Chapter IV: Academic Policies and
General College Policies and Procedures
Academic Load and Normal Degree Progress
Special Kinds of Academic Credit
Withdrawal from the College
Credit by Examination (CBE)
Grade Notations and Grading Policies
Experiential and Directed Reading/ Independent Study
Extension and Correspondence Courses
Honors Summer Independent Reading
Summary of Transcript Notations
Grade Point Average
Honors and Awards for Superior Academic Achievement
Code of Academic Conduct
Other Grievance Procedures
The policies and procedures described in this chapter govern the conduct
of academic matters affecting students enrolled in the College. Exceptions
to these policies may be granted only upon written petition to the Academic
Standards Board. Honors students petition the Honors Academic Board; Residential
College students petition the RC Counseling Office.
General College Policies and Procedures
Academic Load and Normal Degree Progress
In defining a normal academic load, a distinction must be made between
what load students are permitted to elect and what is recommended. Except
for first-term freshmen and transfer and Honors students, undergraduates
may elect, without special approval, academic loads of 8 to 18 credits for
a term, or 1 to 9 credits for a half term (spring or summer). Generally,
a program of four or five courses totaling 13 to 17 credits is considered
normal, and freshmen are usually advised to elect four courses (14 to 16
credits). Since the considerations for determining academic loads are often
complex and personal, the College encourages students to discuss each term's
elections with an academic advisor.
Class standing is determined by the number of credits earned toward
Freshman: fewer than 25 credits
Sophomore: 25 through 54 credits
Junior: 55 through 84 credits
Senior: 85 credits or more
At least 60 of the 120 credits required for a degree must be earned
in residence. Residence credit is granted for courses elected on the Ann
Arbor campus or at off-campus sites but directed by Ann Arbor faculty present
on the site and for a maximum 15 credits earned through departmental boards
of study and Honors Summer Independent Reading.
At least 30 of the last 60 credits for the degree must be earned in
No more than 60 credits may be earned through Advanced Placement,
credit by examination,
and correspondence courses, transfer credit from other institutions,
and off-campus independent study, except that 90 credits may be transferred
from other schools and colleges on the Ann Arbor campus of the University
of Michigan. Cross-campus transfer students may receive credit for a maximum
of 90 credits from the previous college or school. No more than 60 credits
of these 90 may have been completed at other institutions. LS&A residency
requires that a student earn 30 credits in the College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts.
Students who transfer from a junior college are permitted 60 transfer
credits (62 if an Associate's degree requiring 62 credits has been completed).
Students who have completed 60 credits toward an LS&A degree cannot
earn degree credit for courses elected at a two-year college.
Up to 60 credits may be transferred from the Flint and Dearborn campuses
of the University of Michigan, and courses completed at these campuses are
defined as out-of-residence credit (effective September 1, 1976), even though
they carry Michigan Honor Points.
Credit cannot be transferred from another school if that credit is
also being counted toward another baccalaureate or graduate or professional
degree. The programs described in Chapter V under the heading "Special
Joint Degree Programs" are exceptions to this policy.
Even if a course is transferable, credit is not allowed if the final
grade earned is "C-" or lower. This includes all transferable
credit earned outside the University of Michigan and also includes the University
of Michigan Correspondence Study offerings.
Students interested in electing out-of-residence credit should consult
in advance the Office of Undergraduate Admissions (where an information
sheet is available) about transfer equivalencies and an academic advisor
about the appropriateness of the intended elections. If credit elected out-of-residence
is to be included in a concentration plan, approval should be obtained in
advance from a concentration advisor. The language
requirement cannot be fulfilled by out-of-residence credit which is
elected after the student has begun degree enrollment in LS&A unless
the appropriate language department has approved that plan in advance.
LS&A students who elect courses which duplicate Advanced Placement
credit or courses completed elsewhere and transferred to LS&A as credit
toward an LS&A degree will receive degree credit and honor points (for
graded courses) for the LS&A election while credit for the duplicated
Advanced Placement or transfer courses will be deducted. The only exceptions
to this policy are those cases in which the courses transfer from another
school or college on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan.
