General College Policies and Procedures
Academic Load and Normal Degree
Withdrawal from the College
Special Kinds of Academic Credit
Credit by Examination (CBE)
Experiential and Directed
Reading/Independent Study Courses
Extension and Correspondence Courses
Honors Summer Independent Reading
Grade Notations and Grading Policies
Summary of Transcript Notations
Grading for a Two-Term Course (Y)
Incomplete Courses and Notations (I or X)
No Report (NR)
Non-Graded Courses (P/F, CR/NC, S/U)
Repetition of Courses
Grade Point Average
Term and Cumulative Grade Point
Minimum Term and Cumulative
Grade Point Averages Required
Honors and Awards for Superior
LS&A Scholarship Program
Code of Academic Conduct
Other Grievance Procedures
The policies and procedures described in this chapter govern the conduct of academic matters affecting students
enrolled in the College. Exceptions to these policies may be granted only upon written petition to the Office of
Academic Actions. Honors students petition the Honors Academic Board; Residential College students
petition the RC Counseling Office.
In defining a normal academic load, a distinction must be made between what load students are permitted to elect
and what is recommended. Except for first-term freshmen and transfer and Honors students, undergraduates may
elect, without special approval, academic loads of 8 to 18 credits for a term, or 1 to 9 credits for a half term
(spring or summer). Generally, a program of four or five courses totaling 13 to 17 credits is considered normal,
and freshmen are usually advised to elect four courses (14 to 16 credits). Since the considerations for determining
academic loads are often complex and personal, the College encourages students to discuss each term's elections
with an academic advisor.
Class standing is determined by the number of credits earned toward a degree:
Freshman: fewer than 25 credits
Sophomore: 25 through 54 credits
Junior: 55 through 84 credits
Senior: 85 credits or more
At least 60 of the 120 credits required for a degree must be earned in residence. Residence credit is granted for
courses elected on the Ann Arbor campus or at off-campus sites but directed by Ann Arbor faculty present on the
site and for a maximum 15 credits earned through departmental boards of study and Honors Summer Independent
At least 30 of the last 60 credits for the degree must be earned in residence.
No more than 60 credits may be earned through Advanced Placement, credit by examination, extension and
correspondence courses, transfer credit from other institutions, and off-campus independent study, except that 90
credits may be transferred from other schools and colleges on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of
Michigan. Cross-campus transfer students may receive credit for a maximum of 90 credits from the previous
college or school. No more than 60 credits of these 90 may have been completed at other institutions. LS&A
residency requires that a student earn 30 credits in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
Students who transfer from a junior college are permitted 60 transfer credits (62 if an Associate's degree requiring
62 credits has been completed). Students who have completed 60 credits toward an LS&A degree cannot earn
degree credit for courses elected at a two-year college.
Up to 60 credits may be transferred from the Flint and Dearborn campuses of the University of Michigan, and
courses completed at these campuses are defined as out-of-residence credit (effective September 1, 1976),
even though they carry Michigan Honor Points.
Credit cannot be transferred from another school if that credit is also being counted toward another baccalaureate
or graduate or professional degree. The programs described in Chapter V under the heading "Special Joint Degree Programs" are exceptions to this
Even if a course is transferable, credit is not allowed if the final grade earned is "CÐ" or lower. This includes all
transferable credit earned outside the University of Michigan and also includes the University of Michigan
Correspondence Study offerings.
Students interested in electing out-of-residence credit should consult in advance the Office of
Undergraduate Admissions (where an information sheet is available) about transfer equivalencies and an academic
advisor about the appropriateness of the intended elections. If credit elected out-of-residence is to be included in a
concentration plan, approval should be obtained in advance from a concentration advisor. The
language requirement cannot be fulfilled by out-of-residence credit which is elected after the student has begun
degree enrollment in LS&A unless the appropriate language department has approved that plan in advance.
LS&A students who elect courses which duplicate Advanced Placement credit or courses completed elsewhere and
transferred to LS&A as credit toward an LS&A degree will receive degree credit and honor points (for graded
courses) for the LS&A election while credit for the duplicated Advanced Placement or transfer courses will be
deducted. The only exceptions to this policy are those cases in which the courses transfer from another school or
college on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In these cases, courses elected in LS&A which
duplicate such transfer courses are posted on the academic record as "repetitions" or "not for credit" elections.
The original course elections continue to appear on the academic record for degree credit, and grades earned in
these courses continue to be computed in the grade point average. Students electing courses in LS&A which are
prerequisites for credits already awarded via Advanced Standing will have the transferred credits deducted, and the
credits and honor points earned by the LS&A elections will stand. This might mean losing credit for several courses
while retaining credit for only one, (for example, having transfer credit for three terms of basic foreign language
deducted because of completing the first term of that language subsequently at the University of Michigan).
Students who want their out-of-residence credit evaluated must have an official transcript of the completed work
sent to the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Seniors planning to elect the final portion of the senior year out
of residence should contact the LS&A Senior Auditors prior to leaving campus for information about special
procedures; otherwise, a student risks delay of graduation.
