The policies and procedures described in this chapter govern the conduct of academic matters affecting students enrolled in the College. Exceptions to these policies may be granted only upon written petition to the Office of Academic Actions. Honors students petition the Honors Academic Board; Residential College students petition the RC Counseling Office.
In defining a normal academic load, a distinction must be made between what load students are permitted to elect and what is recommended. Except for first-term freshmen and transfer and Honors students, undergraduates may elect, without special approval, academic loads of 8 to 18 credits for a term, or 1 to 9 credits for a half term (spring or summer). Generally, a program of four or five courses totaling 13 to 17 credits is considered normal, and freshmen are usually advised to elect four courses (14 to 16 credits). Since the considerations for determining academic loads are often complex and personal, the College encourages students to discuss each term's elections with an academic advisor.
Class standing is determined by the number of credits earned toward a degree:
Freshman: fewer than 25 credits
Sophomore: 25 through 54 credits
Junior: 55 through 84 credits
Senior: 85 credits or more
At least 60 of the 120 credits required for a degree must be earned in residence. Residence credit is granted for courses elected on the Ann Arbor campus or at off-campus sites but directed by Ann Arbor faculty present on the site and for a maximum 15 credits earned through departmental boards of study and Honors Summer Independent Reading.
At least 30 of the last 60 credits for the degree must be earned in residence.
No more than 60 credits may be earned through Advanced Placement, credit by examination, extension and correspondence courses, transfer credit from other institutions, and off-campus independent study, except that 90 credits may be transferred from other schools and colleges on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. Cross-campus transfer students may receive credit for a maximum of 90 credits from the previous college or school. No more than 60 credits of these 90 may have been completed at other institutions. LS&A residency requires that a student earn 30 credits in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
Students who transfer from a junior college are permitted 60 transfer credits (62 if an Associate's degree requiring 62 credits has been completed). Students who have completed 60 credits toward an LS&A degree cannot earn degree credit for courses elected at a two-year college.
Up to 60 credits may be transferred from the Flint and Dearborn campuses of the University of Michigan, and courses completed at these campuses are defined as out-of-residence credit (effective September 1, 1976), even though they carry Michigan Honor Points.
Credit cannot be transferred from another school if that credit is also being counted toward another baccalaureate or graduate or professional degree. The programs described in Chapter V under the heading "Special Joint Degree Programs" are exceptions to this policy.
Even if a course is transferrable, credit is not allowed if the final grade earned is "C" or lower. This includes all transferrable credit earned outside the University of Michigan and also includes the University of Michigan Correspondence Study offerings.
Students interested in electing out-of-residence credit should consult in advance the Office of Undergraduate Admissions (where an information sheet is available) about transfer equivalencies and an academic advisor about the appropriateness of the intended elections. If credit elected out-of-residence is to be included in a concen-tration plan, approval should be obtained in advance from a concentration advisor. The language requirement cannot be fulfilled by out-of-residence credit which is elected after the student has begun degree enrollment in LS&A unless the appropriate language department has approved that plan in advance.
LS&A students who elect courses which duplicate Advanced Placement credit or courses completed elsewhere and transferred to LS&A as credit toward an LS&A degree will receive degree credit and honor points (for graded courses) for the LS&A election while credit for the duplicated Advanced Placement or transfer courses will be deducted. The only exceptions to this policy are those cases in which the courses transfer from another school or college on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In these cases, courses elected in LS&A which duplicate such transfer courses are posted on the academic record as "repetitions" or "not for credit" elections. The original course elections continue to appear on the academic record for degree credit, and grades earned in these courses continue to be computed in the grade point average. Students electing courses in LS&A which are prerequisites for credits already awarded via Advanced Standing will have the transferred credits deducted, and the hours and honor points earned by the LS&A elections will stand. This might mean losing credit for several courses while retaining credit for only one, (for example, having transfer credit for three terms of basic foreign language deducted because of completing the first term of that language subsequently at the University of Michigan).
Students who want their out-of-residence credit evaluated must have an official transcript of the completed work sent to the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Seniors planning to elect the final portion of the senior year out of residence should contact the LS&A Senior Auditors prior to leaving campus for information about special procedures; otherwise, a student risks delay of graduation.
The College expects students to finalize their academic schedules in the first three weeks of a term (first two weeks of a half term), but later changes may be made according to the policies described below. Courses dropped in the first three weeks of a term (first two weeks of a half term) do not appear on the transcript; thereafter, all courses officially dropped appear on the transcript with a "W" notation. Accordingly, a "W" means that the student dropped a course after the third week of a Fall or Winter Term (second week of a half-term) and that the College accepted the reason(s) for the drop and gave its approval.
Failure to complete a course and to secure approval for a late drop of the course results in the transcript notation Unofficial Drop (ED) which is averaged into the term and cumulative grade point averages as a failing grade (E). Courses elected on a non-graded pattern do not affect the term or cumulative grade point averages.
