93-94 LS&A Bulletin

English Language and Literature

7609 Haven Hall


Professor Robert Weisbuch, Chair

Associate Professor Michael Schoenfeldt, Associate Chair

Associate Professor Karla Taylor, Graduate Chair

Associate Professor Anita Norich, Undergraduate Chair

Richard Meisler, Director of Composition

May be elected as a departmental concentration program


William F. Alexander, Film, Pedagogy, American Literature

Richard W. Bailey, Language, Composition

Leonard Barkan, Renaissance Literature, History and Theory of Art, Literary Theory

Charles Baxter, Creative Writing

George Bornstein, Modern Literature, 19th Century Literature

Enoch Brater, Drama

John Russell Brown, Drama, Theatre

Nicholas F. Delbanco, Creative Writing

Cecil D. Eby, American Literature

Julie K. Ellison, American Literature

Hubert M. English, Renaissance Literature

Daniel N. Fader, Pedagogy, Composition

Lincoln B. Faller, 18th Century Literature, Fiction

Russell A. Fraser, Renaissance Literature

Alice Fulton, Creative Writing

Anne Gere, Composition, Pedagogy

James J. Gindin, Fiction, Modern Literature

Laurence A. Goldstein, 19th Century Literature, Creative Writing

Alan B. Howes, Pedagogy, 18th Century Literature

William H. Ingram, Renaissance Literature

Ejner J. Jensen, Renaissance Literature

Lemuel A. Johnson, Modern Literature, Creative Writing

John R. Knott, Renaissance Literature

Ira Konigsberg, Fiction, Film, Critical Theory

John R. Kucich, 19th Century Literature, Critical Theory

Robert T. Lenaghan, Medieval Literature

Marjorie Levinson, Romantic and Victorian British Poetry, Critical Theory

Robert E. Lewis, Medieval Literature

Stuart Y. McDougal, Comparative Literature, Modern Literature

James McIntosh, American Literature

Leo F. McNamara, Medieval Literature, Irish Literature

Eric S. Rabkin, Critical Theory, Modern Literature

Jay L. Robinson, Language, Composition, Medieval Literature

Tobin Siebers, Critical Theory, 19th Century Literature

Richard W. Tillinghast, Creative Writing

Martha J. Vicinus, 19th Century Literature

Alan M. Wald, American Literature

Robert A. Weisbuch, American Literature, 19th Century Literature

James B. White, Composition

Ralph G. Williams, Renaissance Literature, Critical Theory

James A. Winn, 18th Century Literature

Associate Professors

Michael Awkward, African-American Literature, American Literature

Peter M. Bauland, Drama

Walter H. Clark, Pedagogy, Creative Writing

Emily L. Cloyd, 18th Century Literature

Richard D. Cureton, Language

Jonathan Freedman, Cultural Theory, Film, 19th Century American and British Literature