The College expects students to finalize their academic schedules in the first three weeks of a term (first two weeks
of a half term), but later changes may be made according to the policies described below. Courses dropped in the
first three weeks of a term (first two weeks of a half term) do not appear on the transcript; thereafter, all courses
officially dropped appear on the transcript with a "W" notation. Accordingly, a "W" means that the student
dropped a course after the third week of a Fall or Winter Term (second week of a half-term) and that the College
accepted the reason(s) for the drop and gave its approval.
Failure to complete a course and to secure approval for a late drop of the course results in the transcript notation Unofficial Drop (ED)
which is averaged into the term and cumulative grade
point averages as a failing grade (E). Courses elected on a non-graded pattern do not affect the term or cumulative
grade point averages.
Weeks one through three of a term (weeks one through two of a half term):
Students may make drop/add changes without advisor approval when these changes result in an academic
schedule of 8-18 credits during a term (1-9 credits in a half term). Programs of fewer than 8 or more than 18
credits during a term (more than 9 credits during a half term) require advisor approval, as do all course changes
made by Honors students and new freshmen, transfer students, and cross-campus transfer students. All students
may make section changes within a course without advisor approval. Adds of courses/sections that are closed or
require permission of instructor must be accompanied by an Election Authorization Form (Override)
signed by the instructor or designated departmental representative. Adds of open courses or courses not
requiring permission of instructor are allowed without override, but the student is responsible for any work
assigned in the course from its beginning, regardless of the date of election. Therefore it is important to talk with
the course instructor about work assigned to date before processing an add in the second or third week. Instructor
approval is not required on an Election Change Worksheet for drop requests. Overrides are available from
instructors or departmental offices. Since the fee assessment is not set until the end of this three-week period (two
weeks in a half term), a student dropping below 12 credits (six in a half-term) will be assessed a lower tuition
Weeks four through nine of a term (three through four and a half of a half term):
Students requesting changes must (1) obtain a Request for Late Drop form and Election Change
Worksheet from 1221 Angell Hall; (2) complete both forms, stating the reason(s) for the drop; (3) obtain
instructor's recommendation and signature; (4) return the completed forms to 1221 Angell Hall along with an
Election Authorization Form (Override) if there is a late add. All requests to add courses must be
accompanied by an Election Authorization Form (Override) signed by the instructor or designated
departmental representative. Honors students follow the procedures established by the Honors Office.
Students thinking about a possible late drop are strongly encouraged to discuss the change with an academic
advisor. Such a discussion, however, is not required.
The Office of Academic Actions will provide a written response to all late drop requests. Students should
continue pursuing their existing academic schedules until they receive written confirmation of an approved change.
Requests will generally be approved, except for:
1. Late drop requests resulting in a load of fewer than 8 credits.
2. Late drop requests of students on academic probation resulting in a load of fewer than 12 credits.
3. Late drop requests where the instructor objects or has serious reservations about the drop; or
4. Late drop requests where the Academic Actions Board identifies a potentially serious problem.
In cases 1, 2, and 3 the student will be asked to meet with a member of the Academic Actions Board to discuss the
request and seek approval to drop the course. In case 4, the student will be summoned to discuss the request, and
its academic implications, with an academic advisor or a member of the Board.
NOTE: The Office of Academic Actions will batch process all approved requests.
Fees are not reduced even if a student drops below 12 credits (six in a half-term).
Week ten through the last day of classes of a term (after the end of week four and a half
through the last day of classes for a half term):
Only the most serious circumstances warrant dropping a course after the ninth week of the term. Fear of failing
the course and no longer needing the course in a degree program are not considered valid reasons for granting
approval to drop a course after the 9th week of a Fall or Winter Term. Students wishing to make changes must
(1) obtain an Election Change Worksheet; (2) complete a Request for Late Drop/Add form signed
by the instructor; and (3) make an appointment with an academic advisor. The instructor's and advisor's
signatures indicate that the request for a change in academic schedule has been discussed; they do not indicate
approval. All requests to add courses must be accompanied by an Election Authorization Form (Override)
signed by the instructor or designated departmental representative. Requests resulting in academic schedules
of 8-18 credits during a term (1-9 credits in a half term) are approved or denied by the a Late Drop Review
Committee. All other requests are decided by the Academic Actions Board.
1. Regarding the election of mini-courses, students are subject to different "W" and fee deadlines. A mini-course
which starts at the beginning of the term and lasts for seven weeks can be dropped without "W" and without fee
for three weeks. Such a course starting in the middle of the term can be dropped without "W" and without fee
for two weeks.
2. Information regarding "W" and fee deadlines for all other mini-courses is available from LS&A Checkpoint.
3. All requests to drop or add mini-courses submitted after the applicable free drop/add period are decided by the
Academic Actions Board. Since those courses do not run for the full length of the term, late drop or add
requests are not judged according to the timetable used for full-term courses. Any late drop or add request for
mini-courses needs to be supported by significant extenuating circumstances.