In these cases, courses elected in LS&A which duplicate such transfer
courses are posted on the academic record as "repetitions" or
"not for credit" elections. The original course elections continue
to appear on the academic record for degree credit, and grades earned in
these courses continue to be computed in the grade point average. Students
electing courses in LS&A which are prerequisites for credits already
awarded via Advanced Standing will have the transferred credits deducted,
and the credits and honor points earned by the LS&A elections will stand.
This might mean losing credit for several courses while retaining credit
for only one, (for example, having transfer credit for three terms of basic
foreign language deducted because of completing the first term of that language
subsequently at the University of Michigan).
Students who want their out-of-residence credit evaluated must have
an official transcript of the completed work sent to the Office of Undergraduate
Admissions. Seniors planning to elect the final portion of the senior year
out of residence should contact the LS&A Senior Auditors prior to leaving
campus for information about special procedures; otherwise, a student risks
delay of graduation.
The College expects students to finalize their academic schedules
in the first three weeks of a term (first two weeks of a half term), but
later changes may be made according to the policies described below. Courses
dropped in the first three weeks of a term (first two weeks of a half term)
do not appear on the academic record; thereafter, all courses officially
dropped appear on the transcript with a "W" notation. Accordingly,
a "W" means that the student dropped a course after the third
week of a Fall or Winter Term (second week of a half-term) and that the
College accepted the reason(s) for the drop and gave its approval.
Failure to complete a course and to secure approval for a late drop
of the course results in the transcript notation Unofficial Drop (ED) which
is averaged into the term and cumulative grade point averages as a failing
grade (E). Courses elected on a non-graded pattern do not affect the term
or cumulative grade point averages.
Weeks one through three of a term (weeks one through two of a half term):
Students may make drop/add changes without advisor approval when these
changes result in an academic schedule of 8-18 credits during a term (1-9
credits in a half term). Programs of fewer than 8 or more than 18 credits
during a term (more than 9 credits during a half term) require advisor approval,
as do all course changes made by Honors students and new freshmen, transfer
students, and cross-campus transfer students. All students may make section
changes within a course without advisor approval. Adds of courses/sections
that are closed or require permission of instructor must be accompanied
by an Override from the department. Adds of open courses or courses not
requiring permission of instructor are allowed without override, but the
student is responsible for any work assigned in the course from its beginning,
regardless of the date of election. Therefore it is important to talk with
the course instructor about work assigned to date before processing an add
in the second or third week. Overrides are available from instructors or
departmental offices. Since the fee assessment is not set until the end
of this three-week period (two weeks in a half term), a student dropping
below 12 credits (six in a half-term) will be assessed a lower tuition charge.
Weeks four through nine of a term (three through four and a half of
a half term):
Students requesting changes must (1) obtain a Request for Late Drop
form and Election Change Worksheet from 1255 Angell Hall; (2) complete both
forms, stating the reason(s) for the drop; (3) obtain instructor's recommendation
and signature; (4) return the completed forms to 1255 Angell Hall. All requests
to add courses must be accompanied by an Override, or the student must arrange
with the department for an Electronic Override to be entered. Honors students
follow the procedures established by the Honors Office.
An academic advisor can approve a drop or add request in this period.
When students bring in the completed request form, they are strongly encouraged
to meet individually with an available advisor to discuss the request and
its impact on program. If the advisor does approve the request, students
take the Election Change Worksheet to CRISP (G155 Angell), where they will
be able to get a new schedule printout showing the change. If the advisor
does not approve the request, students can petition the Academic Standards
Board one time to appeal that decision. Students always should continue
pursuing their existing academic schedules until knowing that a requested
change has been approved.
Fees are not reduced even if a student drops below 12 credits (six
in a half-term).
