The program is intended for students who wish to develop a depth of understanding in the technical studies associated with the College of Engineering and in the physical and natural sciences, humanities, and social sciences in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. This integration of technical studies with the liberal arts is the primary strength of the program. It is open to students enrolled in Engineering or LS&A and leads to concurrent bachelor's degrees from both colleges. It is intended primarily for students who enroll as freshmen in one of the two colleges.

The variety of courses which can be elected by students in the joint program makes it impractical to list specific requirements. Instead, each student should consult faculty members and academic advisers in each college to develop the best plan of study. Primary responsibility for planning the academic program and continuing contact with academic counselors in the two fields is assumed by the student, who also is responsible for becoming familiar with the academic policies and procedures of both colleges and the academic requirements and courses in both fields of concentration as described in the Bulletins of the two colleges. In the event of difficulties or special problems, students should consult Katharine McKibben (Office of Academic Actions, 1223 Angell Hall, 764-0311) or Dean Gene Smith or Dean James Wilkes (College of Engineering, 2419 EECS, 764-5158 or 763-6841).

It is usually possible for students carrying 16 credits a term to meet all requirements in 10 or 11 terms.

Joint Degree Program Structure. Candidates for the combined Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.) and liberal arts degree (A.B., B.S., or B.G.S.) must:

1. complete one of the degree programs in the College of Engineering;

2. complete a minimum of 90 credits of LS&A courses;

3. have a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0.

In addition, candidates for the joint Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.) and Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) degree must complete the LS&A degree requirements (English Composition, the language requirement, and an approved area distribution plan) and an approved LS&A concentration plan. Candidates for the joint Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.) and Bachelor in General Studies (B.G.S.) degree must complete the LS&A English Composition requirements, and a minimum 40 credits of LS&A courses 300-level or above with a GPA of at least 2.0. No more than 15 of these credits may be elected from any one division. (A division means a division number in the Time Schedule.)

Administrative Regulations

1. Students may initially enroll in either the College of Engineering or the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

2. To be qualified for admission to the joint degree program, students are usually expected to have completed 30 credits of courses with an overall grade point average of at least 2.7. Entry of LS&A students to some programs in Engineering may require a substantially higher grade point average.

3. Students considering this program should discuss their plans with the program adviser associated with the college in which they are enrolled. Usually this contact should be made early in the sophomore year.

4. Students must complete an application form indicating their program in each college. Applications are available from Katharine McKibben (Office of Academic Actions, 1223 Angell Hall, 764-0311), Grace Dunn (Academic Counseling, 1213 Angell Hall, 764-0332), Assistant Dean James Wilkes (College of Engineering, 2419 EECS, 763-6841), or Assistant Dean Gene Smith (College of Engineering, 2419 EECS, 764-5158). During the application process students must provide a current transcript when consulting advisors in the school in which they are not registered.

5. Once admitted to the program, each student continues to register in the college of initial enrollment. That college maintains the primary academic record and, at the end of each term, transmits a copy of the transcript to the other college.

6. Students should consult the academic adviser for each concentration and secure approval for their class schedule according to the academic policies and procedures of each college.

7. Students must maintain good academic standing in both colleges to continue in the joint degree program.

8. Students in good academic standing who wish to withdraw from the program may complete a degree in the college in which they are enrolled. Students not in good academic standing are subject to the academic discipline policies of that college.

9. Upon completion of the requirements of both colleges, students are granted concurrent degrees. At the beginning of the term in which graduation is anticipated, a Diploma Application must be filed with each college, and the academic adviser for each concentration (specialization) must provide appropriate notification that departmental requirements are satisfied.

Individualized Joint Degree Programs

A student may be interested in a joint degree program with one other school or college, even though it has not been officially established by the College. Such joint degree programs are planned through the Office of Academic Actions. The student is expected to present a written statement of the educational purpose of the joint degree. At least 150 credits are required for a joint degree, including at least 100 credits of LS&A courses. For a B.G.S. degree the 100 credits would have to include at least 40 upper-level credits.

