94-95 LS&A Bulletin

Near Eastern Studies

3074 Frieze Building

764-0314

Professor Norman Yoffee, Chair

Director of Undergraduate Studies, Assistant Professor Brian Schmidt

May be elected as a departmental program in Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (ACABS); Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS); Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies (APTIS); and Near Eastern Studies Departmental Concentration (NESDC)

Professors

James A. Bellamy, medieval Arabic literature, Arabic textual criticism, Arabic papyrology (retirement furlough)

Edna Amir Coffin, modern Hebrew language and literature

Charles Krahmalkov, ancient Near Eastern languages

Trevor LeGassick, Arabic writings: imaginative, poetic, and non-fictional, 19th and 20th centuries

K. Allin Luther, Iranian history and civilization, classical Persian literature

Ernest N. McCarus, Arabic and Kurdish linguistics (retirement furlough)

Piotr Michalowski, Sumerian and Akkadian languages, literatures, and history; literary theory

Raji M. Rammuny, elementary Arabic instruction, advanced Arabic composition, colloquial Levantine Arabic, Arabic language teacher training

Gene Schramm, Semitic languages and linguistics

James Stewart-Robinson, modern Turkish and Ottoman (Turkish) language and literature

Gernot L. Windfuhr, Persian and Iranian linguistics and literature

Norman Yoffee, Assyriology, Mesopotamian civilizations, Near Eastern archaeology, anthropology

Associate Professors

Jarl Fossum, New Testament, Gnosticism, Samaritan studies, Jewish mysticism, Coptic

Elliot Ginsburg, Jewish thought

Assistant Professors

Marc Bernstein, modern Hebrew language and literature

Michael Bonner, medieval Islamic history

Alexander Knysh, Islamic Studies

Brian Schmidt, Hebrew Bible, and ancient Levantine cultures

Adjunct Professor

Anton Shammas, Modern Middle Eastern literatures

Adjunct Associate Professors

Gary Beckman, Ancient Near Eastern history and Hittite language

Gabriele Boccaccini, Middle Judaism

Adjunct Assistant Professor

Salim Khaldieh, Arabic language

Lecturer

Giora Etzion, modern Hebrew language

Paula Weizman, modern Hebrew language

Professors Emeriti Andrew S. Ehrenkreutz, David Noel Freedman, John Kolars, George E. Mendenhall and Louis L. Orlin.

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers instruction in the languages, literatures, histories, and cultures of the ancient Near East and the medieval and modern Middle East. The department's language offerings provide the foundation for the academic study of the literatures, histories, and cultures of the region. The ancient language offerings include Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Ugaritic, Avestan, Aramaic, Classical Hebrew, and Coptic. The medieval and modern language offerings include Arabic, Hebrew, Kurdish, Persian and Turkish. The undergraduate programs in the department are designed to initiate the academic study of the region, enhance the student's critical skills, and promote an increased understanding of the historical processes underlying the transformation of cultures.

Prerequisite to Concentration. All Near Eastern Studies concentrators must complete the prerequisite course 100, Peoples of the Middle East.

Concentration Programs. The student must select one of four divisions in Near Eastern Studies in which to pursue a concentration. Three divisions with special language requirements are: Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (ACABS); Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Islamic Studies (APTIS); or Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS). Each of the three divisions provides specific programs to enhance the focus of the concentration. The department also offers a general studies concentration: the Near Eastern Studies Departmental Concentration (NESDC), a concentration without the language component of other program concentrations. A concentration in the department requires completion of course work in four categories: the prerequisite course, the required language courses, the divisional elective courses and the optional elective or cognate courses. The divisions and their programs are described below.

All Near Eastern Studies concentrators must complete a minimum of thirty hours of concentration credit in the languages, literatures, histories, and cultures of the region. In addition, each concentrator must select two additional courses from offerings other than those provided by the division of concentration. Both cognate courses must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies and the student's concentration advisor. The student must maintain a grade of at least a C in each term of a required concentration language. Those courses for which a student receives a lesser grade must be repeated.

Honors Concentration. Those concentrators who qualify as candidates for Honors in Near Eastern Studies must meet the requirements for a regular concentration, maintain a GPA of at least 3.25 overall and 3.5 in the concentration, and complete the writing of a senior thesis with distinction. Honors concentrators are required to enroll in a one-credit hour course on thesis writing (496) and the three-credit thesis course (497) during the senior year of research and writing. Further information concerning the Honors concentration can be obtained at the departmental office (3074 Frieze Bldg) or the Honors Program Office (1210 Angell Hall).

