93-94 LS&A Bulletin

Geological Sciences

1006 C.C. Little Building

764-1435

Professor Rob Van der Voo, Chair

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

Professors

Eric J. Essene, Metamorphic petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, chemical thermo-dynamics

William R. Farrand, Archaeological geology (especially sediment and stratigraphic analysis), geochronology of primitive sites

Daniel C. Fisher, Invertebrate paleontology, evolutionary functional morphology

Philip D. Gingerich, Vertebrate paleontology and mammalian evolution

Alexander N. Halliday, Isotope geochemistry

William C. Kelly, Economic mineral deposits; application of basic mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry to ore study

Stephen E. Kesler, Economic geology, exploration geology and geochemistry and the origin of base metal ore deposits

Philip A. Meyers, Organic geochemistry, paleoceanography, paleolimnology

Theodore C. Moore, Oceanography, Great Lakes geology, paleoclimatology

James R. O’Neil, Isotope geochemistry

Samuel I. Outcalt, Permafrost and physical geography

Robert M. Owen, Marine and lacustrine geology and geochemistry

Donald R. Peacor, Mineralogy, crystallographic studies of minerals

Henry N. Pollack, Geophysics, terrestrial heat flow, tectonic evolution of the earth

David K. Rea, Marine geology, oceanography, sedimentology, paleoclimatology

Gerald R. Smith, Paleontology, numerical taxonomy, ecological biogeography, biostratigraphy of fishes

Rob Van der Voo, Geophysics, paleomagnetism and its application to pre-Mesozoic plate tectonics

James C. G. Walker, Biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric evolution

Bruce H. Wilkinson, Sedimentary geology, ancient lacustrine and marine carbonates

Associate Professors

Kyger C Lohmann, Sedimentology, trace element and isotope geochemistry

Samuel B. Mukasa, Igneous petrology, isotope geochemistry

Larry J. Ruff, Geophysics, seismology

Bernardus van der Pluijm, Structural geology

Lynn M. Walter, Aqueous geochemistry, sedimentary diagenesis

Assistant Professors

Michael J. Foote, Paleontology

Michael C. Gurnis, Geodynamics

Rebecca Lange, Igneous petrology, volcanology

Daniel McShea, Paleontology

Kenji Satake, Geophysics, seismology

Youxue Zhang, Mineral physics, chemical thermodynamics

Adjunct Professors

Michael W. McElhinny (Australia), Paleomagnetism and geomagnetism

William B. Simmons (Univ. New Orleans), Minerology and petrology

Professors Emeriti Charles B. Beck, Paul L. Cloke, Donald F. Eschman, Edwin N. Goddard, Robert V. Kesling, and James Lee Wilson

The Department of Geological Sciences offers: (1) a General Concentration Program in Geological Sciences, for students whose interest in the geological sciences as a form of cultural endeavor serves as the basis of a liberal education; (2) a Professional Concentration Program in Geological Sciences, for those seeking professional training in geological sciences; (3) a Teacher’s Certificate Program, for prospective science teachers who are candidates for a secondary teaching certificate in earth science and general science; (4) an Oceanography Concentration Program, for those seeking professional training in oceanography; and (5) Honors Concentrations. Each concentration program option is briefly described; detailed descriptions are available from the department.

Upperclass Writing Requirement. The College of Literature, Science, and the Arts requires that every upperclass concentrator satisfy an upperclass writing requirement in the department and field of concentration before graduation. The writing program which satisfies this requirement in the Department of Geological Sciences is explained in detail in a publication which every concentrator should obtain from the departmental office immediately upon entering any of the departmental concentration programs. Additional explanation may be obtained from Professor Stephen E. Kesler (4022 C.C. Little Building, 763-5057).

Advising and Advance Approval of Program and Elections. A concentration plan in geological sciences or oceanography is developed in consultation with a concentration advisor. A proposed plan must be approved in its entirety by the appropriate advisor prior to registration for the first term of concentration. Thereafter, progress through the plan and future elections must be reviewed, and approved in advance, whenever a change is proposed and in any case no less frequently than at the beginning of each new academic year of residence. Certification that the plan has been, or will be, carried to successful completion must also be obtained from the advisor, on an official LS&A Concentration Release form, immediately prior to submission of the application for the degree.