A minimum of 30 hours of credit must have been completed on the Ann Arbor campus before a student may apply for a joint degree program, and the cumulative grade point average for work completed on the Ann Arbor campus must be 3.0 or better. Any exception to these requirements must be approved by the Academic Actions Board.

Joint degree programs with the School of Business Administration cannot be arranged.

Inteflex (Integrated Premedical-Medical Program)

The Integrated Premedical-Medical Program (Inteflex) is a seven-year program sponsored jointly by the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the Medical School. The primary goal of the program is to graduate physicians who can apply the study of the humanities and social sciences to the problems of medical practice. The integrated curriculum, drawn from the humanities, social sciences, natural and basic medical sciences, encourages innovative approaches to both premedical and medical education. There is contact with medical practice at the end of the first year in order for students to experience and appreciate the social and interpersonal aspects of patient care early in their training. The Medical School's preclinical work begins in the third year. Students in the program continue to elect LS&A courses through the fourth year.

The program admits 44 students each year and admission is limited to high school graduates enrolling in college for the first time. Applicants for the Inteflex Program must first be admitted to LS&A. Minimum qualifications for admission to the program include a combined SAT score (Verbal and Mathematical) of at least 1200 or composite ACT of 29, a high school grade point average of at least 3.5, and class standing in the top 10 percent of the high school class. Applicants should also have a good background in high school mathematics and science. The program requires no subsequent admission process for Medical School, but students are expected to remain in good standing in LS&A and meet the promotion requirements of the Medical School. Students making normal progress complete the A.B./B.S. and M.D. degrees in seven years. For additional information, applicants should write the Inteflex (Integrated Premedical-Medical Program) Admissions Committee, 4031 Medical Sciences I, Wing C, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.

Natural Resources (AB, BS, or BGS and Master of Landscape Architecture)

The School of Natural Resources offers an accelerated program in landscape architecture for undergraduates in any liberal arts area which enables a student to complete both a bachelor's degree from LS&A and the three-year Master of Architecture (MLA) degree in six years of study. Candidates for this program are selected by the Landscape Architecture Admissions Committee following completion of the junior year, during which students are expected to complete Biology 355 (Woody Plants), Psychology 476 (Environmental Psychology), and Statistics 402 (Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis). The Graduate Record Examination should be taken in either February or April of the junior year. Candidates should have at least a 3.4 cumulative grade point average at the end of the junior year and must earn a combined Verbal and Quantitative score of at least 1100 on the General Test of the GRE.

Interested students should consult with the Landscape Architecture Program during the sophomore year or early in the junior year. Students accepted to the program will elect six additional pre-professional courses through the School of Natural Resources for a total of 15 credit hours in their senior year. Students are expected to complete all requirements for their LS&A degrees by the end of the senior year, including a minimum of 100 LS&A credit hours. AB/BS students who have completed 108 LS&A credits and BGS students may apply for graduation at the end of the senior year. Otherwise, the degrees will be awarded concurrently. For further information, contact: Office of Academic Programs, 1024 Dana Building.

Public Policy (Bachelor of Arts and Master of Public Policy)

The Institute of Public Policy Studies offers an accelerated program in public policy for exceptional undergraduates at the University of Michigan. The program enables students in political science, or economics, or the B.G.S. degree program to complete both a bachelor's degree and the two-year Master of Public Policy (M.P.P.) degree in five years of study. Candidates for this program are selected by the Institute of Public Policy Studies during the junior year. In the senior year, students elect the full sequence of IPPS core courses, most of which simultaneously satisfy concentration or cognate requirements for the bachelor's degree while counting towards the M.P.P. degree. The A.B. or B.G.S. degree is awarded at the end of the senior year, and the M.P.P. degree after one additional year of study.