Weeks one through three of a term (weeks one through two of a half term):
Students may make drop/add changes without advisor approval when these changes result in an academic schedule of 8-18 credits during a term (1-9 credits in a half term). Programs of fewer than 8 or more than 18 credits during a term (more than 9 credits during a half term) require advisor approval, as do all course changes made by Honors students and new freshmen, transfer students, and cross-campus transfer students. All students may make section changes within a course without advisor approval. Adds of courses/sections that are closed or require permission of instructor must be accompanied by an Election Authorization Form (Override) signed by the instructor or designated departmental representative. Adds of open courses or courses not requiring permission of instructor are allowed without override, but the student is responsible for any work assigned in the course from its beginning, regardless of the date of election. Therefore it is important to talk with the course instructor about work assigned to date before processing an add in the second or third week. Instructor approval is not required on an Election Change Worksheet for drop requests. Overrides are available from instructors or departmental offices. Since the fee assessment is not set until the end of this three-week period (two weeks in a half term), a student dropping below 12 credits (six in a half-term) will be assessed a lower tuition charge.
Weeks four through nine of a term (three through four and a half of a half term):
Students requesting changes must (1) obtain a Request for Late Drop form and Election Change Worksheet from 1221 Angell Hall; (2) complete both forms, stating the reason(s) for the drop; (3) obtain instructor's recommendation and signature; (4) return the completed forms to 1221 Angell Hall along with an Election Authorization Form (Override) if there is a late add. All requests to add courses must be accompanied by an Election Authorization Form (Override) signed by the instructor or designated departmental representative. Honors students follow the procedures established by the Honors Office.
Students thinking about a possible late drop are strongly encouraged to discuss the change with an academic advisor. Such a discussion, however, is not required.
The Office of Academic Actions will provide a written response to all late drop requests. Students should continue pursuing their existing academic schedules until they receive written confirmation of an approved change. Requests will generally be approved, except for:
Late drop requests resulting in a load of fewer than 8 credits.
Late drop requests of students on academic probation resulting in a load of fewer than 12 credits.
Late drop requests where the instructor objects or has serious reservations about the drop; or
Late drop requests where the Academic Actions Board identifies a potentially serious problem.
In cases a, b and c the student will be asked to meet with a member of the Academic Actions Board to discuss the request and seek approval to drop the course. In case d, the student will be summoned to discuss the request, and its academic implications, with an academic advisor or a member of the Board.
NOTE: The Office of Academic Actions will batch process all approved requests.
A $10 fee is required to complete the approved late drop/add transaction. This fee will be billed to the student's account, thereby eliminating the need for the student to pay the $10 fee in person to the University Cashier's Office.
Fees are not reduced even if a student drops below 12 credits (six in a half-term).
Week ten through the last day of classes of a term (after the end of week four and a half through the last day of classes for a half term):
Only the most serious circumstances warrant dropping a course after the ninth week of the term. Fear of failing the course and no longer needing the course in a degree program are not considered valid reasons for granting approval to drop a course after the 9th week of a Fall or Winter Term. Students wishing to make changes must (1) obtain an Election Change Worksheet; (2) complete a Request for Late Drop/Add form signed by the instructor; and (3) make an appointment with an academic advisor. The instructor's and advisor's signatures indicate that the request for a change in academic schedule has been discussed; they do not indicate approval. All requests to add courses must be accompanied by an Election Authorization Form (Override) signed by the instructor or designated departmental representative. Requests resulting in academic schedules of 8-18 credits during a term (1-9 credits in a half term) are approved or denied by the a Late Drop Review Committee. All other requests are decided by the Academic Actions Board. Again, the $10 fee for an approved late drop/add transaction will be billed to the student's account.
1. Regarding the election of mini-courses, students are subject to different "W" and fee deadlines. A mini-course which starts at the beginning of the term and lasts for seven weeks can be dropped without "W" and without fee for three weeks. Such a course starting in the middle of the term can be dropped without "W" and without fee for two weeks.
2. Information regarding "W" and fee deadlines for all other mini-courses is available from LS&A Checkpoint and from 1221 Angell Hall (Course Elections Office, 764-2207).
3. All requests to drop or add mini-courses submitted after the applicable free drop/add period are decided by the Academic Actions Board. Since those courses do not run for the full length of the term, late drop or add requests are not judged according to the timetable used for full-term courses. Any late drop or add request for mini-courses needs to be supported by significant extenuating circumstances.
Students who have early registered for a term or half term but who subsequently decide not to return to the University should notify the Office of Academic Actions. This can be done either in writing or by going in person to complete a Disenrollment Memorandum. Notification of intention to disenroll must be received before the first day of classes or a student is assessed a $50 disenrollment fee plus a $60 registration fee ($30 for each half term). Students who wish to withdraw once classes have begun should go to the Office of Academic Actions.