Academic Advising. Students interested in the Department's concentration programs in ACABS, APTIS, HJCS, or NESDC should contact the department's director of undergraduate studies who will direct the student to the appropriate concentration advisor. Students who plan to complete the concentration requirements for a Bachelor of Arts degree in Near Eastern Studies must complete the LS&A Declaration Form. This form is available at the departmental office, or at the Academic Actions Office (1223 Angell Hall). One copy should be submitted to the Department of Near Eastern Studies and the other to the LS&A Academic Advising Office (1213 Angell Hall).

Undergraduate Prizes. The Department of Near Eastern Studies awards four annual student prizes for excellence in ancient Near Eastern and medieval and modern Middle Eastern studies:

The George G. Cameron Award in Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies

The George and Celeste Hourani Award in Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Islamic Studies

The Leroy T. Waterman Award in Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies

The Ernest T. Abdel Massih Award in Arabic

Student Organization. Concentrators in Near Eastern Studies have the opportunity to participate in a student organization, the Undergraduate Near Eastern Studies Association (UNESA). The association is comprised of current and potential concentrators. Its goals include: organizing the department's undergraduates into a more cohesive, directed body; identifying funding for research and study trips abroad; assisting in the development of the curriculum; bringing in guest lecturers; and helping each other with graduate school and employment applications.

Associated Units and Resources. The department's offerings represent only a part of the total number of University's courses devoted to the study of the ancient Near East and medieval and modern Middle East. Other campus units that can provide resources and relevant course offerings to the concentrator include:

The Center for Middle Eastern and North African Studies (CMENAS)

The Program on Studies in Religion (PSIR)

The Center for Judaic Studies

Project FLAME (Foreign Language Applications in the Multimedia Environment)

For other resources and course offerings, applicants should consult the listings in the departments and program units of Anthropology, Classical Studies, History, History of Art, Linguistics, Philosophy, and Political Science. These are listed in the department's brochure (available at 3074 Frieze Bldg).

Study Abroad. Concentrators are strongly encouraged to spend all or part of an academic year at overseas universities and programs in order to further their formal Near Eastern Studies training. The department has associations with several universities and programs abroad. In addition to consulting the University of Michigan's Study Abroad program and the International Center, concentrators should contact the department undergraduate advisor and the concentration advisor concerning such a course of study. A program should be decided upon in advance in order to ensure that transfer credit can be awarded and that courses will satisfy concentration requirements.


Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (Acabs)

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The division of Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (ACABS) offers instruction at the introductory to advanced levels in the languages, literatures, histories, cultures and religions of the ancient Near East (Anatolia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Israel, and Syria) . The concentrator in ACABS can select from one of three options within the division designed to meet the special interests of the student: Ancient Mesopotamia, Hebrew Bible/ Ancient Israel, or New Testament/Early Christianity.

The concentrator in ACABS is required to complete four terms of language. The languages for which four terms of instruction are offered include Akkadian, Classical Hebrew, or Greek. Fourth term proficiency in Classical Hebrew or Greek satisfies the language requirement of the College of LS&A. The student has the option to complete only two terms of one of those three languages and two subsequent terms of a second (and third) language. In place of four terms of one language, the concentrator can select one of the following three language options: one year of Akkadian followed by one year of Sumerian, or one year of Classical Hebrew followed by one term of Aramaic and another of Ugaritic, or one year of Classical Greek followed by one year of Coptic.

In addition to the four terms of language, the ACABS concentrator must elect six additional courses in the languages, literatures, histories, and cultures and religions of the ancient Near East. These six divisional courses are to be selected from the four course levels: one at the 100 level, one at the 200 level, one at the 300 level, and three at the 400-500 level. The concentrator must also complete two elective cognate courses outside the division of concentration. The concentration courses must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies and the concentration advisor. The concentration advisors for the options in the concentration of Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies are:

Ancient Mesopotamia, Professor Norman Yoffee

Hebrew Bible/Ancient Israel, Professor Brian Schmidt

New Testament/Early Christianity, Professor Jarl Fossum


Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Islamic Studies (Aptis)

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The division of Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Islamic Studies (APTIS) offers instruction at the introductory to the advanced level in medieval and modern Arabic, Persian, and Turkish languages and literatures. Courses in the histories and cultures of select regions represented by these language groups are also offered as are a wide range of topics in Islamic studies. The concentrator in APTIS can select from one of four options within the division designed to meet the special interests of the student: Arabic, Persian, Turkish or Islamic Studies.