Students who have early registered for a term or half term but who subsequently decide not to return to the
University should notify the Office of Academic Actions. This can be done either in writing or by going in person
to complete a Disenrollment Memorandum. Notification of intention to disenroll must be received
before the first day of classes or a student is assessed a $50 disenrollment fee plus an $80 registration fee
($40 for each half term). Students who wish to withdraw once classes have begun should go to the Office of
After the third week of classes during a term (second week in a half term), an appointment must be made with a
member of the Academic Actions Board. Students who withdraw after the middle of a term may have to obtain
permission from the Office of Academic Actions before continuing in the College. (See Fee Regulations
in Chapter VII.)
Recognizing that students may have background in particular academic areas, the faculty has made it possible for
students to earn credit by examination. The amount and type of credit in any area is determined by the academic
department(s) in which a student feels qualified to seek credit by examination. Some departments recognize
certain subject area College Entrance Examination Board College Level Examination Program (CLEP)
examinations and grant credit on the basis of specified performance on such examinations. Since the
University of Michigan is not a CLEP testing center, all CLEP credit is evaluated as incoming transfer credit, and
questions regarding CLEP credit should be addressed to the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Only those
CLEP examinations specifically accepted by academic departments at the University of Michigan may be used to
certify credit by examination toward a degree.
In addition to or in place of CLEP examinations, some academic departments have prepared examinations which
are administered on campus. Questions regarding such departmental examinations should be directed to the
Department of Independent Study, Extension Service, where applications for such examinations are available.
Credit earned by examination is out-of-residence credit. It is posted on a student's transcript as credit earned
toward the degree but without honor points and identified by the notation "Credit by Examination." A maximum
60 credits can be earned by examination and counted toward an LS&A degree. (See Residence Policy in this chapter.) Failure to pass a departmental examination is not noted on
a student's transcript or in a student's academic advising file.
The College distinguishes "Experiential" and "Independent" courses from its other course offerings.
Experiential courses (denoted EXPERIENTIAL in Chapter VI) involve academic work which may take
place in a setting other than a university classroom, laboratory, library, or studio and in which the experience is
directly related to an academic discipline. Most Experiential Credit is awarded through programs administered by
departments and is recorded as credit in one of the departmental Experiential course numbers.
Under certain circumstances a student may receive academic credit for an activity not covered by one of the
departmental Experiential course numbers by petitioning the College Board of Study, in which case credit may be
recorded in a course administered by the University Course Division. A student wishing to explore this
possibility should understand that it is not the policy of the College to award academic credit for something simply
because it is useful and educational. For the College Board of Study to recommend academic credit for an
off-campus experience, students must demonstrate that the experience is directly related to an academic discipline
represented in the College of LS&A and that it has a clear linkage to some aspect of their course of study at the
University of Michigan. Ordinarily, for credit to be recommended by the College Board of Study, the project
must be approved in advance and be recommended by the faculty sponsor who agrees to evaluate the experience
and the work submitted by the student following his/her return to campus. Occasionally the College Board of
Study may recommend that a student receive experiential credit for an activity that was not approved in advance,
but only if the student provides materials enabling a faculty member to evaluate the academic quality and value of
the experience. Such approval will usually require additional work with a faculty member following the student's
return to campus. The College Board of Study will not consider petitions for credit for activities related to
disciplines represented by Schools or Colleges other than LS&A. A student wishing to explore the possibility of
obtaining Experiential Credit through the College Board of Study should contact the LS&A Advising Office.
Students in the Honors Program or Residential College should contact an advisor through the Honors Program or
RC Counseling offices.
Independent courses may be (1) Directed Reading/Independent Study courses (denoted INDEPENDENT in
Chapter VI) which are designated by title and not normally offered by classroom instruction; (2) courses
normally offered through classroom instruction but occasionally taught on an independent study basis (e.g.,
Honors Summer Independent Reading); (3) courses not specially designated as "Independent" and normally
offered as classroom instruction but elected by special arrangement with the instructor.
The following limitations apply to Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study credit:
1. A maximum 15 credits of Experiential courses may be counted toward a degree; a maximum 8 credits may be
earned from one project, and only one such Experiential project may be elected each term.
2. A combined total 30 credits of Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study courses may be counted in
the 120 credits required for a degree.
3. A maximum 15 credits of Honors Summer Independent Reading courses may be counted in the 120 credits
required for a degree.
4. Experiential and Independent courses are excluded from area distribution plans.
Experiential and independent study courses are designated on the student's transcript by an E or an I which
appears immediately after the course number.