Simon Gikandi, Critical Theory, Modern Literature

Anne Herrmann, Modern Literature

June Howard, American Literature

Kerry C. Larson, American Literature

Frances K. McSparran, Medieval Literature

Steven Mullaney, Renaissance Literature

Anita Norich, 19th Century Literature, Jewish American and Yiddish Literature

William Paul, Film, Comedy, Popular Culture and Drama

Marlon Ross, 19th Century Literature

Michael C. Schoenfeldt, Renaissance Literature

Macklin Smith, Medieval Literature

Steven Sumida, Asian-American Literature, American Literature

Karla Taylor, Medieval Literature

Thomas E. Toon, Language, Composition, Medieval Literature

John W. Wright, 19th Century Literature, Creative Writing

Patsy Yaeger, Women’s Studies, American Literature, Literary Theory

Assistant Professors

David Artis, 18th Century British Literature, African-American Literature

Elizabeth Barnes, Colonial and 19th Century American Literature

Betty Louise Bell, Native American Literature

Christopher Flint, 18th Century British fiction

Linda Gregerson, Renaissance Literature

Veronica Gregg, Caribbean and African-American Literature, Feminist Criticism

Sandra Gunning, African-American Literature, American Literature

Jim Hynes, Creative Writing

Andrea Henderson, Romanticism and 18th and 19th Century British Fiction

Anne Krook, 18th Century Literature

Juan Leon, Modern Literature

Thylias Moss, Creative Writing

Adela Pinch, 19th Century Literature

Sally Robinson, Contemporary Fiction and Feminist Theory

Jill Rosser, Creative Writing

P. A. Skantze, Drama

John O. Tanke, Medieval Literature

Rei Terada, Modern Poetry, African-American and Caribbean Literature

Theresa Tinkle, Medieval Literature

Athena Vrettos, Victorian Literature

John Whittier-Ferguson, Modern Literature

Rafia Zafar, African-American Literature, American Literature

Visiting Professors

Nancy Milford, American Literature, Biography


Lillian Back, Composition

Susan Carlton, Composition Theory, Critical Theory

Robert Chrisman, African-American Literature

Tish O’Dowd Ezekiel, Creative Writing

Rosemary Kowalski, Composition, Film, American Literature

Jackie Livesay, Composition

John Rubadeau, Composition, Composition Theory

Merla Wolk, Composition

Mary Zwiep, 20th Century Literature

Adjunct Associate Professors

Gorman Beauchamp, Modern Literature

Richard Meisler

Adjunct Assistant Professor

Hilary Cohen, Theatre

Professors Emeriti John W. Aldridge, John Arthos, Arno L. Bader, Sheridan Baker, Herbert Barrows, Joseph J Blotner, William Coles, Edmund H. Creeth, A. Stephen Dunning, Thomas J. Garbaty, Morris Greenhut, Robert Haugh, Donald Hill, Bert G. Hornback, Frank Huntley, Harold King, Lyall H. Powers, John Reidy, Warner G. Rice, William Steinhoff, Robert Super, Bernard Van't Hul, Carlton F. Wells.

The Department of English focuses primary attention on the analysis and enjoyment of works of imaginative literature. Drawing on the rich variety of texts produced over the last millennium and a half in diverse forms of English from every part of the globe, our courses aim at a subtle and flexible understanding of the content of these texts and a sensitive appreciation of their style and form.

The interests the Department addresses and the studies it sponsors, however, range far beyond the study of imaginative literature. Its courses offer instruction in writing, including exposition and creative writing, whether prose fiction, poetry, or drama. The English language itself, its history, structure, and diverse traditions of use, is the focus of yet other courses. Still others focus on literary theory, examining strategies of literary interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation and considering the ways in which literary texts relate to other forms of cultural representation.

One special feature of this English Department is the number of courses it offers jointly with other Programs in the College. Women’s Studies, for example, the Center for Afro-American and African Studies, American Culture, Studies in Religion, Comparative Literature, and Film and Video Studies; the varieties of materials and the diverse background and interests of students involved in such courses present extraordinary opportunities for intellectual growth.

The present study of literature has returned with particular force and new point to a very old consideration--that language and literature are necessarily understood as social products and agents, deeply implicated in the processes and questions that interest and, at times, agitate society more generally. These issues as represented in texts--issues of ethics, of political order, of economic and ethnic difference, of gender, of systems of belief--recur as a regular feature of discussion in many of our courses.

The following paragraphs describe typical patterns of study in the Department and indicate the various ways in which a student can, with much opportunity for individual initiative, form a challenging and rewarding concentration within it.

Degree Program Options. The Department of English Language and Literature offers four main routes toward the concentration. (1) the General Program; (2) the Honors Program; (3) the Alternative Honors Program; and (4) the Creative Writing Program. Students electing any of these may work simultaneously toward a secondary school teaching certificate.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Students who wish to concentrate in English must elect as prerequisite to work in the major two courses, English 239 (What is Literature?) and English 240 (Introduction to Poetry).

The General Program. Students in the General Program must successfully complete 27 credits in English courses numbered 300 or above. These courses must include at a minimum: three courses on literature written primarily before 1830, at least one of which must be on literature written primarily before 1600; one course in American literature; and one course designated "New Traditions," focusing on the cultural traditions of women, minority ethnic groups, and people of color. The Department will offer in any one term a considerable range of courses designed to fulfill these requirements. A list of which courses fulfill a given requirement will be available each year in the English Undergraduate Office or from faculty concentration advisors.

