93-94 LS&A Bulletin

Near Eastern Studies

3074 Frieze Building

764-0314

Professor Norman Yoffee, Chair

May be elected as a departmental program in Ancient and Biblical Studies, Hebrew Studies, Islamic Studies, Arabic, Iranian, or Turkish

Professors

James A. Bellamy, medieval Arabic literature, Arabic textual criticism, Arabic papyrology

Edna Amir Coffin, modern Hebrew language and literature

John Kolars, Geography and Ecology of the Near East and North Africa (retirement furlough)

Charles Krahmalkov, ancient Near Eastern languages

Trevor LeGassick, Arabic writings: imaginative, poetic, and non-fictional, 19th and 20th centuries

K. Allin Luther, Iranian history and civilization, classical Persian literature

Ernest N. McCarus, Arabic and Kurdish linguistics

Piotr Michalowski, Sumerian and Akkadian languages, literatures, and history; literary theory

Raji M. Rammuny, elementary Arabic instruction, advanced Arabic composition, colloquial Levantine Arabic, Arabic language teacher training

Gene Schramm, Semitic languages and linguistics

James Stewart-Robinson, modern Turkish and Ottoman (Turkish) language and literature

Gernot L. Windfuhr, Persian and Iranian linguistics and literature

Norman Yoffee, Assyriology, Mesopotamian civilizations, Near Eastern archaeology, anthropology

Associate Professors

Jarl Fossum, New Testament, Gnosticism, Samaritan studies, Jewish mysticism, Coptic

Elliot Ginsburg, Jewish thought

Assistant Professors

Marc Bernstein, modern Hebrew languages and literatures

Michael Bonner, medieval Islamic history

Brian Schmidt, Hebrew Bible, ancient Israelite religion and historiography

Adjunct Professor

Anton Shammas, Modern Mideastern literatures

Adjunct Associate Professors

Gary Beckman, Ancient Near Eastern history and Hittite language

Gabriele Boccaccini, Middle Judaism

Paul Walker,Islamic Studies

Adjunct Assistant Professor

Salim Khaldieh, Arabic language

Lecturer

Giora Etzion, Hebrew language

Professors Emeriti Andrew S. Ehrenkreutz, David Noel Freedman, George E. Mendenhall and Louis L. Orlin.

A concentration in Near Eastern Studies fits within the context of a broad liberal arts education.

The department offers instruction in the languages and literatures of the ancient, medieval, and modern Near East and in the history, religions, and civilizations of the Near East.

The modern languages normally offered are Arabic, Hebrew, Kurdish, Persian, and Turkish. These language courses develop skills and provide graded work in speaking, reading, and writing. Extensive use is made of recordings by native speakers, available in the language laboratory (2002 MLB).

Ancient language offerings include Akkadian, Aramaic, Avestan, Biblical Hebrew, Egyptian, Sumerian, Ugaritic and other Northwest Semitic languages. The department’s history, religions, and civilization courses are based primarily on materials written in the various languages, and trace the developments of Near Eastern peoples (Egyptians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hebrews, Iranians, etc.). They provide insight into the nature of the historical process as revealed through the study of epigraphic and archaeological evidence.

Courses are designed to meet the needs of non-specialists, as well as to provide a basis for advanced study of the languages, literatures, histories, religions, and civilizations of the Near East. The Department's Offerings represent only a part of the total number of University offerings devoted to the area. For related courses, applicants should consult listings in anthropology, economics, history, history of art, linguistics, philosophy, and political science. These listings are summarized in a brochure available from the Department of Near Eastern Studies or Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies (144 Lane Hall, 764-0350).

Concentration Programs. Near Eastern Studies offers concentrations in Ancient and Biblical Studies, Hebrew Studies, Islamic Studies, Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. These program concentrations require a minimum of 30 credits and are described below. A double concentration is possible for students interested in both Near Eastern Studies and another academic department.

Honors Concentration. The Honors concentration is open to second-term juniors who have obtained the permission of the concentration and Honors advisors. Candidates for Honors in Near Eastern Studies must meet all requirements for a regular concentration. In each of the last two terms they will take Near East 497 (Senior Honors Thesis) leading to the writing of a thesis. Further details are available in the departmental office.

Ancient and Biblical Studies. The division of Ancient and Biblical Studies offers instruction at the introductory to advanced levels in the languages, literatures, histories, and cultures of the ancient Near East (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, Israel, and Anatolia). The following languages are offered on a regular basis: Sumerian and Akkadian, Avestan, Egyptian, Ugaritic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Phoenician, Coptic, and Koine Greek. Courses on literature, history, culture cover such topics as myth, legend, and history writing, and cultural, political, and economic history, as well as magic, science, and religion.