After the third week of classes during a term (second week in a half term), an appointment must be made with a member of the Academic Actions Board. Students who withdraw after the middle of a term may have to obtain permission from the Office of Academic Actions before continuing in the College. (See Fee Regulations in Chapter VII.)
Recognizing that students may have background in particular academic areas, the faculty has made it possible for students to earn credit by examination. The amount and type of credit in any area is determined by the academic department(s) in which a student feels qualified to seek credit by examination. Some departments recognize certain subject area College Entrance Examination Board College Level Examination Program (CLEP) examinations and grant credit on the basis of specified performance on such examinations. Since the University of Michigan is not a CLEP testing center, all CLEP credit is evaluated as incoming transfer credit, and questions regarding CLEP credit should be addressed to the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Only those CLEP examinations specifically accepted by academic departments at the University of Michigan may be used to certify credit by examination toward a degree.
In addition to or in place of CLEP examinations, some academic departments have prepared examinations which are administered on campus. Questions regarding such departmental examinations should be directed to the Department of Independent Study, Extension Service, where applications for such examinations are available.
Credit earned by examination is out-of-residence credit. It is posted on a student's transcript as credit earned toward the degree but without honor points and identified by the notation "Credit by Examination." A maximum 60 credits can be earned by examination and counted toward an LS&A degree. (See Residence Policy in this chapter.) Failure to pass a departmental examination is not noted on a student's transcript or in a student's academic advising file.
The College distinguishes "Experiential" and "Independent" courses from its other course offerings.
Experiential courses (denoted EXPERIENTIAL in Chapter VI) involve academic work which takes place in a setting other than a university classroom, laboratory, library, or studio and in which the experience is directly related to an academic discipline. Under certain circumstances, experiential credit may also be granted for work done through a College or Departmental Board of Study.
Independent courses may be (1) Directed Reading/Independent Study courses (denoted INDEPENDENT in Chapter VI) which are designated by title and not normally offered by classroom instruction; (2) courses normally offered through classroom instruction but occasionally taught on an independent study basis (e.g., Honors Summer Independent Reading); (3) courses not specially designated as "Independent" and normally offered as classroom instruction but elected by special arrangement with the instructor.
The following limitations apply to Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study credit:
A maximum 15 credits of Experiential courses may be counted toward a degree; a maximum 8 credits may be earned from one project, and only one such Experiential project may be elected each term.
A combined total 30 credits of Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study courses may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
A maximum 15 credits of Honors Summer Independent Reading courses may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
Experiential and Independent courses are excluded from area distribution plans.
Students wishing to elect Experiential courses for which no department can be identified should contact the Associate Director of Undergraduate Admissions, to discuss provisions for granting credit under a College Board of Study. Credit to be earned through the College Board of Study must be approved in advance and the project must be interdisciplinary in nature. Such credit is designated as "Non-Residence". Students wishing to elect Directed Reading/Independent Study courses should make arrangements in the proper departmental office before beginning work on a project.
Experiential and independent study courses are designated on the student's transcript by an E or an I which appears immediately after the course number.
The University of Michigan Extension Service offers Correspondence and Extension courses taught by University of Michigan faculty. Correspondence courses are independent study courses equivalent in content to courses regularly offered on the Ann Arbor campus. Extension courses involve regular classroom instruction but are offered through extension centers located in other communities (e.g., Grand Rapids, Detroit, Saginaw). A maximum 30 credits of extension and correspondence courses elected through the University of Michigan can be counted toward the minimum 120 credits required for a degree. Of these, a maximum 15 credits may be earned in correspondence courses. For information about transfer credit policies affecting correspondence and extension courses elected through other institutions, contact the Office of Academic Actions. Correspondence and extension courses earn credit toward a degree (when completed with a final grade of at least "C") but not honor points and are considered out-of-residence credit (see Residence Policy in this chapter). Students who wish to elect correspondence or extension courses for degree credit when they are concurrently enrolled in the College must obtain permission from the Office of Academic Actions.
A special summer independent study program is offered to qualified students enrolled at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). Students with a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0 and no unfinished courses on the transcript, and who are not enrolled in the College or elsewhere for both spring and summer half terms or the equivalent, may elect up to eight hours of credit during the summer. A maximum 15 hours of Honors Summer Independent Reading credit may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
Any course regularly offered by the College may be elected with departmental approval. A faculty member at the rank of assistant professor or higher must supervise the work; lecturers and teaching assistants may not supervise Honors Summer Independent Reading. Courses elected through this program are not correspondence courses even though the course work is completed off-campus. Credit earned in the program is considered in-residence credit and earns honor points. Application forms are available in the Honors Office after March 31 of each academic year. (See also Residence Policy in this chapter.)