In fulfilling this general pattern, students are urged to elect a course in Shakespeare--English 367, for example, which fulfills one of the pre-l830 requirements. Concentrators should note that no more than one course in expository or creative writing may be counted toward the minimum 27 credits at the upper level required for the concentration, although students may elect any number of such courses, subject to availability of spaces and to College limits on total elections of courses in any one department. Also, no more than six upper-level credits of Independent Study may count towards the concentration. With written prior approval by an English concentration advisor, courses elected in other departments or programs may on occasion be used as part of a concentration plan.

Students considering the major in English should elect English 239 and English 240 during the sophomore year. Then, while keeping an eye to fulfilling the concentration requirements, they may elect such a pattern of courses as will provide the course of study they find most helpful and satisfying. Some organize their study in terms of the "periods" of literary/cultural history, others by reference to major thematic concerns; still others explore repeatedly certain literary forms--the novel, drama, or lyric poetry, for example; others make a special study of film. Some concentrate on their own imaginative writing, whether drama, prose fiction, or verse.

The Honors Program. Students interested in the Honors Program should consult with, and be admitted by, the Honors concentration advisor before the end of March of the sophomore year. The Honors curriculum offers well-qualified students (approximately 30 each year) a unified program of study in English literature. The program attempts to impart a thorough knowledge of major writers, to develop informed and independent critical judgment, and to provide opportunity for individual achievement through the development of personal interests. All Honors candidates should elect the Honors survey sequence consisting of English 391, 392, 393, and 394 during the junior year, and English 493, 494, 495, and 496 during the senior year. These courses are generally elected two per term for four consecutive terms. A course designated "New Traditions" and either a course in Shakespeare (English 367) or an upper level course in American literature are also required. Students are advised to take all three. Honors candidates choose a tutor at the beginning of the senior year, and are required to write an essay of 30-40 pages on a topic chosen by the student and approved by the tutor. The essay is presented in March of the senior year. In April of the senior year, Honors candidates must take an examination based on material read throughout the program. The essay and the examination together comprise the content of English 496.

The Alternate Honors Program. Well-qualified students who wish to design their own programs to suit a special interest may enroll in an Alternative Honors Program; approximately fifteen students are admitted to the Program each year. The student must submit a 500-word statement of intent and a tentative list of proposed courses, prepared with and co-signed by a departmental faculty member. The concentration plan should be submitted to the English Alternative Honors Committee by November 1 of the student’s junior year, though in exceptional cases the plan may be considered after that date. The proposed concentration must total at least 36 credits, 30 in English and 6 in cognate courses. All courses proposed for the concentration must be numbered 300 and above and must include, in addition to the pattern described above for the General Program, a three-credit senior thesis (English 496). The senior thesis, due in mid-March of the student’s senior year, is to be directed by a departmental faculty member and consists of a 40-50 page essay on a topic of the student’s choice. In April of the senior year, each Alternative Honors student will be given an hour-long oral examination concerning the thesis.

The Creative Writing Subconcentration. English concentrators in their junior year who wish to specialize in the writing of poetry, prose fiction, or drama may apply to the Creative Writing subconcentration, which is an optional path to a bachelor of arts degree in English. Students in the program take the creative writing workshops in sequence, and in their last term compile a major manuscript of poetry, prose fiction, or drama under the supervision of creative writing faculty. The program is necessarily small and highly selective; students may also independently pursue their interest in creative writing by applying to the appropriate upper-level workshops. Those students who have at least a 3.5 GPA may apply for Creative Writing Honors after they have been accepted to the subconcentration. Honors will be awarded, as warranted, on the basis of the thesis and an analytic paper on a literary issue relating to the student’s own work.

The Teaching Certificate. English concentrators in any of the programs above may also apply to be granted a teaching certificate. Students in the General Program must elect, in addition to the pattern of courses there prescribed, a course in composition (normally English 325) and a course in English language (normally English 305). Honors candidates must elect English 305 in addition to the courses required for their program.

The general requirements for a teaching certificate are described elsewhere in this Bulletin, and are available from the School of Education Office of Academic Services. A brochure summarizing these requirements is available in the English Office. Application to the certificate program itself must be made through the School of Education.