A concentrator in APTIS must complete four terms of a single language or three terms of intensive language training. Fourth term proficiency in Arabic, Persian, or Turkish satisfies the language requirement of the College of LS&A. APTIS concentrators must also select five other courses in the languages, literatures, linguistics, histories, cultures and religions most closely related to their language of choice. Two of the five courses must be at the 400 level or above. The concentrator must complete two elective cognate courses outside the division of concentration. These courses must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies and the concentration advisor. Students in Islamic Studies must take Arabic, since most pertinent texts are in that language.

The student should consult with the director of undergraduate studies and the faculty advisor in selecting the appropriate concentration program. The concentration advisors for the BA degree in the Division of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies are:

Arabic, Professor Raji Rammuny

Persian, Professor Gernot Windfuhr

Turkish, Professor James Stewart-Robinson

Islamic Studies, Professor Michael Bonner


Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS)

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The division of Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS) offers instruction in Hebrew language and literature and Jewish culture and civilization. In addition to providing concentrators with a sound liberal arts background, the program prepares students for continued academic studies — particularly in Hebrew and Judaic Studies, for teaching, for employment in Jewish community services, and for careers in government or private employment.

All concentrators in HJCS are required to complete as additional prerequisite courses, Hebrew 201 and 202. For a concentration in HJCS, the student must complete four additional terms of language: the 301-302 sequence and two courses at the advanced level. Fourth term proficiency in modern Hebrew satisfies the language requirement of the College of LS&A. In addition to the four terms of language, the HJCS concentrator must elect five additional courses in the division: a general survey course and four courses in the fields of literature, history, or culture. The HJCS concentrator must also choose two cognate courses outside the division of concentration. These courses must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies and the concentration advisor:

HJCS, Professor Marc Bernstein


Near Eastern Studies Departmental Concentration (NESDC)

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The Department of Near Eastern Studies also offers a general departmental studies concentration. The purpose of this concentration is to provide the student with an intensive survey of the literatures, histories, cultures, and religions of the ancient Near East and the medieval and modern Middle East but without the language component of the other program concentrations. The student who wishes to declare the Near Eastern Studies Departmental Concentration (NESDC) may substitute for the four terms of language an equal number of courses in literature, history, or culture and religion. The student must obtain prior approval from the director of undergraduate studies and the concentration advisor to declare this concentration. The NESDC concentrator must complete at least six of the ten total courses in one of the three divisions within the department, ACABS, APTIS, or HJCS, and one course in each of the other two. Of those six divisional courses, the student must select a minimum of three from the 400-500 level offerings. As with the other concentrations, the minimum number of credit hours for the NESDC is 30 and the prerequisite course is 100, Peoples of the Middle East. Honors is not normally awarded to the student in NESDC, although petitions for exceptions can be made to the director of undergraduate studies.

NESDC Requirements in summary:

A. Prerequisites to the Concentration

1. Approval of director of undergraduate studies

2. 100: Peoples of the Middle East

B. Divisional Distribution

1. Six of ten courses in one division

2. A minimum two other courses with one in each of the other two divisions

C. Levels Distribution

1. Five of ten at 400-500 level

Three at 400-500 level in division where the six courses are selected

2. At least one each at 100, 200, and 300 level


General Near East (Division 439)

100(101). Peoples of the Middle East. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

200/ABS 200/Arabic 200/Hebrew Studies 200. Religions of the Book: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Rel. 201/GNE 201. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in ABS 200. (4). (HU).

204/Rel. 204. Islamic Religion: An Introduction. (4). (HU).

245 /Great Books 245/Rel. 245. Great Books of the Ancient Near East. (4). (HU).

246/Great Books 246. Great Books of the Medieval and Modern Middle East. (4). (HU).

260. Ancient Egypt and its World. (4; 3 in the half term). (HU).

261. The Civilization of Medieval Islam. (4 in the half-term). (HU).

275. Islam and the West to 1800. (4). (HU).

330(140). Introduction to Arabic Culture and Language. (4). (Excl).

334/MENAS 334/Hist. 334. Selected Topics in Near and Middle Eastern Studies. (3). (Excl).

361. God and History in the Ancient Near East. (3). (Excl).

362/Hist. 306/Rel. 358. History and Religion of Ancient Israel. (3). (HU).

363/Hist. 307/Rel. 359. History and Religion of Classical Judaism. May be elected independently of NES 362. (3). (HU).

365. Using the Iranian Past on the Road to Revolution. (3). (Excl).

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

398. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

435. Literary Analysis and Theory I. (3). (Excl).

442/Hist. 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

446. Modern Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

450. Near Eastern Issues. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

460. Archaeology of the Historic Near East. (3). (Excl).

463/Hist. 507. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

467/Jud. Stud. 467. Topics in the History of Classical Judaism. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

468/Jud. Stud. 468/Rel. 469. Jewish Mysticism. (3). (Excl).