The eligibility requirements for the accelerated joint program include completion of at least ninety credits toward the undergraduate degree which must include one calculus (or higher level mathematics/statistics) course. At least twenty-four of the ninety credits must be in economics or political science, with no fewer than six credits in either department. These credit requirements must be completed by the time of the first enrollment in IPPS; courses may be taken in the Spring or Summer half-terms if necessary. In addition, applicants for the accelerated program must show an academic record that is demonstrably superior to that of students entering on the regular track. This means that the student record must meet or exceed the median scores for the entering class: a cumulative GPA of 3.4 and a Quantitative Graduate Records Examination (GRE) score of 660. Further information can be found under the departmental program statements of Economics and Political Science in Chapter III, or by visiting The Institute of Public Policy Studies in 440 Lorch Hall. Interested undergraduates should begin consultation in the sophomore year; application is made in the junior year.

The Concurrent Undergraduate-Graduate Studies (CUGS) Program

The Concurrent Undergraduate-Graduate Studies (CUGS) Program enables a few students each year to enroll simultaneously in LS&A and the Rackham Graduate School and to apply a maximum of 15 credits toward both an undergraduate degree and a graduate degree. To be considered, a student must have at least 90 credits toward an undergraduate degree, must have satisfied the distribution requirements, and must have an overall grade point average of at least 3.7. Admission to CUGS is limited and depends heavily on the student's having exhausted the undergraduate resources of his or her department so that graduate study is the appropriate and logical next step in the student's program. The admissions process begins with encouragement to proceed from the graduate admissions committee of the department in which the student wishes to do graduate work. The student must then receive the recommendation of the chairperson of the undergraduate department/program, as well as the Assistant Dean for Student Academic Affairs for regular LS&A Students, or one of the Directors of the Honors Program for Honors students, or the Director (Director's representative) in the Residential College for RC students. An admission application is completed and submitted to the Graduate School for approval of both the graduate admission committee and Rackham Associate Dean of Admissions.

Two-Year Liberal Arts Study for Professional Undergraduate Programs

Several schools, colleges, and programs (e.g., Architecture and Urban Planning, Business Administration, Dental Hygiene, Education, and Pharmacy) within the University admit only students who have completed two years of liberal arts study. The following information is for students interested in planning the freshman and sophomore years in LS&A and then applying to one of the schools below.

Architecture (Pre-Professional Program in Architecture)

With the increasing application of the behavioral and environmental sciences to architecture, it is important that prospective students acquire a liberal arts background. Students are not admitted to the College of Architecture and Urban Planning until they have completed at least 60 credits. A number of introductory architecture courses are open to all freshmen and sophomores. The College of Architecture and Urban Planning looks for evidence of interest and strong commitment, preferably demonstrated by work experience related to architecture or urban planning, and expects students to be familiar with the field's professional literature. For additional information, contact Pablo Marcillo (Office of Undergraduate Admissions).

The pre-professional program consists of a minimum 60 credits. Students are urged to obtain and read the Architecture leaflet--available at the Office of Undergraduate Admissions (1220 Student Activities Building), the LS&A Counseling Office (1213 Angell Hall), or the College of Architecture and Urban Planning (2150 Art and Architecture Building) for specific requirements.

Since admission to the College of Architecture and Urban Planning is competitive, students are urged to develop an optional program within LS&A.

Business Administration

Students who wish to earn a Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.) degree should transfer to the School of Business Administration after completion of the sophomore year. Junior standing (at least 55 but preferably 60 credits) is a requirement for admission and students should apply during the second term of the sophomore year.

Students may enter in the Fall Term only. The Admissions Committee begins to consider applications February 1 for the Fall Term entering class. Preference is given to applicants who submit applications on or before March 1. Applications are considered only after completed application forms and official transcripts have been received. LS&A students should obtain their transcript in a sealed envelope from the Transcript Office. This envelope must be submitted together with the application forms to the Business School.

Since there are a limited number of places in the B.B.A. program, admission is highly competitive. Most students admitted have an overall GPA above 3.0. Particular attention is paid to grades in economics, first-term accounting, and mathematics. Extra-curricular activities, part-time and summer work experience, and the required essay (a part of the application form) play an important role in choosing among applicants with similar academic credentials.