Week ten through the last day of classes of a term (after the end of
week four and a half through the last day of classes for a half term):
Only the most serious circumstances warrant dropping a course after
the ninth week of the term. Fear of failing the course and no longer needing
the course in a degree program are not considered valid reasons for granting
approval to drop a course after the 9th week of a Fall or Winter Term. Students
wishing to make changes must (1) obtain an Election Change Worksheet; (2)
complete a Request for Late Drop/Add form signed by the instructor; and
(3) make an appointment with an academic advisor. The instructor's and advisor's
signatures indicate that the request for a change in academic schedule has
been discussed; they do not indicate approval. All requests to add courses
must be accompanied by an Override, or the student must arrange with the
department for an Electronic Override to be entered. Requests resulting
in academic schedules of 8-18 credits during a term (1-9 credits in a half
term) are approved or denied by the a Late Drop Review Committee. All other
requests are decided by the Academic Standards Board.
1. Regarding the election of mini-courses, students are subject
to different "W" and fee deadlines. A mini-course which starts
at the beginning of the term and lasts for seven weeks can be dropped without
"W" and without fee for three weeks. Such a course starting in
the middle of the term can be dropped without "W" and without
fee for two weeks.
2. Information regarding "W" and fee deadlines for all other mini-courses
is available on a handout available at the Academic Advising Center, 1255
3. All requests to drop or add mini-courses submitted after the applicable
free drop/ add period are decided by the Academic Standards Board. Since
those courses do not run for the full length of the term, late drop or add
requests are not judged according to the timetable used for full-term courses.
Any late drop or add request for mini-courses needs to be supported by significant
Withdrawal from the College
Students who have early registered for a term or half term but who
subsequently decide not to return to the University should notify the Academic
Standards Board. This can be done either in writing or by going in person
to complete a Disenrollment Memorandum. Notification of intention to disenroll
must be received before the first day of classes or a student is assessed
a $50 disenrollment fee plus an $80 registration fee ($40 for each half
term). Students who wish to withdraw once classes have begun should go to
the Academic Standards Board.
After the third week of classes during a term (second week in a half
term), an appointment must be made with a member of the Academic Standards
Board. Students who withdraw after the middle of a term may have to obtain
permission from the Academic Standards Board before continuing in the College.
(See Fee Regulations in Chapter VII.)
Special Kinds of Academic Credit
Credit by Examination (CBE)
Recognizing that students may have background in particular academic
areas, the faculty has made it possible for students to earn credit by examination.
The amount and type of credit in any area is determined by the academic
department(s) in which a student feels qualified to seek credit by examination.
Some departments recognize certain subject area College Entrance Examination
Board College Level Examination Program (CLEP) examinations and grant credit
on the basis of specified performance on such examinations. Since the University
of Michigan is not a CLEP testing center, all CLEP credit is evaluated as
incoming transfer credit, and questions regarding CLEP credit should be
addressed to the Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Only those CLEP examinations
specifically accepted by academic departments at the University of Michigan
may be used to certify credit by examination toward a degree.
In addition to or in place of CLEP examinations, some academic departments
have prepared examinations which are administered on campus. Questions regarding
such departmental examinations should be directed to the Department of Independent
Study, Extension Service, where applications for such examinations are available.
Credit earned by examination is out-of-residence credit. It is posted
on a student's transcript as credit earned toward the degree but without
honor points and identified by the notation "Credit by Examination."
A maximum 60 credits can be earned by examination and counted toward an
LS&A degree. (See Residence Policy in this chapter.) Failure to pass
a departmental examination is not noted on a student's transcript or in
a student's academic advising file.
Experiential and Directed Reading/ Independent
The College distinguishes "Experiential" and "Independent"
courses from its other course offerings.
Experiential courses (denoted EXPERIENTIAL in Chapter VI) involve
academic work which may take place in a setting other than a university
classroom, laboratory, library, or studio and in which the experience is
directly related to an academic discipline. Most Experiential Credit is
awarded through programs administered by departments and is recorded as
credit in one of the departmental Experiential course numbers.