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (3). (Excl).

474/Hist. 443. Modern Middle East History. (3). (Excl).

478/Jud. Stud. 478/Rel. 478. Topics in Modern Judaism: Modern Jewish Thought (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

480. History of Ancient Religions. (3). (Excl).

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (4). (HU).

483. Sufism. (3). (Excl).

485/Rel. 485. Muslim Sages. (3). (Excl).

488. Islamic Law. (3). (Excl).

489. Islamic Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).

495. Women's Issues in the Near East. (3). (Excl).

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

537. Comparative Semitic Linguistics. (3). (Excl).

538. Comparative Semitic Linguistics. GNE 537. (3). (Excl).

561. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

562. Studies in Near Eastern History: Egypt, Syro-Palestine, and the Eastern Mediterranean. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

567/Jud. Stud. 470/Rel. 470. Topics in the Study of Judaism: The Sabbath and Sacred Time. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

570/Hist. 536. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500-945. (3). (Excl).

571/Hist. 537. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. (3). (Excl).

575/Hist. 539. Modern Egypt and North Africa Since 1500. (3). (Excl).

585. Quranic Studies I. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

586. Quranic Studies II. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

587. Readings in Classical Arabic Islamic Texts. Reading knowledge of Arabic. (3). (Excl).

588. Islamic Rationalism and Mysticism. Reading knowledge of Classical Arabic. (3). (Excl).


Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS) (Division 317)

120/Rel. 120. Introduction to Tanakh/Old Testament. (4). (HU).

121/Rel. 121. Introduction to the New Testament. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

160/Hist. 130. The World's First Civilizations. (4; 3 in the half-term.). (HU).

200/Arabic 200/Hebrew Studies 200/GNE 200. Religions of the Book: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Rel. 201/GNE 201. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (LR).

202. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. ABS 201 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

265/Hist. 209. Clash of Empires: History of the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. Familiarity with the history and geography of the Near East is helpful. (3). (Excl).

280/Rel. 280. Jesus and the Gospels. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

281/Rel. 281. Jesus and the Gospels. ABS 280. (4). (HU).

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. II. (4). (Excl).

307/Greek 307. The Synoptic Gospels: Matthew, Mark and Luke. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

308/Greek 308. The Acts of the Apostles. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (2) (Excl).

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustine. (4). (Excl).

360/Religion 360. Studies in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament): The Primary History. I. (4). (HU).

380/Rel. 380. Selected Topics in Christian Studies. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.

401. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew. ABS 202 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

402. Intermediate Biblical Hebrew. ABS 401. (3). (LR).

403. Aramaic. ABS 202 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

404. Aramaic. ABS 403. (3). (Excl).

440/Anthro. 442/Hist. 440. Ancient Mesopo-tamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

441. Ancient Near Eastern Literature. (3). (Excl).

442. Introduction to the Literature of Ancient Mesopotamia. (3). (Excl).

482/Greek 484. Acts of Paul and Thecla: Feminist Perspectives. Greek 401 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

483/Rel. 488/Class. Civ. 483. Christianity and Hellenistic Civilization. (4). (Excl).

485/Greek 485. The Gospel of Mark in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

487/Greek 487. The Gospel of Matthew in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

488/Greek 488. The Gospel of John in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

489/Greek 489. Letters of Paul in Greek. Permission of instructor. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

491/Rel. 401. Seminar in Religion. Permission of department. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of six credits.

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

499. Senior Seminar: Christian Origins. Greek 489 or equivalent. (4). (Excl).

511. Ugaritic. ABS 202 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

512. Ugaritic. ABS 511. (3). (Excl).

521. Introduction to Akkadian. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

522. Introduction to Akkadian. ABS 521. (3). (Excl).

523. Introduction to Middle Egyptian. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

524. Introduction to Middle Egyptian. ABS 523. (3). (Excl).

527. Introductory Sumerian. II. (3). (Excl).

528. Introductory Sumerian. ABS 527. (3). (Excl).

585/Religion 585. Wisdom and Apocalyptic. (3). (Excl).


Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Division 321)

200/ABS 200/Hebrew Studies 200/GNE 200. Religions of the Book: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Rel. 201/GNE 201. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. IIIb. (4). (LR).

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 101 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

201(231). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 102 or 201. (4). (LR).

202(232). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 102 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

221(201). Intensive Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. I. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($16) required.

222(202). Intensive Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 221 or 102 or equivalent. II. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($9) required.

311(301). Introduction to Classical Arabic. (3). (Excl).