Junior-Senior Writing Requirement. Concentrators in English may fulfill this requirement by appropriate modification of any 300- or 400-level course in the College approved for this purpose. Within the Department, English 301, 302, 329, 350, 351, 370, 371, and 417 are generally appropriate; in any given term, others may be. It is the responsibility of each student to modify the election appropriately at the time of registration. For those in the Honors and Creative Writing Programs, the writing requirement is met within their curriculum, which culminates in the supervised composition of the senior thesis.

The Creative Writing Sequence. Those students who especially wish to develop their abilities as writers, but who may not wish to undertake the subconcentration in Creative Writing, should note the possibilities offered by the sequence of workshop courses in creative writing. English 223 is the beginning course in the writing of fiction, poetry, and drama. It is offered each term in many sections. English 227 is a beginning course in playwriting. English 323 provides an opportunity for further work, with sections dealing with the writing of poetry or prose. English 423 (fiction), 427 (drama), and 429 (poetry) afford students concentrated writing experience at an advanced level. Admission to the 300- and 400-level courses requires permission of the instructor, which may be earned by submission of manuscripts of previous work.

Courses in Expository Writing. Courses in writing develop a student’s sense of the power and of the various possible forms of expression. Writing practice, lectures, and class discussion are supplemented in these courses by regular meetings with the instructor. Sections of English 225, 325, and 425 are limited to 22 students. The first of these courses includes a great variety of writing projects while sections of the upper-level courses tend to be somewhat more specialized. English 301 and 302 are often used by concentrators in disciplines other than English to fulfill the junior-senior writing requirement. These course are offered in a lecture format supplemented by individual consultation with course assistants.

Half-Term Information. It is difficult to anticipate the offerings for Spring/Summer terms. English 124, 125, 223, 225, 239, 240, 370, 371, 372, and 417 are frequently offered. Other courses are offered when they can be staffed, and when there is demand. Half-term courses normally carry one fewer credit than comparable courses offered during the Fall and Winter terms.

Repeating Courses for Credit. Some of the courses listed below are general titles under which varied topics may be offered. Such courses may be repeated for credit with departmental permission. Most of the courses available for re-election are signalled below. Students must obtain the proper approval form from the English Office, 7609 Haven Hall, and return it for approval within the first two weeks of class. If students should wish to elect one of these courses more than twice, or if they wish to elect again for credit a course not designated below as regularly available for re-election, they should consult with the Undergraduate Administrator, 7609 Haven Hall.

Advising. Students are encouraged to discuss their academic program and related concerns with an English concentration advisor. Appointments are scheduled through LS&A Academic Advising, 1213 Angell Hall (764-0330). For questions of immediate concern or general questions about the concentration, students may speak with the Undergraduate Administrator on a walk-in or appointment basis by phoning 764-6330 or by coming to 7609 Haven Hall.

Declaring an English Concentration. The Department sponsors a bi-weekly meeting for students to get more information about the curriculum and to declare their concentration. Students should LS&A Academic Advising, 1213 Angell Hall (764-0330) for the specific times of these meetings.

The Avery and Jule Hopwood Awards in Creative Writing. Under the terms of the will of Avery Hopwood, a member of the Class of 1905, the annual income from a generous endowment fund is distributed in prizes for creative work in four fields: dramatic writing, fiction, poetry, and the essay. Competition is open to qualified students enrolled in any school or college of the University. Entrants must, however, be enrolled in a designated writing course elected through the Department of English Language and Literature, Residential College, Department of Communication, or the Department of Theatre and Drama. For full information about the conditions of competition contact the Hopwood Program Associate, 1006 Angell Hall, 764-6296.

Student Organizations. English concentrators are encouraged to join the Undergraduate English Association (UEA). The group works closely with the Department in planning activities which serve to strengthen student affiliations with one another, the faculty, and the Department as a whole. Student representatives to the Undergraduate Curriculum Committee are elected from the membership of this group. Mass meetings are held within the first two weeks of each term. For further information contact the Undergraduate Office, 7609 Haven Hall.

Courses in English Language and Literature (Division 361)

124. College Writing: Writing and Literature. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

125. College Writing. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

217. Literature Seminar. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU).

220. Intensive Writing. Open to junior and senior transfer students only. Students must take the ECB Writing Assessment before registering for this course. (2). (Introductory Composition). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

223. Creative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

224. The Uses of Language. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (HU).

225. Argumentative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

226. Directed Writing. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.

227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (HU).