Information about concentration program options in geological sciences and about appointments with concentration advisors is available at 1006 C.C. Little.

Teaching Certificate Program. The Department of Geological Sciences offers prospective secondary school science teachers an opportunity to earn a bachelor’s degree from the College with a concentration in geological sciences while satisfying the requirements for a provisional secondary school teaching certificate with a major in earth science or general science.

This concentration program requires a minimum 25 credits of courses in geological sciences, including 8 credits of introductory geology (G.S. 117 or 120 and another course, or G.S. 116, or the equivalent); G.S. 231, 305, 310, and 351. Students choosing this program must elect either Program 1, an earth science major and a general science minor; or Program 2, a general science major and an earth science minor, as they are defined by the School of Education; the general requirements for a secondary teaching certificate are described elsewhere in this Bulletin. An outline with specific information about the major and minor in earth science, general science, and the other teaching certificate requirements should be obtained from the School of Education Office of Academic Services.

Either program requires Astronomy 111 and 112, or Astronomy 160 and 204; Biology 195 or the equivalent; Two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230; and Physics 125/127 or 140/141. In addition, Program 1 requires Mathematics 215 and 216, and Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences (College of Engineering) 304, 305, 308, and 309; Program 2 requires one term of mathematics (preferably Mathematics 115 or 116), a two-term sequence in Biology, Physics 125/127 and 126/128 or Physics 140/141 and 240/241, Physiology 101, and Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences 202 (or Geological Sciences 201) and 203, or Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences 304, 305, and 308. Interested students should consult the teaching certificate advisor as early as possible.

Summer Field Courses. A summer field course (G.S. 440) is offered at Camp Davis, the University’s Rocky Mountain Field Station near Jackson, Wyoming, where geologic structures, sedimentary strata, fossils, and igneous and metamorphic rocks are well exposed. This experience provides a type of training and direct observation not paralleled by any course work offered by the department during the regular academic year. The Department of Geological Sciences considers field instruction fundamental to its programs of study and requires this work of all students whose goal is professional specialization. It is strongly recommended to students electing the cultural concentration or a teaching certificate. Further information is available at 1006 C.C. Little.

The department also offers an introductory course in geological sciences (G.S. 116) at Camp Davis. Although similar to introductory geological sciences courses taught on campus, this course offers students an opportunity for direct observation of geological phenomena. The course is open to any student in good health and good academic standing. Details are available at 1006 C.C. Little.

The Museum of Paleontology has many collections of American and foreign fossils arranged systematically and available for study to geological sciences students. More than 120,000 catalogued specimens are grouped in the fields of invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants. Some of the more striking paleontological specimens are on exhibit in the Hall of Evolution.

The Mineralogical Collections of the department include a study collection of minerals and rocks for use by advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Outstanding specimens and suites of minerals, crystals, rocks, and ores are on exhibit in hall cases in the C.C. Little Building (on floors 1-4).


Geological Sciences

May be elected as a departmental concentration program.

Prerequisites to Concentration. The General Concentration Program prerequisites include: College algebra and trigonometry, a laboratory course in introductory chemistry, and an introductory course with laboratory in geological sciences (G.S. 116, 117, or 120). These should be completed as soon as possible.

The Professional Concentration Program prerequisites are five, which also should be completed as soon as possible:

1. One introductory geological sciences course with laboratory from among G.S. 116, 117, 120.

2. One year of introductory chemistry with laboratory, ordinarily two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230.

3. One year of introductory physics with laboratory, preferably Physics 140/141 and 240/241. Concentrators certain to specialize in paleontology may substitute one term of physics with laboratory (ordinarily Physics 140/141) and one term of biology with laboratory which may be Biology 195 or the equivalent (e.g. Biology 152 and 154).

4. Two courses in college mathematics (ordinarily 115 and 116) covering at least the level and content of Mathematics 115 and 116.