The University of Michigan Extension Service offers Correspondence and Extension courses taught by University
of Michigan faculty. Correspondence courses are independent study courses equivalent in content to courses
regularly offered on the Ann Arbor campus. Extension courses involve regular classroom instruction but are
offered through extension centers located on the UM-Flint and UM-Dearborn campuses. A maximum 30 credits
of extension and correspondence courses elected through the University of Michigan can be counted toward the
minimum 120 credits required for a degree. Of these, a maximum 15 credits may be earned in correspondence
courses. For information about transfer credit policies affecting correspondence and extension courses elected
through other institutions, contact the Office of Academic Actions. Correspondence and extension courses earn
credit toward a degree (when completed with a final grade of at least "C") but not honor points and are considered
out-of-residence credit (see Residence Policy in this chapter).
A special summer independent study program is offered to qualified students enrolled at the University of
Michigan (Ann Arbor). Students with a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0 and no unfinished courses
on the transcript, and who are not enrolled in the College or elsewhere for both spring and summer half terms
or the equivalent, may elect up to eight hours of credit during the summer. A maximum 15 hours of Honors
Summer Independent Reading credit may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
Any course regularly offered by the College may be elected with departmental approval. A faculty member at the
rank of assistant professor or higher must supervise the work; lecturers and teaching assistants may not supervise
Honors Summer Independent Reading. Courses elected through this program are not correspondence courses
even though the course work is completed off-campus. Credit earned in the program is considered in-residence
credit and earns honor points. Application forms are available in the Honors Office after March 31 of each
academic year. (See also Residence Policy in this chapter.)
The Academic Record is the official record of a student's course elections, grades, and credits earned toward a
degree. Since the academic record is a permanent record of a student's academic performance, it must be correct.
Students who believe an error has been made on their academic records should contact the Assistant to the
Academic Actions Board.
LS&A academic records are maintained by the LS&A Recorders in the Records Office (1513 LS&A Building). An
enrolled student receives a Term Grade Report at the end of each term of enrollment. The Term Grade
Report informs students of the most recent term of enrollment and summarizes the total number of credits elected
and earned toward a degree and the number of honor points earned.
A student may wish to have a transcript of the academic record sent to another college or university or to an
employer. Such requests can be ordered at the Registrar windows in the lobby of the LS&A Building. Mail
requests can be sent to Transcript Office, 555 LS&A Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1382.
All requests should include dates of attendance and student identification number. A transcript of the academic
record bearing the official seal of the University of Michigan and the signature of the Registrar is forwarded
directly to the institution or person specified by the student assuming there is no outstanding financial commitment
from the student to the University. A fee ($4.00) for each official transcript is assessed to cover the costs of
processing. A student may request and receive on demand an unofficial copy of the academic record for a charge
of $1.00. The copy will be labeled "unofficial" and therefore should not be used in lieu of a transcript for the
purposes of admission or employment.
During the final term in residence, a student may pay a fee set by the Registrar's Office and request a special
(1) listing no courses;
(2) listing courses but no grades;
(3) translating all grades into P or F; or
(4) an appendix listing the original grades submitted for all courses elected "Pass/Fail."
A specially prepared transcript indicates which of these options has been chosen. A request for a special
transcript does not permanently revise the original academic record.
credit, no honor points
no credit, no honor points
credit, no honor points
NC (no credit)
no credit, no honor points
credit, no honor points
no credit, no honor points
(The S/U symbols are used by the School of Education.)
W (official withdrawal)
no credit, no honor points
ED (dropped unofficially) (A notation of ED for a graded election has the same effect on the
average as does an E.)
no credit, no honor points
Incomplete/Work in Progress
no credit, no honor points
X (absent from examination)
no credit, no honor points
Y (work in progress for project approved to extend for
two successive terms)
credit, no honor
Official Audit (VI)
no credit, no honor points
Miscellaneous Notations (Q, NR, and E/I)
Q (credit hours unofficially elected)
no credit, no honor points
NR (no report)
no credit, no honor points
E/I (A notation of E/I is used to designate experiential and independent study courses; letter
immediately after the course number.)
credit, honor points
A notation of P, F, CR, NC, S, U, or Q does not affect a student's term or cumulative grade point average.
A notation of I, X, Y, or NR, if not replaced by a passing grade, eventually lapses to E and, for graded elections,
is computed into the term and cumulative grade point averages.
If an LS&A student elects a course in another Ann Arbor unit which is graded on a pattern not indicated here (for
example, graduate courses in the School of Business Administration), the grade will be translated by the Registrar
to fit with LS&A's letter grading scale.
If a student receives permission to withdraw officially from a course after the first three weeks of a full term (first
two weeks of a half term), the course is recorded on the transcript with a W notation; neither credits toward a
degree program nor honor points are earned. The W notation is a chronological record indicating the course was
dropped after the third week of the term. It is posted on the transcript regardless of a student's reasons for
requesting the official withdrawal. If a student unofficially withdraws from a course (i.e., stops attending the
course but does not obtain permission for an official withdrawal), the instructor reports DR to indicate "unofficial
drop." The Registrar's Office converts a DR to the notation ED (Unofficial Withdrawal). An ED is computed into
the term and cumulative grade point averages as an E if the course were elected for a regular letter grade; neither
credit toward a degree program nor honor points are earned.