Prerequisites to the concentration in Ancient and Biblical Studies are ABS 120 or 121 or 160. A minimum of 32 credits comprise a concentration in the division with a minimum of two terms of language required (four terms are highly encouraged) and NES 445 and 446. Both required and elective courses are evenly distributed over three subfields: language, literature, history and culture/religion. Three concentration tracks are provided as a means to enhance the intellectual focus of the student's course selection: Ancient Near East, Hebrew Bible, and New Testament. Guidelines for concentrators are available on request through the departmental office.

Hebrew Studies. The modern Hebrew program educates students in modern Hebrew language and literature, and also in earlier periods of literature, including Aramaic texts. The program also offers courses in the Program of Judaic Studies, in linguistics, comparative literature, political science, and history. Professional and research interests of the faculty in Hebrew include literary history and criticism, linguistics, translation, and several aspects of culture. The program prepares students for academic, government, and business careers as well as employment in Jewish community service.

Prerequisites to the concentration in Hebrew are Hebrew 201 and 202; recommended are History 383, 384, and Political Science 353 or Religion 201. Concentration requirements: a minimum of 30 credits, including Hebrew 301, 302, 401, 402, Near Eastern Studies 445 and 446, four courses from the following areas: Near Eastern History/Jewish History, Hebrew Linguistics 431, Hebrew Literature 451, 554, Hebrew 403, 404. In addition two Near Eastern cognate courses are required. Concentration courses are to be elected after consultation with the concentration advisor.

Islamic Studies. In the area of Islamic studies the department offers a number of courses and advanced seminars pertaining to Islamic civilization, history, and religion. In addition to a general survey course on Islam, offerings are available in Islamic history, law, theology, mysticism, philosophy, and Qur’ânic exegesis. Seminars require extensive use of original Arabic sources and hence develop essential skills required for research.

Prerequisites to the concentration in Islamic Studies are NES 101 and Arabic 101 and 102. Concentration requirements: a minimum of 30 credits, including Arabic 421, 422, Near Eastern Studies 204, 488, 489, and one course from each of the following areas or three courses from two of the areas: Religion 201; Near Eastern Studies 442; Near Eastern Studies 445. Concentration courses are to be elected after consultation with the concentration advisor.

Arabic. The Arabic program leads to the A.B. in Arabic literature and linguistics of the contemporary and medieval periods. It is linked with offerings in Islamic Studies and Near Eastern history and cooperates with other disciplinary units such as linguistics and comparative literature. Professional and research interests of the faculty in Arabic include modern Arabic literature and its role in Arab society; medieval Arabic literature and its role in Islam; literary analysis; translation; Arabic linguistics and dialectology; and the teaching of Arabic as a foreign language. Every attempt is made to design programs of study to fit the particular needs of individual students, as well as to prepare them for academic, government, business, and other professional employment.

Iranian. The Iranian program involves in-depth study of classical and contemporary Persian literature, Persian history, Persian and Iranian linguistics, and Kurdish. Independent study courses are available in Old Persian, Avestan, and other areas not offered on a regular basis. This program is supported by courses in the departments of anthropology, history, political science, history of art, and economics. Professional and research interests of the faculty include literary history, literary theory and criticism, historiography, linguistics and dialectology, and Iranian religion. While the program chiefly prepares students for an academic career, multidisciplinary programs of study can be arranged for students interested in business and government employment.

Turkish. This program educates students in Ottoman or modern Turkish language and culture. Supplementary instruction is given in related dialects of Azeri and Chagatay. Appropriate courses in the departments of anthropology, comparative literature, history, history of art, linguistics, and political science support the program. Students may also choose independent study courses to ensure complete coverage of a particular program of studies when established courses are not offered on a regular basis. Literary history and criticism, translation, and several aspects of cultural study are among the research interests of the faculty. The program prepares students for academic, government, and business employment.

Prerequisites to the concentrations in Arabic, Iranian, and Turkish: NES 101; Arabic 201 and 202; Iranian 201 and 202; or Turkish 201 and 202. Religion 201 is recommended. Concentration requirements: a minimum of 30 credits, including Arabic 401 and 402, or Iranian 401 and 402, or Turkish 401 and 402; Near Eastern Studies 445 and 446; four courses from at least two of the following areas: Near Eastern Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature, and Islamic Studies, and two Near Eastern cognate courses.

Advising. Appointments are scheduled at 3074 Frieze Building. Students who wish to declare a concentration in one of the areas of Near Eastern Studies should see the administrative assistant in 3074 Frieze Building to schedule an appointment with the appropriate concentration advisor.


General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (4). (HU).

140. Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (3). (Excl).

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (4). (HU).

245 /Great Books 245/Rel. 245. Great Books of the Ancient Near East. (4). (HU).

246/Great Books 246. Great Books of the Medieval and Modern Middle East. (4). (HU).