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

245/Res. College Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

274/CAAS 274. Introduction to Afro-American Literature. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

280. Thematic Approaches to Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

285. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Literature. (3). (HU).

299. Directed Study. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

301. The Power of Words. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

302. Writing About Good Books. (4). (Excl).

305. Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

308. History of the English Language. (3). (HU).

309. American English. (3). (HU).

310. Discourse and Society. (3). (Excl).

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

316. Intellectual Problems in Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

317. Literature and Culture. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

320/CAAS 338. Literature in Afro-American Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

323. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

329. Practical English. (4). (Excl).

340. Reading and Writing Poetry. (3). (Excl).

350. Literature in English to 1660. (4). (Excl).

351. Literature in English after 1660. (4). (Excl).

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

368. Shakespeare's Principal Plays, II. II. (4). (HU).

370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

371. Studies in Literature, 1600-1830. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

372. Studies in Literature, 1830-Present. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

391. Honors Survey: Medieval English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

392. Honors Survey: Renaissance English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

393. Honors Survey: Eighteenth-Century English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

394. Honors Survey: History of Literary Theory. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

401/GNE 481/Rel. 481. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

406/Ling. 406. Modern English Grammar. (3). (Excl).

407. Topics in Language and Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

408/Ling. 408. Varieties of English. (3). (Excl).

411. Art of the Film. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

412/Film-Video 412. Major Directors. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

413/Film-Video 413. Film Genres and Types. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

415. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

416/Hist. 487/Women's Studies 416. Women in Victorian England. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. May not be repeated for credit. (4). (Excl).

423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

425. Advanced Essay Writing. Open only to seniors and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

426. Directed Writing. Junior standing and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

427. Playwriting. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

428. Senior Writing Tutorial. English 223, 323, and 423/429 or equivalent (3). (Excl).

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

430. The Rise of the Novel. (4). (Excl).

431. The English Novel from Dickens to Conrad. (4). (Excl).

432. The American Novel. (4). (Excl).

433. The Modern Novel. (4). (Excl).

434. The Contemporary Novel. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

440. Modern Poetry. (3). (Excl).

441. Contemporary Poetry. (3). (Excl).

442. History of Poetry. (3). (Excl).

443/Theatre 321. History of Theatre I. (3). (HU).

444/Theatre 322. History of Theatre II. (3). (HU).

445. Shakespeare's Rivals. (3). (Excl).

446. World Drama: Congreve to Ibsen. (3). (Excl).

447. Modern Drama. (3). (Excl).

448. Contemporary Drama. (3). (Excl).

449/Theatre 423. American Theatre and Drama. (3). (HU).

450. Medieval Drama. (3). (Excl).

455/MARC 455. Medieval English Literature. (3). (HU).

457/MARC 457. Renaissance English Literature. (3). (HU).

459. English Neoclassical Literature. (3). (Excl).

461. English Romantic Literature. (3). (Excl).

462. Victorian Literature. (3). (Excl).

463. Modern British Literature. (3). (Excl).

465/MARC 465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. (3). (Excl).

467. Topics in Shakespeare. Prior course work in Shakespeare is recommended. (3) (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

469. Milton. (3). (Excl).

470. Early American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

471. Nineteenth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

473. Topics in American Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

477/CAAS 475. Early Afro-American Literature. (3). (Excl).

478/CAAS 476. Contemporary Afro-American Literature. (3). (Excl).

479. Topics in Afro-American Literature. English 274 and/or 320 strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

484. Issues in Criticism. (3). (Excl).

486. History of Criticism. (3). (Excl).

489/Educ. D 440 (School of Education). Teaching of English. See School of Education Bulletin. (3). (Excl).

490. Reading, Writing and Criticism in the Teaching of English. Concurrent election of English 491/Educ. D491 and English 305. (7). (Excl).

491/Educ. D491. Teaching of English: Methods and Practicum. Concurrent election of English 305 and 490. (5). (Excl).

493. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Poetry. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

494. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Fiction. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

495. Honors Survey: The Twentieth Century. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

496. Honors Survey: Thesis and Comprehensive Examination. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

498. Directed Teaching. Permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

499. Directed Study. Junior standing; and permission of instructor. Not open to graduate students. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

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