A grade posted on the transcript preceded by a Q notation indicates a discrepancy between the number of
credit hours elected by the student for a course and the number of credit hours graded by the instructor for that
same course. Contact the Assistant to the Academic Actions Board (1219 Angell Hall) for information and
procedures in resolving this problem.
A few courses (e.g., senior Honors thesis courses or some Biological Sciences research courses) are approved as
"two-term" sequences. In these specially approved cases only, an instructor can report a Y grade at the
end of the first-term course to indicate work in progress. When a final grade is reported at the end of the second
term, that final grade is posted for both terms' elections. In cases where a Y grade is reported for a course which
is not approved to extend for two successive terms, an I (Incomplete) is posted on the transcript and the course is
subject to the regular deadline for incompletes. Students needing more time to complete this work must petition
the Office of Academic Actions for an official extension of the deadline (see
An "Incomplete" (denoted on the transcript by the symbol I) may be reported by an instructor only if the amount
of unfinished work is small, the work is unfinished for reasons acceptable to the instructor, the student's standing
in the course is at least C-, and the student has taken the final examination. A student who is unavoidably absent
from a final examination may be granted, upon presentation of an excuse satisfactory to the instructor, the
privilege of making up the final examination; in such cases an X is reported by the instructor. Grades of I and X
are not included in the computation of the term or cumulative grade point averages during the period when a
student has the privilege of making up the work. Incomplete grades may be made up while a student is not in
residence, even if a student has been dismissed from the College for reasons of unsatisfactory academic
performance. An incomplete grade must be made up by the fourth week of a student's next fall or winter term in
residence or by an extended deadline approved by the Office of Academic Actions.
An instructor has ten days following the "four-week deadline" in which to report a final grade or ten days
following an approved extended deadline. The final grade is posted on the transcript, and credits and honor points
are posted accordingly; the I or X is not removed when the course is completed but remains on the transcript. An
I or X grade not finished by the incomplete deadline or an approved extended deadline lapses to E. In such cases,
no degree credit is earned and the course is then computed as an E in the term and cumulative grade point
averages. Unfinished courses elected on a non-graded pattern ("Pass/Fail," "Credit/No Credit," etc.) lapse to
"Fail" or "No Credit" but do not affect the term or cumulative grade point averages.
An NR is recorded by the Registrar's Office when an instructor does not report a course grade for an individual
student in a class or when an instructor submits an inappropriate grade. Students who receive an NR should
contact the course instructor or an Assistant to the Academic Actions Board. If unresolved after the first four
weeks of the next fall or winter term in residence, an NR in a graded election lapses to an E. In such cases no
degree credit is earned, and the course is computed as an ED in the term and cumulative grade point averages.
Students may count a maximum 30 non-graded credits toward the 120 credits required for a degree. Non-graded
credits are earned in courses for which no letter grade (A+ through E) is recorded on the transcript or for which no
evaluative narrative is provided with the transcript. Only those non-graded credits actually earned are counted as
part of the total number of non-graded hours applicable toward a degree.
1. Non-graded courses may be included in a distribution plan.
2. Pass/Fail courses (with the exception of Residential College courses, which are graded using a narrative
evaluation) may not be included in a concentration plan.
3. The final course in a sequence used to fulfill the Language Requirement MAY NOT be elected on a Pass/Fail
basis. (Effective for all students admitted to the College in Fall Term, 1995 and thereafter.)
4. Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent Study courses that are graded on a Credit/No Credit or
Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory basis may be included in a concentration program.
5. A change in grading pattern for a course is not permitted after the first three weeks of a full term (first two
weeks of a half term). Grading pattern choices must be indicated in the "Modifier" box of the Election
Change Worksheet and processed through CRISP. Courses elected after the third week of a term may not be
elected on a non-graded basis unless the course is offered as a "mandatory non-graded" course. The only
exceptions to this policy are short courses (e.g., Geology 101-115) which have started after the
beginning of the term. In these cases, the grading pattern may not be changed after the second week of class.
The Office of Academic Actions does not grant exceptions to this policy.
6. To be official, all choices involving non-graded elections must appear on a class schedule printout provided to
students by the CRISP system as the result of each registration or drop/add transaction. The College
holds students responsible for ensuring the accuracy and completeness of this class schedule printout.
Instructor approval is not required for a choice in elected grading pattern nor should the instructor be
informed of such a choice.
7. Non-graded courses earn credit toward a degree but not honor points. Therefore, "Pass" (or Credit) grades
do not enter into the computation of the term or cumulative grade point averages and the credit earned is
reflected only as Credit Toward Program (CTP) and not as Michigan Semester Hours (MSH).
8. Instructors report letter grades (A+ through E) for all students in their courses, except mandatory CR/NC
courses, and in the case of a student who has chosen to elect a course "Pass/Fail," the Office of the Registrar
converts the letter grades according to the following policies:
a. Grades of A+ through CÐ are posted on a transcript as "P" (Pass); credit toward a degree is earned.
b. Grades of D+ through E are posted on a transcript as F (Fail); no degree credit is earned.