Consideration for admission requires evidence that a minimum of 55 credits will be completed by the proposed date of entrance and that the required courses in mathematics, economics, first-term accounting, and written communication have been completed with grades of at least "C." Students may choose from among Mathematics 112, 115, and Honors Mathematics to meet the math requirement. Students unprepared for calculus should elect Mathematics 105, 106, or 107, depending upon high school preparation. Economics 201 and 202 fulfill the economics requirement. The requirement in composition may be completed by English 125 or 167 or presenting evidence that the student has been exempted from these courses. Honors students may substitute Great Books 191 or 192. Students are encouraged to complete as many of the prerequisites as possible before applying.

While not a requirement for admission, students should satisfy three of the following four distribution areas to meet graduation requirements for the B.B.A. degree during the freshman and sophomore years:

1. 9 credits in humanities;

2. 9 credits in social sciences other than economics;

3. 6 credits in natural science courses (a minimum of two three-credit courses); and

4. fourth-term college proficiency in a language other than English (determined by successful completion of a proficiency examination administered by the appropriate language department or completion of a fourth-term college level language course).

Students may elect area courses on the basis of Pattern I area distribution designations (see Chapter III) with the following exceptions:

1. mathematics courses may not be used;

2. natural science courses may not include short courses and must carry at least three credits;

3. all philosophy courses, including logic courses, are considered humanities.

Accounting 271 is required for admission. Although not required for admission, Accounting 272 is highly recommended as an elective for sophomores, particularly for students who plan to concentrate in accounting. The School of Business Administration does not recommend other electives. Any thoughtfully planned, balanced liberal arts program is acceptable preparation for admission.

Certain courses, some of which can be elected for LS&A degree credit, cannot be transferred to the School of Business Administration. These include Experiential courses, Dance, Physical Education activity courses, and first and second year ROTC courses. Residential College and Pilot courses transfer to the School of Business Administration, but Pilot Program credit cannot be used to satisfy area requirements.

With the exception of Accounting 271 and 272, Business Administration courses cannot be elected until junior standing (at least 55 credits) has been earned.

Dental Hygiene

The School of Dentistry grants a B.S. degree in Dental Hygiene. This baccalaureate program consists of a year of prescribed college courses followed by three years enrollment in the School of Dentistry. The equivalent of 30 (semester) credits of college level work in liberal arts is a prerequisite to the three-year curriculum in dental hygiene. Prerequisites include: (1) Chemistry; (2) English Composition; (3) Speech; (4) Introductory Psychology; (5) Introductory Sociology; (6) English Literature; (7) Additional electives to total 30 credits.

Interested students should contact the Director of Dental Hygiene, Wendy Kerschbaum, in the School of Dentistry (3307 Dentistry, 763-3392) as soon as possible, preferably during the freshman year. Additional information about the dental hygiene program can be found in the School of Dentistry Bulletin and Dental Hygiene brochures.


Several paths are open to students who wish to obtain certification in elementary school teaching (kindergarten through the eighth grade) or secondary school teaching (grades seven through twelve).

Students can simultaneously satisfy degree requirements for an A.B., B.S., or B.G.S. degree and the requirements for a teaching certificate. Some students complete teaching certificate requirements by enrolling as special students in the School of Education after completing an undergraduate degree. Alternatively, students can transfer to the School of Education, usually at the beginning of the junior year, and complete requirements for an Education degree with a teaching certificate. Students interested in earning an elementary school teaching certificate usually transfer to the School of Education for both a bachelor's degree and certification in order to avoid complexities in program planning and to take full advantage of the variety of choices offered within elementary education.

Interested students should study the Teacher Certification Program in Chapter III of this Bulletin and contact the School of Education Office of Student Services regarding current information and procedures for admission to the Teacher Certification Program.


Students accepted to the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree program transfer to the College of Pharmacy upon completion of at least 60 credits of pre-professional work as outlined below. The College accepts students only for the Fall Term, and the Pharm.D. curriculum requires an additional four years of study. Deadline for submission of applications is February 1.