5. Elements of Mineralogy (G.S. 231).

General Concentration Program. This program is designed to provide a broad background in the fundamental of Earth Science for students who intend to have careers in business, law and government and leads to a Bachelor of Arts degree. The concentration requires a minimum of 30 credits, including (1) GS 231, (2) either GS 305, 310, or 351, (3) at least 6 credits of approved science cognate courses, (4) 16 additional credits in Geological Science, of which at least 8 are in 300/400 level courses and no more than 3 are in half-term mini courses. Students interested in a professional career in Geological Science should follow the Professional Concentration Program.

Students interested in combining a background in geological sciences with preparation for professional school (e.g., business administration, law school, medical school) should consult an appropriate source for information about requirements for admission to those schools.

Professional Concentration Program. This program of study leads to a Bachelor of Science degree. The program is designed to prepare students for graduate study in the geological sciences and for later professional work.

The concentration program requirements are: G.S. 305, 310, 351, 440, and three additional geological sciences courses numbered at the 400 level. At least two of these must be elected from Group A but one may be elected from Group B.

A. G.S. 418, 420, and 422.

B. Any geological sciences courses numbered in the 400 level and from the list entitled "Primarily for Concentrators" except for research, seminar, and field courses. (Research, seminar, and field courses, however, are highly recommended as extra electives.)

C. In addition concentrators must elect 6 credits of advanced cognate courses. These must be above the prerequisite level, in chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, or some combination thereof, and must be approved in advance by the Professional Concentration Advisor. Students who are certain to specialize in paleontology may, with advance agreement of the advisor, elect an approved statistics course as advanced mathematics. Computing courses are not applicable as advanced cognates (but see below).

Honors Concentration. The Honors concentration consists of a series of special academic opportunities supplementary to the Professional Concentration Program. The Honors concentration is tailored to fit the needs and interests of individual students. Geological sciences 490 is elected for 1 credit during each of the four terms of the junior and senior years for (1) reading and discussion of the professional literature; (2) library research and reporting on a special research problem; (3) research as an assistant to a faculty member or as part of a graduate seminar; and (4) individual research and reporting on a problem or graduate seminar. The Honors concentration offers well-qualified students an opportunity to increase the breadth and depth of their undergraduate experience. To be eligible for the Honors concentration, students must have at least (1) a 3.25 grade point average in geological sciences courses elected in the department; and (2) a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0 at the time of acceptance. Students admitted to the Honors concentration complete the requirements for the Professional Concentration Program.

Ideally, the selection of candidates for Honors concentration is made at the beginning of the junior year, but qualified students may be admitted to the program as late as the end of the junior year. Interested students should contact the departmental office for referral to the Honors advisor, 1006 C.C. Little Building, 764-1435.


Oceanography

May be elected as a departmental concentration program.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Mathematics 115 and 116; Physics 140, 141, 240, and 241; Two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230; Biology 195 (or equivalent); and Introductory Geology (116, 117, 119, or 120) and Geological Sciences 231.

Concentration Program. All concentrators must complete Geological Sciences (G.S.) 222/223 and one course from among 305, 310, 351, and 418/419. All concentrators must also complete Mathematics 215, 216, and Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 425 as cognates to the concentration. Each concentrator must then also complete one of the following four options:

1. Marine Geology. 16-18 credits that must include G.S. 449 and the remaining credits chosen from 305, 310, 351, 415, 418/419, 420, 422, 430, 455, 466, 467, 470, 478, 479, 485, Biology 380, Chemistry 365, Natural Resources 438, and A.O.S.S. 440.

2. Marine Geophysics. 16-18 credits that must include G.S. 449 and the remaining credits chosen from 305, 310, 351, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, Chemistry 365, Mathematics 405, 450, 454, 471, and Natural Resources 438.

3. Marine Geochemistry. 16-18 credits that must include G.S. 478 and the remaining credits chosen from 305, 310, 415, 422, 430, 449, 455, 466, 473, 474, 479, 485, Chemistry 210/211, 215/216, 302, 340, 365, Biology 380, and Natural Resources 438.

4. Marine Biology/Paleobiology. 16-18 credits that must include Biology 380 and the remaining credits from G.S. 305, 418/419, 430, 437, 449, 456, 473, 478, 485, Biology 305, 381, 408, 411, 437, 438, 440, 483/484, Chemistry 365, and Natural Resources 438.