Under certain circumstances a student may receive academic credit
for an activity not covered by one of the departmental Experiential course
numbers by petitioning the College Board of Study, in which case credit
may be recorded in a course
administered by the University Course Division. A student wishing to
explore this possibility should understand that it is not the policy of
the College to award academic credit for something simply because it is
useful and educational. For the College Board of Study to recommend
academic credit for an off-campus experience, students must demonstrate
that the experience is directly related to an academic discipline represented
in the College of LS&A and that it has a clear linkage to some aspect
of their course of study at the University of Michigan. Ordinarily, for
credit to be recommended by the College Board of Study, the project must
be approved in advance and be recommended by the faculty sponsor who
agrees to evaluate the experience and the work submitted by the student
following his/her return to campus. Occasionally the College Board of Study
may recommend that a student receive experiential credit for an activity
that was not approved in advance, but only if the student provides materials
enabling a faculty member to evaluate the academic quality and value of
the experience. Such approval will usually require additional work with
a faculty member following the student's return to campus. The
College Board of Study will not consider petitions for credit for activities
related to disciplines represented by Schools or Colleges other than LS&A.
A student wishing to explore the possibility of obtaining Experiential
Credit through the College Board of Study should contact the Academic Advising
Center. Students in the Honors Program or Residential College should contact
an advisor through the Honors Program or RC Counseling offices.
Independent courses may be (1) Directed Reading/Independent Study
courses (denoted INDEPENDENT in Chapter VI) which are designated by title
and not normally offered by classroom instruction; (2) courses normally
offered through classroom instruction but occasionally taught on an independent
study basis (e.g., Honors Summer Independent Reading);
(3) courses not specially designated as "Independent" and normally
offered as classroom instruction but elected by special arrangement with
The following limitations apply to Experiential and Directed Reading/Independent
Experiential and independent study courses are designated on the student's
transcript by an E or an I which appears immediately
after the course number.
Extension and Correspondence Courses
The University of Michigan Extension Service offers Correspondence
and Extension courses taught by University of Michigan faculty. Correspondence
courses are independent study courses equivalent in content to courses regularly
offered on the Ann Arbor campus. Extension courses involve regular classroom
instruction but are offered through extension centers located on the UM-Flint
and UM-Dearborn campuses. A maximum 30 credits of extension and correspondence
courses elected through the University of Michigan can be counted toward
the minimum 120 credits required for a degree. Of these, a maximum 15 credits
may be earned in correspondence courses. For information about transfer
credit policies affecting correspondence and extension courses elected through
other institutions, contact the Academic
Standards Board. Correspondence and extension courses earn credit toward
a degree (when completed with a final grade of at least "C") but
not honor points and are considered out-of-residence credit (see Residence
Policy in this chapter).
Honors Summer Independent Reading
A special summer independent study program is offered to qualified
students enrolled at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). Students with
a cumulative GPA of at least 3.0 and no unfinished courses on the transcript,
and who are not enrolled in the College or elsewhere for both spring and
summer half terms or the equivalent, may elect up to eight hours of credit
during the summer. A maximum 15 hours of Honors Summer Reading credit may
be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
Any course regularly offered by the College may be elected with departmental
approval. A faculty member at the rank of assistant professor or higher
must supervise the work; lecturers and teaching assistants may not supervise
Honors Summer Independent Reading. Courses elected through this program
are not correspondence courses even though the course work is completed
off-campus. Credit earned in the program is considered in-residence credit
and earns honor points. Application forms are available in the Honors
Office after March 31 of each academic year. (See also Residence
Policy in this chapter.)
- A maximum 15 credits of Experiential courses may be counted toward
a degree; a maximum 8 credits may be earned from one project, and only one
such Experiential project may be elected each term.
- A combined total 30 credits of Experiential and Directed Reading/
Independent Study courses may be counted in the 120 credits required for
- A maximum 15 credits of Honors Summer Independent Reading courses
may be counted in the 120 credits required for a degree.
- Experiential and Independent courses are excluded from area distribution
Grade Notations and Grading Policies
The Academic Record is the official record of a student's course elections,
grades, and credits earned toward a degree. Since the academic record is
a permanent record of a student's academic performance, it must be correct.
Students who believe an error has been made on their academic records should
contact the Assistant to the Academic Standards Board.