The 60 credits of pre-pharmacy study include:

1. Chemistry through 210, 211, 215, 216, and either 230 or 340;

2. Mathematics 112, or 113 and 114, or 115;

3. Biology 152 or 195;

4. Physics 125/127 and 126/128, or 140/141 and 240/241;

5. English 125 or 167;

6. Electives, including two social science courses and two courses in foreign language or the humanities.

Honors alternatives to these courses are acceptable.

Students interested in transferring to the College of Pharmacy should discuss their plans and curriculum with a pharmacy adviser. Advisers are available in the College of Pharmacy.

Since spaces in the College of Pharmacy are limited and admission is competitive, students are encouraged to develop program alternatives in LS&A and to inform themselves of LS&A degree requirements. Application to the University of Michigan College of Pharmacy is made through the Office of Undergraduate Admissions.

In addition to the Pharm.D. program, the College of Pharmacy offers Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences and Bachelor of Science in Medicinal Chemistry programs. Neither baccalaureate program leads to a professional degree or pharmacy licensure. Students interested in these programs should consult a Pharmacy adviser.

Pre-Legal Studies and Pre-Medicine

Pre-Law Studies

A strong liberal arts education is an ideal way to prepare for the professional study of law. LS&A students should acquire the skills that enable critical thinking, logical reasoning and effective writing by pursuing a balanced and challenging undergraduate program.

Two serious shortcomings hamper many students who come to the study of law. The first is inability to write or speak clearly and correctly. The second is difficulty in thinking for themselves, attaining exactness of thought and making valid analytical comparisons and differentiations. LS&A students should try to avoid these shortcomings by (1) studying and mastering English prose composition and exposition, and the use of English in speaking; and (2) taking courses which demand precise thinking and close reading.

There are no prerequisite courses and there is no required concentration for entering law school. A prospective law student, above all, should take courses in any subject which will be personally interesting, intellectually challenging, and which will help provide an understanding of the nature and aspirations of American society.

Interested students should obtain a copy of the University of Michigan information circular "Academic Preparation for Law School" and schedule an appointment with a pre-professional counselor in the LS&A Academic Counseling Office and visit the Office of Career Planning and Placement for information about the legal profession.


LS&A students who wish to prepare for a career in medicine should elect courses which lead to completion of degree requirements and simultaneously fulfill the pre-medical requirements of the medical schools of their choice. Pre-medicine is not a concentration.

Interested students should obtain a copy of the University of Michigan information circular "Academic Preparation for Medical School" and schedule an appointment with a pre-professional counselor in the LS&A Academic Counseling Office and visit the Office of Career Planning and Placement for information about the medical profession.

Pre-medical course requirements are:

1. Chemistry. At least four to six terms: Chemistry through 210, 211, 215, 216, 230 or 340 is the recommended introductory course sequence with an additional course such as Chemistry 302. This sequence assumes strong high school chemistry background.

Note: Medical schools differ in the number of chemistry credits required. Some require a minimum of two terms, some require a minimum of four terms. All, however, require chemistry with laboratory. It is always advisable to check with the medical school you are interested in if you have a question about requirements.

2. Biology. Two terms, including at least three credits of lab work. Biology 152 and 154 are recommended courses. Biology 195 is a one term, accelerated course that is an alternative to 152-154. Many students also will want to complete at least one advanced course in biology or zoology.

3. Physics. Two terms, including lab work. Students may select from Physics 125/127 and 126/128, or Physics 140/141 and 240/241.

4. English. Two terms of English are required. Introductory Composition satisfies one term of this requirement.

5. Mathematics. Some medical schools require a mathematics course (college level calculus in many cases). Recommended courses are Mathematics 115 and 116, or Mathematics 113 and 114, or Mathematics 112.

The above courses account for approximately one third of the course work for a B.A., B.S., or B.G.S. degree. Medical schools require demonstrated proficiency in the sciences, but it is not necessary to concentrate in the sciences.