260. Ancient Egypt and its World. (3). (HU).

275. Islam and the West to 1800. (4). (HU).

315/Rel. 315. Classics in the Study of Religion. Rel. 201 or 202, or another religion course. (3). (Excl).

334/MENAS 334/Hist. 334. Selected Topics in Near and Middle Eastern Studies. (3). (Excl).

361. God and History in the Ancient Near East. (3). (Excl).

362/Hist. 306/Rel. 358. History and Religion of Ancient Israel. (3). (HU).

363/Hist. 307/Rel. 359. History and Religion of Classical Judaism. May be elected independently of NES 362. (3). (HU).

365. Using the Iranian Past on the Road to Revolution. (3). (Excl).

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

423/Geography 423. Geography of the Near East. (3). (Excl).

435. Literary Analysis and Theory I. (3). (Excl).

442/Hist. 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

450. Near Eastern Issues. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

460. Archaeology of the Historic Near East. (3). (Excl).

463/Hist. 507. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

466/Rel. 466. The Social and Religious Thought of the Hebrew Prophets. (3). (Excl).

467/Jud. Stud. 467. Topics in the History of Classical Judaism. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

468/Jud. Stud. 468/Rel. 469. Jewish Mysticism. (3). (Excl).

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (3). (Excl).

474/Hist. 443. Modern Near East History. (4). (Excl).

478/Jud. Stud. 478/Rel. 478 Topics in Modern Judaism: Modern Jewish Thought (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

480. History of Ancient Religions. (3). (Excl).

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

483. Sufism. (3). (Excl).

485/Rel. 485. Muslim Sages. (3). (Excl).

487/Phil. 471. Muslim Philosophy. (3). (Excl).

488. Islamic Law. (3). (Excl).

489. Islamic Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).

495. Women's Issues in the Near East. (3). (Excl).

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

537. Comparative Semitic Linguistics. (3). (Excl).

538. Comparative Semitic Linguistics. GNE 537. (3). (Excl).

561. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

562. Studies in Near Eastern History: Egypt, Syro-Palestine, and the Eastern Mediterranean. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

567/Jud. Stud. 470/Rel. 470. Topics in the Study of Judaism: The Sabbath and Sacred Time. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

570/Hist. 536. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500-945. (3). (Excl).

571/Hist. 537. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (Excl).

575/Hist. 539. Modern Egypt and North Africa Since 1500. (3). (Excl).

585. Quranic Studies I. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

586. Quranic Studies II. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

587. Readings in Classical Arabic Islamic Texts. Reading knowledge of Arabic. (3). (Excl).

588. Islamic Rationalism and Mysticism. Reading knowledge of Classical Arabic. (3). (Excl).


Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

120/Rel. 120. Introduction to Tanakh/Old Testament. (4). (HU).

121/Rel. 121. Introduction to the New Testament. (3). (HU).

160/Hist. 130. Introduction to the History of the Ancient Near East. (3). (HU).

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (LR).

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

265/Hist. 209. Clash of Empires: History of the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. Familiarity with the history and geography of the Near East is helpful. (3). (Excl).

280/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4). (HU).

281/Rel. 281. Jesus and the Gospels. ABS 280. (4). (HU).

282/Rel. 282. Letters of Paul in Translation. (3). (Excl).

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. II. (4). (Excl).

307/Greek 307. The Synoptic Gospels: Matthew, Mark and Luke. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

308/Greek 308. The Acts of the Apostles. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (2) (Excl).

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustine. (4). (Excl).

360/Religion 360. Studies in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament): The Primary History. I. (4). (HU).

380/Rel. 380. Selected Topics in Christian Studies. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.

401. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew. ABS 202 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

402. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew. ABS 401. (3). (LR).

403. Aramaic. ABS 202 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

404. Aramaic. ABS 403. (3). (Excl).

441. Ancient Near Eastern Literature. (3). (Excl).

442. Introduction to the Literature of Ancient Mesopotamia. (3). (Excl).

444/Rel. 444. Myth in the Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern World. (3). (Excl).

482/Greek 484. Acts of Paul and Thecla: Feminist Perspectives. Greek 401 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

483/Rel. 488/Class. Civ. 483. Christianity and Hellenistic Civilization. (4). (Excl).

484/Rel. 489. Introduction to New Testament Interpretation. ABS 280 or 281. (4). (Excl).

485/Greek 485. The Gospel of Mark in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

487/Greek 487. The Gospel of Matthew in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

488/Greek 488. The Gospel of John in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

489/Greek 489. Letters of Paul in Greek. Permission of instructor. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

491/Rel. 401. Seminar in Religion. Permission of department. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of six credits.

495/Rel. 495 The Gnostic Religion. NES 201 recommended. II. (3). (Excl).

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

498/Rel. 498. Ethics and Society in Early Christianity. (3). (Excl).