LS&A academic records are maintained by the Recorders in the Records
Office and Diploma (1513 LS&A Building). An enrolled student receives
a Term Grade Report at the end of each term of enrollment. The Term Grade
Report informs students of the most recent term of enrollment and summarizes
the total number of credits elected and earned toward a degree and the number
of honor points earned.
A student may wish to have a transcript of the academic record sent
to another college or university or to an employer. Such requests can be
ordered at a Student Services site, G255 Angell or 1212 Pierpont Commons.
Mail requests can be sent to Transcript and Certification Office, 555 LS&A
Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1382. All requests should
include dates of attendance and student identification number. A transcript
of the academic record bearing the official seal of the University of Michigan
and the signature of the Registrar is forwarded directly to the institution
or person specified by the student assuming there is no outstanding financial
commitment from the student to the University. There is no fee for official
transcripts. A student may request and receive on demand an academic report
of the academic record. The academic report is "unofficial" and
therefore should not be used in lieu of a transcript for the purposes of
admission or employment.
A student may pay a fee set by the Registrar's Office and request
a special transcript
A specially prepared transcript indicates which of these options has
been chosen. A request for a special transcript does not permanently revise
the original academic record.
Summary of Transcript Notations
- (1) listing no courses;
- (2) listing courses but no grades;
- (3) translating all grades into P or F; or
- (4) an appendix listing the original grades submitted for all courses
P (passed) credit, no honor points
F (failed) no credit, no honor points
CR (credit) credit, no honor points
NC (no credit) no credit, no honor points
S (satisfactory) credit, no honor points
U (unsatisfactory) no credit, no honor points
(The S/U symbols are used by the School of Education.)
W (official withdrawal) no credit, no
ED (dropped unofficially) no credit, no
(A notation of ED for a graded election has the same effect on the
grade point average as does an E.)
Incomplete/Work in Progress
I (incomplete) no credit, no honor points
X (absent from examination) no credit,
no honor points
Y (work in progress for project approved
to extend for two successive terms) no credit, no honor points
Official Audit (VI)
VI (VIsitor) no credit, no honor points
Miscellaneous Notations (Q, NR, E/I)
Q (credit hours unofficially elected)
no credit, no honor points
NR (no report) no credit, no honor points
E/I credit, honor points
A notation of P, F, CR, NC, S, U, or Q does not affect a student's term
or cumulative grade point average. A notation of I, X, Y, or NR, if not
replaced by a passing grade, eventually lapses to E and, for graded elections,
is computed into the term and cumulative grade point averages.
If an LS&A student elects a course in another Ann Arbor unit which is
graded on a pattern not indicated here (for example, graduate courses in
the School of Business Administration), the grade will be translated by
the Registrar to fit with LS&A's letter grading scale.
Drop (W) / Official Withdrawal / Unofficial
If a student receives permission to withdraw officially from a course
after the first three weeks of a full term (first two weeks of a half term),
the course is recorded on the transcript with a W notation; neither credits
toward a degree program nor honor points are earned. The W notation is a
chronological record indicating the course was dropped after the third week
of the term. It is posted on the transcript regardless of a student's reasons
for requesting the official withdrawal. If a student unofficially withdraws
from a course (i.e., stops attending the course but does not obtain permission
for an official withdrawal), the instructor reports DR to indicate "unofficial
drop." The Registrar's Office converts a DR to the notation ED (Unofficial
Withdrawal). An ED is computed into the term and cumulative grade point
averages as an E if the course were elected for a regular letter grade;
neither credit toward a degree program nor honor points are earned.
A grade posted on the transcript preceded by a Q notation indicates
a discrepancy between the number of credit hours elected by the student
for a course and the number of credit hours graded by the instructor for
that same course. Contact the Assistant
to the Academic Standards Board (1219 Angell Hall) for information and
procedures in resolving this problem.
Grading for a Two-Term Course (Y)
A few courses (e.g., senior Honors thesis courses or some Biological
Sciences research courses) are approved as "two-term" sequences.