9. In the case of an incomplete course elected "Pass/Fail," credit is posted only when the work has actually been
completed and a grade of at least CÐ has been reported. "Pass/Fail" courses which are not finished lapse to
"Fail," although the term and cumulative grade point averages remain unaffected.
10. If the instructor of a mandatory Credit/No Credit course believes that the amount and quality of a student's
work is such that it deserves credit, CR (Credit) is posted on the transcript. If the instructor believes that a
student's work does not justify the awarding of credit, NC (No Credit) is posted on the transcript. Courses
offered mandatory Credit/No Credit are designated in the course listings in Chapter VI.
11. In computing the grade point average for honorary societies, the reported letter grades for "non-
graded" elections are computed into the cumulative grade point average.
12. No course elected Pass/Fail will receive the Honors notation on the transcript or be counted as an "Honors"
course for the Sophomore Honors Award.
13. Residential College courses are normally offered on a graded basis (A+ through E) for non-RC students. A
non-RC student may elect an RC course on an optional non-graded, "Pass/Fail," basis through the
CRISP system. Check with the Residential College Office for further information.
14. During the final term in residence, a student may pay a special fee set by the Registrar's Office and request a
specially prepared appendix to the transcript on which the original grades submitted for all courses elected
"Pass/Fail" are listed.
15. Students who have transferred "non-graded" credit to the College must count that credit as part of the
maximum 30 hours of "non-graded" credit which may be counted toward an LS&A degree.
16. A student cannot choose to elect a course by the CR/NC and S/U grading patterns; the optional non-
graded pattern is P/F.
Students are expected to elect courses for credit. Occasionally, however, a student may wish to attend a course
but not elect it for credit. This arrangement can take the form of an official audit (sometimes called
An official audit obligates a student to attend classes regularly and complete course requirements (e.g.,
papers, laboratory assignments, tests, and the final examination). Regular tuition fees apply, and the course
appears on the transcript with the notation VI (VIsitor); no grade is posted and no degree credit is earned.
To arrange an official audit, a student must submit to the Office of Academic Actions a written statement, signed
by the student and instructor, indicating the reasons for the official audit and outlining the student's obligation to
course requirements. A request to officially audit a course should be approved before the election is
made and at least by the end of the third week of a full term. Students who do not fulfill course requirements earn
the grade ED to indicate that the course was unofficially dropped. In these special cases, the term and cumulative
grade point averages remain unaffected. A course elected as an official audit without permission will be
posted on the transcript as an unapproved election. Tuition is assessed by the Office of the Registrar for
both approved and unapproved audits.
H, E and I symbols are used to designate Honors, experiential and independent study courses and appear
immediately after the course number.
If a course is taken in residence and a grade of A+ through C-, P, CR, or S is earned, then repetition of this
course results in no additional credit or honor points. The course and grade appear on the transcript with the
notation "Not for Credit." This notation also results if a course is elected which is a prerequisite for in-residence
credits already received. A student repeating a course in which D+ through D- was previously earned will receive
honor points but no additional credit toward a degree. The course appears on the transcript with the notation
"Repetition." Repetition of a course in which an E, F, or U grade was originally earned produces both credits
toward a degree, and honor points for courses elected on the graded pattern; there is no special transcript notation.
In all such cases, the first election and grade earned remain on the transcript. The grades earned by repetition of
courses are not averaged and posted as a single entry; they are posted as separate elections.
The Term Grade Point Average is determined by dividing the total number of Michigan Semester Hours (MSH)
elected during a term into the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned during the same term. The
Cumulative Grade Point Average is determined by dividing the total number of Michigan Semester Hours (MSH)
into the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned. Notations of Q, Y, I, X, and NR are not initially
calculated into the term or cumulative grade point averages. Notations of I, X, and NR, if unresolved by the end
of the fourth week of the next fall or winter term in residence or by an approved extension deadline in the case of
an I or X, lapse to E and are computed into both the term and cumulative grade point averages, if the course was a
To be in good academic standing, a student must earn at least a 2.0 term grade point average and a 2.0 cumulative
grade point average. If a student fails to accomplish this, the "honor point deficit" can be determined by
multiplying the Michigan Semester Hours (MSH) elected by 2.0 and subtracting the total number of Michigan
Honor Points (MHP) earned. Only honor points earned in courses elected at the University of Michigan (Ann
Arbor, Dearborn, or Flint campus) may affect the grade point average.
At the end of each term and half term the Office of Academic Actions reviews the transcripts of all LS&A students
showing evidence of academic difficulty. The College uses three major types of actions: Action Pending,
Probation, and Dismissal.