The Academic Record is the official record of a student's course elections, grades, and credits earned toward a degree. Since the academic record is a permanent record of a student's academic performance, it must be correct. Students who believe an error has been made on their academic records should contact the Assistant to the Academic Actions Board.
LS&A academic records are maintained by the LS&A Recorders in the Records Office (1513 LS&A Building). An enrolled student receives a Term Grade Report at the end of each term of enrollment. The Term Grade Report informs students of the most recent term of enrollment and summarizes the total number of credits elected and earned toward a degree and the number of honor points earned.
A student may wish to have a transcript of the academic record sent to another college or university or to an employer. Such requests can be ordered at the Registrar windows in the lobby of the LS&A Building. Mail requests can be sent to Transcript Office, 555 LS&A Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1382. All requests should include dates of attendance and student identification number. A transcript of the academic record bearing the official seal of the University of Michigan and the signature of the Registrar is forwarded directly to the institution or person specified by the student assuming there is no outstanding financial commitment from the student to the University. A fee ($4.00) for each official transcript is assessed to cover the costs of processing. A student may request an unofficial copy of the academic record for a charge of $1.00. The copy will be labelled "unofficial" and therefore should not be used in lieu of a transcript for the purposes of admission or employment.
During the final term in residence, a student may pay a fee set by the Registrar's Office and request a special transcript (1) listing no courses; (2) listing courses but no grades; (3) translating all grades into P or F; or (4) an appendix listing the original grades submitted for all courses elected "Pass/Fail." A specially prepared transcript indicates which of these options has been chosen. A request for a special transcript does not permanently revise the original academic record.
|Letter Grade||Honor Points||Letter Grade||Honor Points|
|A- or P||3.7||C- or P||1.7|
|B- or P||2.7||D- or P||0.7|
P (passed) credit, no honor points
F (failed) no credit, no honor points
CR (credit) credit, no honor points
NC (no credit) no credit, no honor points
S (satisfactory) credit, no honor points
U (unsatisfactory) no credit, no honor points
(The S/U symbols are used by the School of Education.)
W (official withdrawal) no credit, no honor points
ED (dropped unofficially) no credit, no honor points
(A notation of ED for a graded election has the same effect on the grade point average as does an E.)
Incomplete/Work in Progress
I (incomplete) no credit, no honor points
X (absent from examination) no credit, no honor points
Y (work in progress for project approved to extend for two successive terms) no credit, no honor points
Official Audit (VI)
VI (VIsitor) no credit, no honor points
Miscellaneous Notations (Q, NR, and E/I)
Q (credit hours unofficially elected) no credit, no honor points
NR (no report) no credit, no honor points
E/I credit, honor points
(A notation of E/I is used to designate experiential and independent study courses; letter appears immediately after the course number.)
A notation of P, F, CR, NC, S, U, or Q does not affect a student's term or cumulative grade point average. A notation of I, X, Y, or NR, if not replaced by a passing grade, eventually lapses to E and, for graded elections, is computed into the term and cumulative grade point averages.
Drop (W)/Official Withdrawal/Unofficial Withdrawal (ED)
If a student receives permission to withdraw officially from a course after the first three weeks of a full term (first two weeks of a half term), the course is recorded on the transcript with a W notation; neither credits toward a degree program nor honor points are earned. The W notation is a chronological record indicating the course was dropped after the third week of the term. It is posted on the transcript regardless of a student's reasons for requesting the official withdrawal. If a student unofficially withdraws from a course (i.e., stops attending the course but does not obtain permission for an official withdrawal), the instructor reports DR to indicate "unofficial drop." The Registrar's Office converts a DR to the notation ED (Unofficial Withdrawal). An ED is computed into the term and cumulative grade point averages as an E if the course were elected for a regular letter grade; neither credit toward a degree program nor honor points are earned.
A grade posted on the transcript preceded by a Q notation indicates a discrepancy between the number of credit hours elected by the student for a course and the number of credit hours graded by the instructor for that same course. Contact the Assistant to the Academic Actions Board (1223 Angell Hall) for information and procedures in resolving this problem.
Grading for a Two-Term Course (Y)
A few courses (e.g., senior Honors thesis courses or some Biological Sciences research courses) are approved as "two-term" sequences. In these specially approved cases only, an instructor can report a Y grade at the end of the first-term course to indicate work in progress. When a final grade is reported at the end of the second term, that final grade is posted for both terms' elections. In cases where a Y grade is reported for a course which is not approved to extend for two successive terms, an I (Incomplete) is posted on the transcript and the course is subject to the regular deadline for incompletes. Students needing more time to complete this work must petition the Office of Academic Actions for an official extension of the deadline (see below).