312(302). Introduction to Classical Arabic. Arabic 311. (3). (Excl).

409. Business Arabic I. Arabic 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

509. Business Arabic II. Arabic 409 or 421 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

411. Moroccan Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 422 or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

412. Moroccan Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 411 or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

413. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 202 or 232; or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

414. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 413 or permission of instructor. (3). (LR).

415. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 422. (3). (LR).

416. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 415. (3). (LR).

421(401). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 222 or 201 or equivalent. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($7) required.

422(402). Advanced Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 421 or the equivalent. (6). (Excl).

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 422 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

431. Arabic Phonology and Morphophonology. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

432. Arabic Syntax and Semantics. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

434. Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology. Arabic 422 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

440. Introduction to Arabic Literature. (2). (Excl).

501. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

502. Advanced Arabic Readings in Special Sub-jects. Arabic 501 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

503. Survey of Arabic Literature. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

504(404). Arabic of the Communications Media. Arabic 202 or 421, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

521. Medieval Arabic. Permission of concentration adviser and instructor; primarily for graduate students. (3). (Excl).

522. Medieval Arabic. Permission of concentration adviser and instructor; primarily for graduate students. (3). (Excl).

530. Proseminar in Arabic Linguistics. Permission of instructor. (2-3). (Excl).

532. Arab Grammarians. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

533. Arabic Grammatical Theory. Arabic 532. (2-3). (Excl).

535. Arabic Dialects. (3). (Excl).

543. Medieval Arabic Readings. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

544. Medieval Arabic Prose Literature. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

545. Qur'an. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

546. Ancient Arabic Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

547. 'Abbasid Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

551. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

552. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

553. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

554. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

555. Modern Arabic Poetry. Arabic 422 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).


Hebrew Studies (Division 387)

200/ABS 200/Arabic 200/GNE 200. Religions of the Book: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Rel. 201/GNE 201. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (LR).

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

301. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 311. (5). (LR).

302. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 312. (5). (LR).

311. Intermediate Hebrew. Hebrew studies in Israel or intensive Hebrew at Hebrew day school (equivalent to Hebrew 202). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 301. (5). (LR).

312. Intermediate Hebrew. Hebrew 311 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 302. (5). (LR).

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

304. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

305. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

401. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

402. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (3). (Excl).

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

404. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

431. Modern Grammar I. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

432. Modern Grammar II. Hebrew 431 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

451. Modern Hebrew Fiction: The First Half of the 20th Century. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

452. Modern Hebrew Fiction: From the Palmah Generation to Contemporary Israeli Prose. A knowledge of Hebrew is not required. (3). (Excl).

461. Modern Hebrew Poetry: 1900-1948. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

462. Contemporary Hebrew Poetry: 1948-Present. Hebrew 402. (3). (Excl).

530. Structure of Hebrew. (3). (Excl).

531. History of the Hebrew Language. Hebrew 402 or equivalent; or ABS 402. (3). (Excl).

532. Medieval Hebrew Grammarians. (3). (Excl).

541. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

542. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 541 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

543. Medieval Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

544. Medieval Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

545. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

546. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

547. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

548. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

552. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit more than once with permission of instructor.

553. Modern Israeli Fiction. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

554. A Survey of Modern Israeli Novels. Hebrew 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).


Iranian Studies (Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

202. Elementary Persian. (4). (LR).

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

402. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

411. The Kurdish Language. Permission of instructor. (4). (LR).

412. The Kurdish Language. Permission of instructor. (4). (LR).

415. Advanced Kurdish Language. Iranian 412 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

416. Advanced Kurdish Language. Iranian 415 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

522. Old Persian. Iranian 402. (3). (Excl).

523. Avestan. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

440. Introduction to Persian Literature. (3). (Excl).

530. Structure of Persian. (3). (Excl).

531. Structure of Kurdish. (2). (Excl).

535. Iranian Dialectology. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

536. Introduction to Indo-Iranian Linguistics. (2). (Excl).

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

542. Persian Texts from the Early Modern Period. Iranian 541. (3). (Excl).

551. Modern Persian Fiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

552. Modern Persian Nonfiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).


Turkish Studies (Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (LR).

202. Elementary Turkish. Turkish 201 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

402. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 401 or equivalent. (4). (LR).

411. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 202 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

412. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 411. (3). (Excl).

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

440. The Literature of the Turks. (3). (Excl).

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

502. Advanced Turkish Composition. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

511. Readings in Ottoman Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

512. Readings in Tanzimat Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

530. Structure of Turkish. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

551. Modern Turkish Prose Literature. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

552. Modern Turkish Poetry. Turkish 402 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).


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