Action Pending (AP) is assigned when a student's academic record for a term just concluded is
incomplete and the student is in danger of completing the term with less than a 2.0 grade point average. The
transcript is reviewed again when final grades have been reported or after incomplete grades have lapsed. This
review normally takes place during the fifth week of a student's next fall or winter term in residence. If all
incomplete work has not been finished, or if it has been finished with grades that result in a grade point average
below a 2.0, a student will be placed on Probation.
Probation (P) is assigned to all students in the College whose term grade point average falls
below 2.0 for the first time but not severely enough to justify dismissal. Students are placed on probation
whenever the term grade point average falls below a 2.0 during a term or half term, regardless of the number of
courses or credits elected or whether the cumulative grade point average remains above a 2.0. There is no
automatic term of probation. A significant honor point deficit in a single term or half term can result in dismissal
from the College even though a student's cumulative grade point average remains above a 2.0.
Probation Continued (PC) typically is assigned when a student on probation has earned a term grade
point average above a 2.0 even though the cumulative grade point average of 2.0 has not yet been achieved.
Probation Continued might also be assigned if a probationary student has a term average of exactly 2.0 or
slightly below 2.0, so long as members of the Academic Actions Board feel that the student is making minimum
progress toward fulfilling degree and program requirements.
Raised Probation (RP) officially confirms that a student has completed a probationary term with better
than a 2.0 grade point average and that a student's cumulative grade point average is at least a 2.0.
Normally, during a fall or winter term, the conditions for a student on Probation or Probation
Continued are that all courses in the ensuing term will be completed by the end of the term with a term grade
point average greater than 2.0. Specific conditions of probation are stated in a letter which notifies the student of
the action taken by the College.
All students placed on probation are urged to discuss their academic problems with an academic advisor or a
Member of the Academic Actions Board and to take full advantage of College and University resources to assist
them in improving their level of academic performance.
Students may be dismissed from the College
1. for incurring a significant honor point deficit in a single term or half term,
2. for failure to make satisfactory progress toward a degree, or
3. for any other reason deemed sufficient under the academic discipline policies of the LS&A Academic Actions
The Academic Actions Board maintains more liberal policies for freshmen than for other students because of the
adjustment problems encountered by many freshmen. As a general rule, unless there is a significant honor point
deficit the first term, freshmen are placed on probation and are permitted a second term of enrollment to improve
their level of academic performance. Similarly, transfer students are given special consideration unless the first
term's work in residence shows marked inability to meet the academic standards of the College. However,
there is no automatic, one-term probation period before a student may be dismissed from the
Not to Register without Permission of the Academic Actions Board (NTR) is a dismissal action taken
when a student's academic performance during a term indicates evidence of serious academic difficulty. The
College may also take a Not to Register action if a student's overall grade point average falls below a 2.0
in courses required for a concentration. Students may appeal a Not to Register action, and such appeals
require an interview with a Member of the Academic Actions Board and a written petition. The purpose of the
conversation is to discuss the reasons for the action taken by the College and for a student's poor academic
performance. All factors bearing upon a student's academic record are examined during this interview, and the
opportunity exists for a student to disclose all circumstances that affected the level of academic performance. A
student may then submit a written petition for reinstatement.
The petition should reflect a student's insight into the causes and resolution of past academic difficulties and
should be submitted at least four weeks prior to the term for which a student is requesting readmission. In
reaching a decision, Members of the Academic Actions Board carefully consider a student's academic promise and
any special circumstances that may have contributed to past unsatisfactory academic performance. Students who
have received a Not to Register action are permitted one appeal for reinstatement to the College
for a given term.
The College acknowledges the superior academic achievement of its students in a variety of ways. These include
the awarding of class Honors, special awards, Honors at graduation, election to national honor societies, the LS&A
Scholarship Program, and departmental academic awards. Transfer credit does not count for Honors.
Students who elect a minimum of 28 credits in courses taken on the Ann Arbor campus during a calendar year
(January 1 through December 31) including a minimum 20 credits elected on a graded basis, and who earn
a 3.5 grade point average are eligible for Class Honors. Incoming freshmen and transfer students who elect a
minimum 14 credits during the fall term, including a minimum of 10 graded, and who earn at least a 3.5
GPA are also eligible for Class Honors. This distinction is posted on a student's transcript by the Registrar's
Office, and recipients of this honor are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation. The criteria for
awarding Class Honors are currently under review and are subject to change.
James B. Angell Scholars are students who earn all A+, A, or A- grades for two or more consecutive terms based
on a minimum 12 graded credits elected each term; all other grades must be P, S, or CR. Terms of fewer
than 12 credits completed with grades of A+, A, A-, P, S, or CR enable a student to maintain standing as an
Angell Scholar. Any other grades earned during a full or half term make a student ineligible for this honor. This
distinction is posted on a student's transcript by the Registrar's Office, and recipients of this honor are invited to
attend the annual Honors Convocation.
Students in the top 5% of the freshman class are eligible for this honor, administered by the Office of the
Registrar, if they have earned at least 14 graded credits at Michigan. A book with an inscribed nameplate is
presented to each student, and a notation is made on the official transcript, and recipients of this award are invited
to attend the annual Honors Convocation.