Courses in Geological Sciences (Division 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

100. Coral Reefs. (1). (NS).

101. Waves and Beaches. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 276. (1). (NS).

102. Energy from the Earth. (1). (NS).

103. Dinosaurs and Other Failures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 273. (1). (NS).

104. Ice Ages, Past and Future. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 275. (1). (NS).

105. Continents Adrift. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205. (1). (NS).

106. Fossils, Primates, and Human Evolution. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 125. (1). (NS).

107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205 or 271. (1). (NS).

108. Minerals in the Modern World. (1). (NS).

109. Natural and Unnatural Pollutants in Oceans, Lakes, and Rivers. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 206. (1). (NS).

110. The History of the Oceans. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 222. (1). (NS).

111. Climate and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 201 or 275. (1). (NS).

112. Geological History of Michigan. (1). (NS).

113. Planets and Moons. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 204 or 278. (1). (NS).

114. The Elements. High School math, physics, and chemistry. (1). (NS).

115. Geologic Time. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 135. (1). (NS).

116. Introductory Geology in the Field. Credit is not granted for G.S. 116 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology on campus (GS 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, or 218). IIIb at Camp Davis, Wyoming. (8). (NS).

117. Introduction to Geology. Credit is not granted for G.S. 117 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 118, 121, 122, or 218). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 119. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 117 for 4 credits. I and II. (5). (NS).

118. Introductory Geology Laboratory. Credit is not granted for Geol. 118 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 117, 121, 122, or 218). I and II. (2). (Excl).

119. Introductory Geology Lectures. Credit is not granted for G.S. 119 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 118, 121, 122, or 218). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 119 for 3 credits. I and II. (4). (NS).

120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments. Credit is not granted for G.S. 120 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology. II. (4). (NS).

123/AOSS 123. Life and the Global Environment. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 277. (2). (NS).

125. Evolution and Extinction. Those with credit for GS 106 may only elect GS 125 for 2 credits. May not be included in a concentration plan in geological sciences. (3). (NS).

135. History of the Earth. High school chemistry, physics and mathematics recommended. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 135 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Mankind. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 201 for 3 credits. I. (4). (NS).

204/AOSS 204/Astronomy 204. The Planets: Their Geology and Climates. High school mathematics through plane geometry and trigonometry. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 204 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

205. How the Earth Works: the Dynamic Planet. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117 or 119. No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 105 and 107. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 205 for 1 credit. (2). (NS).

206. How the Earth Works: the Water Cycle and Environment. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 206 for 1 credit. (2). (NS).

222. Introductory Oceanography. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203. (3). (NS).

223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in G.S. 222. (1). (NS).

231. Elements of Mineralogy. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry 125/130 or 210/211. I. (4). (Excl).

270. Plate Tectonics. (3). (NS).

271. Natural Hazards. Those with credit for GS 107 or 205 may only elect GS 278 for 2 credits. Those who have credit for both GS 107 and 205 may only elect 278 for 1 credit. (3). (NS).

272. Seminar: Environmental Geology. High school math and science. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 272 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

273. Contemporary Dinosaurs. Those with credit for GS 102 may only elect GS 273 for 2 credits. (3) (NS).

274. Seminar: What is Science Anyway? High school math and science. (3). (NS).

275. The Ice Ages: Past and Present. Those with credit for GS 104 may only elect GS 275 for 2 credits. I. (3). (NS).

276. Coastal Systems and Human Settlements. Those with credit for GS 101 may only elect GS 276 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

277. Humans and the Natural World. Those with credit for GS 123 may only elect GS 277 for 1 credit. (3). (NS).

278. Earthlike Planets. High school science and math recommended. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 278 for 2 credits. (3). (NS).

279/Environ. Stud. 359. Ocean Resources. High school science and math recommended. II. (3). (NS).

280/Environ. Stud. 360. Mineral Resources, Economics and the Environment. May not be included in a concentration plan in geology. II. (4). (NS).