An "Incomplete" (denoted on the transcript by the symbol I) may be reported by an instructor only if the amount of unfinished work is small, the work is unfinished for reasons acceptable to the instructor, the student's standing in the course is at least C, and the student has taken the final examination. A student who is unavoidably absent from a final examination may be granted, upon presentation of an excuse satisfactory to the instructor, the privilege of making up the final examination; in such cases an X is reported by the instructor. Grades of I and X are not included in the computation of the term or cumulative grade point averages during the period when a student has the privilege of making up the work. Incomplete grades may be made up while a student is not in residence, even if a student has been dismissed from the College for reasons of unsatisfactory academic performance. An incomplete grade must be made up by the fourth week of a student's next fall or winter term in residence or by an extended deadline approved by the Office of Academic Actions.
An instructor has ten days following the "four-week deadline" in which to report a final grade or ten days following an approved extended deadline. The final grade is posted on the transcript, and credits and honor points are posted accordingly; the I or X is not removed when the course is completed but remains on the transcript. An I or X grade not finished by the incomplete deadline or an approved extended deadline lapses to E. In such cases, no degree credit is earned and the course is then computed as an E in the term and cumulative grade point averages. Unfinished courses elected on a non-graded pattern ("Pass/Fail," "Credit/No Credit," etc.) lapse to "Fail" or "No Credit" but do not affect the term or cumulative grade point averages.
An NR is recorded by the Registrar's Office when an instructor does not report a course grade for an individual student in a class or when an instructor submits an inappropriate grade. Students who receive an NR should contact the course instructor or an Assistant to the Academic Actions Board. If unresolved after the first four weeks of the next fall or winter term in residence, an NR in a graded election lapses to an E. In such cases no degree credit is earned, and the course is computed as an ED in the term and cumulative grade point averages.
Students may count a maximum 30 non-graded credits toward the 120 credits required for a degree. Non-graded courses include courses elected Pass/Fail (P/F), Credit/No Credit (CR/NC), and Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory (S/U). Only those non-graded credits actually earned are counted as part of the total number of non-graded hours applicable toward a degree.
Non-graded courses may be included in a distribution plan.
Non-graded courses may not be included in a concentration plan.
A change in grading pattern for a course is not permitted after the first three weeks of a full term (first two weeks of a half term). Grading pattern choices must be indicated in the "Modifier" box of the Election Change Worksheet and processed through CRISP. Courses elected after the third week of a term may not be elected on a non-graded basis unless the course is offered as a "mandatory non-graded" course. The only exceptions to this policy are short courses (e.g., Geology 101-115) which have started after the beginning of the term. In these cases, the grading pattern may not be changed after the second week of class. The Office of Academic Actions does not grant exceptions to this policy.
To be official, all choices involving non-graded elections must appear on a class schedule printout provided to students by the CRISP system as the result of each registration or drop/add transaction. The College holds students responsible for ensuring the accuracy and completeness of this class schedule printout. Instructor approval is not required for a choice in elected grading pattern nor should the instructor be informed of such a choice.
Non-graded courses earn credit toward a degree but not honor points. Therefore, "Pass" (or Credit) grades do not enter into the computation of the term or cumulative grade point averages and the credit earned is reflected only as Credit Toward Program (CTP) and not as Michigan Semester Hours (MSH).
Instructors report letter grades (A+ through E) for all students in their courses, except mandatory CR/NC courses, and in the case of a student who has chosen to elect a course "Pass/Fail," the Office of the Registrar converts the letter grades according to the following policies:
Grades of A+ through C are posted on a transcript as "P" (Pass); credit toward a degree is earned.
Grades of D+ through E are posted on a transcript as F (Fail); no degree credit is earned.
In the case of an incomplete course elected "Pass/Fail," credit is posted only when the work has actually been completed and a grade of at least C has been reported. "Pass/Fail" courses which are not finished lapse to "Fail," although the term and cumulative grade point averages remain unaffected.
If the instructor of a mandatory Credit/No Credit course believes that the amount and quality of a student's work is such that it deserves credit, CR (Credit) is posted on the transcript. If the instructor believes that a student's work does not justify the awarding of credit, NC (No Credit) is posted on the transcript. Courses offered mandatory Credit/No Credit are designated in the course listings in Chapter VI.
In computing the grade point average for honorary societies, the reported letter grades for "non-graded" elections are computed into the cumulative grade point average.
No course elected Pass/Fail will receive the Honors notation on the transcript or be counted as an "Honors" course for the Sophomore Honors Award.
Residential College courses are normally offered on a graded basis (A+ through E) for non-RC students. A non-RC student may elect an RC course on an optional non-graded, "Pass/Fail," basis through the CRISP system. Check with the Residential College Office for further information.
During the final term in residence, a student may pay a special fee set by the Registrar's Office and request a specially prepared appendix to the transcript on which the original grades submitted for all courses elected "Pass/Fail" are listed.