Highest Distinction/High Distinction/Distinction
Degrees with distinction are awarded on the basis of rank in class. Students who have completed at least 58
credits in residence, at least 45 of which are "graded" (A+ to D-), and rank in the top 3% of their class are
recommended for a degree "with highest distinction." Those students who rank in the top 10% of their class but
not in the top 3% are recommended for a degree "with high distinction." Those students who rank in the top 25%
of their class but not in the top 10% are recommended for a degree "with distinction." The average cutoffs for the
past six years are approximately: 3.82 to 4.00 (highest distinction), 3.64 to 3.81 (high distinction), and 3.40 to
3.63 (distinction). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.
Highest Honors/High Honors/Honors
Students who have completed at least 58 credits in residence and have demonstrated high academic achievement
and capacity for independent work in a department or degree program may be recommended for a degree "with
highest Honors," "with high Honors," or "with Honors" in the field of concentration. Capacity for independent
work must be demonstrated in part by superior performance in an Honors program or some achievement of
equivalent character. A minimum overall grade point average of 3.0 is required. A notation is made on the
diploma and the transcript.
Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is the oldest scholastic society in America. Up to four per cent of each
year's graduating seniors, and a very few juniors of the highest scholastic ranking, in the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts may be invited to join Phi Beta Kappa. Seniors with outstanding achievements in
the liberal arts in other schools and colleges of the University of Michigan may be invited to join if they have
earned at least forty-five credits in LS&A. Transfer students with superior academic records in the liberal arts and at
least forty-five credits earned in LS&A may also receive invitations to join.
Invitations to membership in the national Phi Beta Kappa Society are issued by the local chapter, taking
into account achievement in the liberal arts as indicated by a student's cumulative grade point average, numerical
rank, and percentile rank. Letter grades reported for Pass/Fail courses will be used in estimating such
Each year the College awards a number of scholarships to students who have completed at least one full term.
These scholarships are awarded on the basis of high scholastic performance and demonstrated financial need.
Applications for LS&A Scholarships are available from 1402 Mason Hall.
Awards that recognize superior academic performance in the area of concentration are described in the
departmental/program information in Chapter VI.
The College's Academic Judiciary has been established to adjudicate cases of alleged academic misconduct
by students in the College.
The Judiciary sees a mutual student and instructor responsibility to be clear on the community's values for
scholarship. An instructor has the responsibility to make clear what academic dishonesty is and to help his or her
students understand what uses may be made of the work of others and under what conditions. A student is
responsible for becoming familiar with the Code of Academic Conduct (see below) and for discovering the sort of
conduct which will be viewed as an attack upon the community's values.
Questions regarding alleged academic misconduct should be addressed to the LS&A Assistant Dean of Student
Academic Affairs, 1402 Mason Hall. Procedures to be followed in judiciary hearings are detailed in the
"Academic Judiciary Manual of Procedures," available in 1402 Mason Hall.
The judiciary's charge is to uphold the scholarly values of the University community (punishment of civil crimes
remains with the state courts). Appeals are accepted only on procedural, not on substantive, grounds. An appeal
for clemency may be made to a three-member appeal panel only in the case of expulsion or suspension.
Code of Academic Conduct
The College, like all communities, functions best when its members treat one another with honesty, fairness,
respect, and trust. Therefore, an individual should realize that deception for the purpose of individual gain is an
offense against the members of the community. Such dishonesty includes:
Plagiarism: submitting a piece of work (for example an essay, research paper, assignment, laboratory
report) which in part or in whole is not entirely the student's own work without attributing those same portions to
their correct source.
Cheating: using unauthorized notes, or study aids, or information from another student or student's
paper on an examination; altering a graded work after it has been returned, then submitting the work for re-
grading; and allowing another person to do one's work and to submit the work under one's own name.
Double Submission of Papers: Submitting or resubmitting substantially the same paper for two or more
classes in the same or different terms without the express approval of each instructor.
Fabrication: presenting data in a piece of work which were not gathered in accordance with guidelines
defining the appropriate methods for collecting or generating data and failing to include a substantially accurate
account of the method by which the data were gathered or collected.
Aiding and Abetting Dishonesty: providing material or information to another person with knowledge
that these materials or information will be used improperly.
Falsification of Records and Official Documents: altering documents affecting academic records; forging
signature of authorization or falsifying information on an official academic document, election form, grade report,
letter of permission, petition, or any document designed to meet or exempt a student from an established College
or University academic regulation; unauthorized or malicious interference/tampering with computer property.
Students also have non-judicial means to redress other grievances. (1) Students may appeal any supposed act of
unfair or improper grading through the grievance procedure established by that department or program of the
College; students may contact the Assistant Dean for Student Academic Affairs for information and assistance; and
(2) students may register a complaint with the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs, which is
empowered to assist a student in seeking just treatment through whatever College or University procedure may be