401. Geology for Teachers. Eight credits of science including at least one course in chemistry, or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

411. Geology of Michigan. (3). (Excl).

417. Geology of the Great Lakes. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

B. Primarily for Concentrators

305. Sedimentary Geology. An introductory geological sciences laboratory course; or permission of the instructor. I. (4). (Excl).

310. Petrology. G.S. 231 and either an introductory geological sciences course or G.S. 351 to be elected prior to or concurrently with G.S. 310. II. (4). (Excl).

351. Structural Geology. G.S. 117 or 119 or the equivalent; or permission of instructor. II. (4). (Excl).

415. Introductory Economic Geology (Metals). G.S. 310, 351, or permission of instructor. I. (4). (Excl).

418. Paleontology. G.S. 117 (or the equivalent), or Biol. 105 or 114. I. (3). (Excl).

419. Paleontology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in G.S. 418. I. (1). (Excl).

420. Introductory Earth Physics. Math. 116. I. (3). (Excl).

422. Principles of Geochemistry. G.S. 231, 305, 310 and Chem. 125/130. II. (3). (Excl).

424 Introductory Cosmochemistry and Early Evolution of Planets. Math. 116, Phys. 126, and Chem. 130, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

430. Depositional Environments. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

432. Field Studies in Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

433. Field Studies in Economic Geology. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

434. Field Studies in Geophysics, Tectonics, and Structure. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

435. Field Studies in Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

436. Field Studies in Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Sedimentology. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

437. Evolution of Vertebrates. A course in general biology or historical geology. (4). (Excl).

438. Evolution of the Primates. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

439. Fossil Record and Evolution of Mammals. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

440. Field Course in Geology. Elementary trigonometry, G.S. 310 and 351, or the equivalent. IIIb at Camp Davis, Wyoming. (8). (Excl).

442. Geomorphology I: Non-Glacial and Soils. Junior/senior standing; an introductory course in physical geology is recommended but not required. I. (4). (Excl).

444. Soils and Their Development. An introductory geological sciences course or permission of instructor. I. (3). (Excl).

446/Geog. 499. Permafrost, Snow, and Ice. Math. 116 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

447. Archaeological Geology. G.S. 442 or 448, or equivalent, or permission of instructor; and one 300-level (or higher) course in anthropology or classical archaeology. II. (3). (Excl).

448. Geomorphology II: Glacial and Periglacial. An introductory physical geology course or permission of instructor. I. (4). (Excl).

449. Marine Geology. G.S. 222/223 or introductory physical geology. (3). (Excl).

455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials. One term of elementary chemistry and physics. II. (4). (Excl).

458. X-ray Analysis of Crystalline Materials. G.S. 455 or permission of instructor. II. (3). (Excl).

466. Computational Models of Geochemical Processes. Ability to program computers in the BASIC language and introductory course in a natural science. (3). (Excl).

467. Stratigraphy. G.S. 305, 310, and 351. I. (3). (Excl).

470. Sedimentary Petrology. G.S. 305. (4). (Excl).

473. Fundamentals of Organic Geochemistry. G.S. 305 or Chem. 215/216. (3). (Excl).

474. Advances in Organic Geochemistry. G.S. 305 or Chem. 215/216. (3). (Excl).

477. Hydrogeology. Math 116, Phys. 140/141, and Chem. 125/130. (3) (Excl).

478. Aqueous Geochemistry. Chem. 365 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

479. Marine Geochemistry. Chem. 125/130 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

480/AOSS 480. The Planets: Composition, Structure and Evolution. Math 216, Physics 240, and Chemistry 125/130. (3). (Excl).

483. Geophysics: Seismology. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 215 and Phys. 240; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

484. Geophysics: Physical Fields of the Earth. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 216 and Phys. 240, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

485. Computer Utilization in the Earth Sciences. Calculus and experience in computer programming are recommended. (3). (Excl).

486. Geodynamics. G.S. 420 and prior or concurrent election of Math. 215 and Physics 240 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

487. Seismology Laboratory. Permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

488. Physical Fields Laboratory. Permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

489. Geological Sciences Honors. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

490. Geological Sciences Honors. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

498. Research or Special Work. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

499. Research or Special Work. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

515. Tectonics of Oceans and Continents. G.S. 351. (4). (Excl).


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