499. Senior Seminar: Christian Origins. Classical Greek 489 or equivalent. (4). (Excl).

511. Ugaritic. ABS 202 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

512. Ugaritic. ABS 511. (3). (Excl).

521. Introduction to Akkadian. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

522. Introduction to Akkadian. ABS 521. (3). (Excl).

523. Introduction to Middle Egyptian. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

524. Introduction to Middle Egyptian. ABS 523. (3). (Excl).

527. Introductory Sumerian. II. (3). (Excl).

528. Introductory Sumerian. ABS 527. (3). (Excl).


Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (4). (LR).

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

201(231). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 102 or 201. (4). (LR).

202(232). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 102 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

221(201). Intensive Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. I. (6). (LR).

222(202). Intensive Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 221 or 102 or equivalent. II. (6). (LR).

311(301). Introduction to Classical Arabic. (3). (Excl).

312(302). Introduction to Classical Arabic. Arabic 311. (3). (Excl).

409. Business Arabic I. Arabic 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

509. Business Arabic II. Arabic 409 or 421 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

411. Moroccan Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 422 or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

412. Moroccan Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 411 or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

413. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 202 or 232; or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

414. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 413 or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

415. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 422. (3). (LR).

416. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 415. (3). (LR).

421(401) Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 222 or 201 or equivalent. (6). (LR).

422(402) Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 421 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 422 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

431. Arabic Phonology and Morphophonology. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

432. Arabic Syntax and Semantics. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

434. Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

440. Introduction to Arabic Literature. (2). (Excl).

501. The Arabic World: Culture and Civilization. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

502. The Arab World: Geography and History. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

503. Survey of Arabic Literature. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

504(404). Arabic of the Communications Media. Arabic 202 or 421, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

521. Medieval Arabic. Permission of concentration adviser and instructor; primarily for graduate students. (3). (Excl).

522. Medieval Arabic. Permission of concentration adviser and instructor; primarily for graduate students. (3). (Excl).

530. Proseminar in Arabic Linguistics. Permission of instructor. (2-3). (Excl).

532. Arab Grammarians. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

533. Arabic Grammatical Theory. Arabic 532. (2-3). (Excl).

535. Arabic Dialects. (3). (Excl).

543. Medieval Arabic Readings. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

544. Medieval Arabic Prose Literature. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

545. Qur'an. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

546. Ancient Arabic Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

547. 'Abbasid Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

551. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

552. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

553. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

554. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

555. Modern Arabic Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).


Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (LR).

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

301. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 311. (5). (LR).

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

311. Intermediate Hebrew. Hebrew studies in Israel or intensive Hebrew at Hebrew day school (equivalent to Hebrew 202). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 301. (5). (LR).

312. Intermediate Hebrew. Hebrew 311 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 302. (5). (LR).

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

304. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

305. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

401. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

402. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (Excl).

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

431. Modern Grammar I. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

432. Modern Grammar II. Hebrew 431 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

451. Modern Hebrew Fiction: The First Half of the 20th Century. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

452. Modern Hebrew Fiction: From the Palmah Generation to Contemporary Israeli Prose. A knowledge of Hebrew is not required. (3). (Excl).

461. Modern Hebrew Poetry: 1900-1948. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

462. Contemporary Hebrew Poetry: 1948-Present. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

530. Structure of Hebrew. (3). (Excl).

531. History of the Hebrew Language. Hebrew 402 or equivalent; or ABS 402. (3). (Excl).

532. Medieval Hebrew Grammarians. (3). (Excl).

541. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

542. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 541 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

543. Medieval Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

544. Medieval Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

545. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

546. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

547. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

548. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

552. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit more than once with permission of instructor.

553. Modern Israeli Fiction. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

554. A Survey of Modern Israeli Novels. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).


Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

202. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

411. The Kurdish Language. Permission of instructor. (4). (LR).

412. The Kurdish Language. Permission of instructor. (4). (LR).

415. Advanced Kurdish Language. Iranian 412 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

416. Advanced Kurdish Language. Iranian 415 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

522. Old Persian. Iranian 402. (3). (Excl).

523. Avestan. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

440. Introduction to Persian Literature. (3). (Excl).

530. Structure of Persian. (3). (Excl).

531. Structure of Kurdish. (2). (Excl).

535. Iranian Dialectology. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

536. Introduction to Indo-Iranian Linguistics. (2). (Excl).

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

542. Persian Texts from the Early Modern Period. Iranian 541. (3). (Excl).

551. Modern Persian Fiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

552. Modern Persian Nonfiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).


Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (LR).

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

411. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 202 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

412. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 411. (3). (Excl).

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

440. The Literature of the Turks. (3). (Excl).

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

502. Advanced Turkish Composition. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

511. Readings in Ottoman Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

512. Readings in Tanzimat Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

530. Structure of Turkish. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

552. Modern Turkish Poetry. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).


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