Students who have transferred "non-graded" credit to the College must count that credit as part of the maximum 30 hours of "non-graded" credit which may be counted toward an LS&A degree. Students who present more than 30 hours of transfer credit elected on a "non-graded" pattern are not eligible to count any additional "non-graded" credit toward an LS&A degree. This policy applies to students transferring from the Residential College as well as from other institutions.
A student cannot choose to elect a course by the CR/NC and S/U grading patterns; the optional non-graded pattern is P/F.
Students are expected to elect courses for credit. Occasionally, however, a student may wish to attend a course but not elect it for credit. This arrangement can take the form of an official audit (sometimes called Visitor status).
An official audit obligates a student to attend classes regularly and complete course requirements (for example, papers, laboratory assignments, tests, and the final examination). Regular tuition fees apply, and the course appears on the transcript with the notation VI (VIsitor); no grade is posted and no degree credit is earned. To arrange an official audit, a student must submit to the Office of Academic Actions a written statement, signed by the student and instructor, indicating the reasons for the official audit and outlining the student's obligation to course requirements. A request to officially audit a course should be approved before the election is made and at least by the end of the third week of a full term. Students who do not fulfill course requirements earn the grade ED to indicate that the course was unofficially dropped. In these special cases, the term and cumulative grade point averages remain unaffected. A course elected as an official audit without permission will be posted on the transcript as an unapproved election. Tuition is assessed by the Office of the Registrar for both approved and unapproved audits.
H, E and I symbols are used to designate Honors, experiential and independent study courses and appear immediately after the course number.
Repetition of Courses
If a course is taken in residence and a grade of A+ through C, P, CR, or S is earned, then repetition of this course results in no additional credit or honor points. The course and grade appear on the transcript with the notation "Not for Credit." This notation also results if a course is elected which is a prerequisite for in-residence credits already received. A student repeating a course in which D+ through D was previously earned will receive honor points but no additional credit toward a degree. The course appears on the transcript with the notation "Repetition." Repetition of a course in which an E, F, or U grade was originally earned produces both credits toward a degree, and honor points for courses elected on the graded pattern; there is no special transcript notation. In all such cases, the first election and grade earned remain on the transcript. The grades earned by repetition of courses are not averaged and posted as a single entry; they are posted as separate elections.
The Term Grade Point Average is determined by dividing the total number of Michigan Semester Hours (MSH) elected during a term into the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned during the same term. The Cumulative Grade Point Average is determined by dividing the total number of Michigan Semester Hours (MSH) into the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned. Notations of Q, Y, I, X, and NR are not initially calculated into the term or cumulative grade point averages. Notations of I, X and NR, if unresolved by the end of the fourth week of the next fall or winter term in residence or by an approved extension deadline in the case of an I or X, lapse to E and are computed into both the term and cumulative grade point averages, if the course was a graded election.
To be in good academic standing, a student must earn at least a 2.0 term grade point average and a 2.0 cumulative grade point average. If a student fails to accomplish this, the "honor point deficit" can be determined by multiplying the Michigan Semester Hours (MSH) elected by 2.0 and subtracting the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned. Only honor points earned in courses elected at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Dearborn, or Flint campus) may affect the grade point average.
At the end of each term and half term the Office of Academic Actions reviews the transcripts of all LS&A students showing evidence of academic difficulty. The College uses three major types of actions: Action Pending, Probation, and Dismissal.
Action Pending (AP) is assigned when a student's academic record for a term just concluded is incomplete and the student is in danger of completing the term with less than a 2.0 grade point average. The transcript is reviewed again when final grades have been reported or after incomplete grades have lapsed. This review normally takes place during the fifth week of a student's next fall or winter term in residence. If all incomplete work has not been finished, or if it has been finished with grades that result in a grade point average below a 2.0, a student will be placed on Probation.
Probation (P) is assigned to all students in the College whose term grade point average falls below 2.0 for the first time but not severely enough to justify dismissal. Students are placed on probation whenever the term grade point average falls below a 2.0 during a term or half term, regardless of the number of courses or credits elected or whether the cumulative grade point average remains above a 2.0. There is no automatic term of probation. A significant honor point deficit in a single term or half term can result in dismissal from the College even though a student's cumulative grade point average remains above a 2.0.
Probation Continued (PC) typically is assigned when a student on probation has earned a term grade point average above a 2.0 even though the cumulative grade point average of 2.0 has not yet been achieved. Probation Continued might also be assigned if a probationary student has a term average of exactly 2.0 or slightly below 2.0, so long as members of the Academic Actions Board feel that the student is making minimum progress toward fulfilling degree and program requirements.
Raised Probation (RP) officially confirms that a student has completed a probationary term with better than a 2.0 grade point average and that a student's cumulative grade point average is at least a 2.0.
Normally, during a fall or winter term, the conditions for a student on Probation or Probation Continued are that all courses in the ensuing term will be completed by the end of the term with a term grade point average greater than 2.0. Specific conditions of probation are stated in a letter which notifies the student of the action taken by the College.
All students placed on probation are urged to discuss their academic problems with an academic advisor or a Member of the Academic Actions Board and to take full advantage of College and University resources to assist them in improving their level of academic performance.
Students may be dismissed from the College (1) for incurring a significant honor point deficit in a single term or half term, (2) for failure to make satisfactory progress toward a degree, or (3) for any other reason deemed sufficient under the academic discipline policies of the LS&A Academic Actions Board.
The Academic Actions Board maintains more liberal policies for freshmen than for other students because of the adjustment problems encountered by many freshmen. As a general rule, unless there is a significant honor point deficit the first term, freshmen are placed on probation and are permitted a second term of enrollment to improve their level of academic performance. Similarly, transfer students are given special consideration unless the first term's work in residence shows marked inability to meet the academic standards of the College. However, there is no automatic, one-term probation period before a student may be dismissed from the College.
Not to Register without Permission of the Academic Actions Board (NTR) is a dismissal action taken when a student's academic performance during a term indicates evidence of serious academic difficulty. The College may also take a Not to Register action if a student's overall grade point average falls below a 2.0 in courses required for a concentration. Students may appeal a Not to Register action, and such appeals require an interview with a Member of the Academic Actions Board and a written petition. The purpose of the conversation is to discuss the reasons for the action taken by the College and for a student's poor academic performance. All factors bearing upon a student's academic record are examined during this interview, and the opportunity exists for a student to disclose all circumstances that affected the level of academic performance. A student may then submit a written petition for reinstatement.
The petition should reflect a student's insight into the causes and resolution of past academic difficulties and should be submitted at least four weeks prior to the term for which a student is requesting readmission. In reaching a decision, Members of the Academic Actions Board carefully consider a student's academic promise and any special circumstances that may have contributed to past unsatisfactory academic performance. Students who have received a Not to Register action are permitted one appeal for reinstatement to the College for a given term.
The College acknowledges the superior academic achievement of its students in a variety of ways. These include the awarding of class Honors, special awards, Honors at graduation, election to national honor societies, the LS&A Scholarship Program, and departmental academic awards. Transfer credit does not count for Honors.
Students who elect a minimum of 28 credits in courses taken on the Ann Arbor campus during a calendar year (January 1 through December 31) including a minimum 20 credits elected on a graded basis, and who earn a 3.5 grade point average are eligible for Class Honors. Incoming freshmen and transfer students who elect a minimum 14 credits during the fall term, including a minimum of 10 graded, and who earn at least a 3.5 G.P.A. are also eligible for Class Honors. This distinction is posted on a student's transcript by the Registrar's Office, and recipients of this honor are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation. The criteria for awarding Class Honors are currently under review and are subject to change.
James B. Angell Scholars are students who earn all A+, A, or A grades for two or more consecutive terms based on a minimum 12 graded credits elected each term; all other grades must be P, S, or CR. Terms of fewer than 12 credits completed with grades of A+, A, A, P, S, or CR enable a student to maintain standing as an Angell Scholar. Any other grades earned during a full or half term make a student ineligible for this honor. This distinction is posted on a student's transcript by the Registrar's Office, and recipients of this honor are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation.
Students in the top 5% of the freshman class are eligible for this honor, administered by the Office of the Registrar, if they have earned at least 14 graded credits at Michigan. A book with an inscribed nameplate is presented to each student, and a notation is made on the official transcript, and recipients of this award are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation.
Degrees with distinction are awarded on the basis of rank in class. Students who have completed at least 58 credits in residence, at least 45 of which are "graded" (A+ to D), and rank in the top 3% of their class are recommended for a degree "with highest distinction." Those students who rank in the top 10% of their class but not in the top 3% are recommended for a degree "with high distinction." Those students who rank in the top 25% of their class but not in the top 10% are recommended for a degree "with distinction." The average cutoffs for the past six years are approximately: 3.82 to 4.00 (highest distinction), 3.64 to 3.81 (high distinction), and 3.40 to 3.63 (distinction). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.
Students who have completed at least 58 credits in residence and have demonstrated high academic achievement and capacity for independent work in a department or degree program may be recommended for a degree "with highest Honors," "with high Honors," or "with Honors" in the field of concentration. Capacity for independent work must be demonstrated in part by superior performance in an Honors program or some achievement of equivalent character. A minimum overall grade point average of 3.0 is required. A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.
Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is the oldest scholastic society in America. Up to four per cent of each year's graduating seniors, and a very few juniors of the highest scholastic ranking, in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts may be invited to join Phi Beta Kappa. Seniors with outstanding achievements in the liberal arts in other schools and colleges of the University of Michigan may be invited to join if they have earned at least forty-five credits in LS&A. Transfer students with superior academic records in the liberal arts and at least forty-five credits earned in LS&A may also receive invitations to join.
Invitations to membership in the national Phi Beta Kappa Society are issued by the local chapter, taking into account achievement in the liberal arts as indicated by a student's cumulative grade point average, numerical rank, and percentile rank. Letter grades reported for Pass/Fail courses will be used in estimating such rankings.
Each year the College awards a number of scholarships to students enrolled for at least one full term. In general, these scholarships are awarded on the basis of high scholastic performance and demonstrated financial need. Applications for LS&A Scholarships are available from 1402 Mason Hall.
Awards that recognize superior academic performance in the area of concentration are described in the departmental/program information in Chapter VI.
The College's Academic Judiciary has been established to adjudicate cases of alleged academic misconduct by students in the College.
The Judiciary sees a mutual student and instructor responsibility to be clear on the community's values for scholarship. An instructor has the responsibility to make clear what academic dishonesty is and to help his or her students understand what uses may be made of the work of others and under what conditions. A student is responsible for becoming familiar with the Code of Academic Conduct (see below) and for discovering the sort of conduct which will be viewed as an attack upon the community's values.
Procedures to be followed in judiciary hearings are detailed in the "Academic Judiciary Manual of Procedures," available from the Assistant Dean of Student Academic Affairs, 1402 Mason Hall. If the instructor who filed the charges is unable personally to be present for the hearing, a conference call with the professor will be arranged at the time of the hearing. If such a call is not possible, the charges will be dropped.
Suggestions to students: The Academic Judiciary regards its function as that of providing a full hearing of any charges of academic dishonesty. Students who are charged with academic dishonesty by an instructor, administrator, or another student may be assured that they have the right to a fair hearing of the charges and the evidence, the right to confront and cross-examine their accusers, to invite witnesses on their behalf, and to introduce whatever other evidence may be relevant to the charge. Appeals are accepted only on procedural, not on substantive, grounds. An appeal for clemency may be made to a three-member appeal panel only in the case of expulsion or suspension.
Any disposition of a charge against a student by the Academic Judiciary does not foreclose the possibility of a civil or criminal suit, if appropriate under the laws of the State of Michigan. The judiciary's charge is to uphold the scholarly values of the University community; punishment of civil crimes remains with the state courts.
The College, like all communities, functions best when its members treat one another with honesty, fairness, respect, and trust. Therefore, an individual should realize that deception for the purpose of individual gain is an offense against the members of the community. Such dishonesty includes:
Plagiarism: submitting a piece of work (for example an essay, research paper, assignment, laboratory report) which in part or in whole is not entirely the student's own work without attributing those same portions to their correct source.
Cheating: using unauthorized notes, or study aids, or information from another student or student's paper on an examination; altering a graded work after it has been returned, then submitting the work for re-grading; and allowing another person to do one's work and to submit the work under one's own name.
Double Submission of Papers: Submitting or resubmitting substantially the same paper for two or more classes in the same or different terms without the express approval of each instructor.
Fabrication: presenting data in a piece of work which were not gathered in accordance with guidelines defining the appropriate methods for collecting or generating data and failing to include a substantially accurate account of the method by which the data were gathered or collected.
Aiding and Abetting Dishonesty: providing material or information to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Falsification of Records and Official Documents: altering documents affecting academic records; forging signature of authorization or falsifying information on an official academic document, election form, grade report, letter of permission, petition, or any document designed to meet or exempt a student from an established College or University academic regulation; unauthorized or malicious interference/tampering with computer property.
When a complainant believes that academic dishonesty may have taken place, he or she may present the evidence to the Academic Judiciary. The judiciary must determine whether the evidence is admissible; in the event it is not, the case shall be dismissed; if the evidence is admissible, the judiciary must determine whether the evidence is sufficient; if the evidence is insufficient, the case shall be dismissed. If the evidence is sufficient, the defendant is adjudged guilty of the infraction, and the judiciary must then determine whether the infraction was major or minor. (For examples of major infractions, see the Academic Judiciary Manual of Procedures, available in 1402 Mason Hall or in the Office of the University Ombudsman.) Major infractions carry a minimum one-term suspension from the College, the Fall or Winter term after the hearing; additional sanctions are possible.
Other Grievance Procedures. Students also have non-judicial means to redress other grievances. (1) Students may appeal any supposed act of unfair or improper grading through the grievance procedure established by that department or program of the College; students may contact the Assistant Dean for Student Academic Affairs for information and assistance; and (2) students may register a complaint with the Office of the University Ombudsperson who is empowered to assist a student in seeking just treatment through whatever College or University procedure may be appropriate.