In these specially approved cases only, an instructor can report a Y grade
at the end of the first-term course to indicate work in progress. When a
final grade is reported at the end of the second term, that final grade
is posted for both terms' elections. In cases where a Y grade is reported
for a course which is not approved to extend for two successive terms, an
I (Incomplete) is posted on the transcript and the course is subject to
the regular deadline for incompletes. Students needing more time to complete
this work must petition the Academic
Standards Board for an official extension of the deadline (see below).
Incomplete Courses and Notations (I or X)
An "Incomplete" (denoted on the transcript by the symbol
I) may be reported by an instructor only if the amount of unfinished work
is small, the work is unfinished for reasons acceptable to the instructor,
the student's standing in the course is at least C-, and the student has
taken the final examination. A student who is unavoidably absent from a
final examination may be granted, upon presentation of an excuse satisfactory
to the instructor, the privilege of making up the final examination; in
such cases an X is reported by the instructor. Grades of I and X are not
included in the computation of the term or cumulative grade point averages
during the period when a student has the privilege of making up the work.
Incomplete grades may be made up while a student is not in residence, even
if a student has been dismissed from the College for reasons of unsatisfactory
academic performance. An incomplete grade must be made up by the fourth
week of a student's next fall or winter term in residence or by an extended
deadline approved by the Office of Academic Standards.
An instructor has ten days following the "four-week deadline"
in which to report a final grade or ten days following an approved extended
deadline. The final grade is posted on the transcript, and credits and honor
points are posted accordingly; the I or X is not removed when the course
is completed but remains on the transcript. An I or X grade not finished
by the incomplete deadline or an approved extended deadline lapses to E.
In such cases, no degree credit is earned and the course is then computed
as an E in the term and cumulative grade point averages. Unfinished courses
elected on a non-graded pattern ("Pass/Fail," "Credit/No
Credit," etc.) lapse to "Fail" or "No Credit" but
do not affect the term or cumulative grade point averages.
No Report (NR)
An NR is recorded by the Registrar's Office when an instructor does
not report a course grade for an individual student in a class or when an
instructor submits an inappropriate grade. Students who receive an NR should
contact the course instructor or an Assistant to the Academic Standards
Board. If unresolved after the first four weeks of the next fall or winter
term in residence, an NR in a graded election lapses to an E. In such cases
no degree credit is earned, and the course is computed as an ED in the term
and cumulative grade point averages.
Non-Graded Courses (P/F, CR/NC, S/U)
Students may count a maximum 30 non-graded credits toward the 120 credits
required for a degree. Non-graded credits are earned in courses for which
no letter grade (A+ through E) is recorded on the transcript or for which
no evaluative narrative is provided with the transcript. Only those non-graded
credits actually earned are counted as part of the total number of non-graded
hours applicable toward a degree.
1. Non-graded courses may be included in a distribution
2. Pass/Fail courses (with the exception of Residential College courses,
which are graded using a narrative evaluation) may not be included
in a concentration plan.
3. The final course in a sequence used to fulfill the Language Requirement
MAY NOT be elected on a Pass/Fail basis. (Effective for all students admitted
to the College in Fall Term, 1995 and thereafter.)
4. Experiential and Directed Reading/ Independent Study courses that are
graded on a Credit/No Credit or Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory basis may
be included in a concentration program.
5. A change in grading pattern for a course is not permitted after the
first three weeks of a full term (first two weeks of a half term). Grading
pattern choices must be modified through the Touch-Tone Registration system.
Courses elected after the third week of a term may not be elected on a non-graded
basis unless the course is offered as a "mandatory non-graded"
course. The only exceptions to this policy are short courses (e.g.,
Geology 101-115) which have started after the beginning of the term. In
these cases, the grading pattern may not be changed after the second week
of class. The Academic Standards
Board does not grant exceptions to this policy.
6. To be official, all choices involving non-graded elections must appear
on a class schedule printout provided to students by the Touch-Tone
Registration system as the result of each registration or drop/add transaction.
The College holds students responsible for ensuring the accuracy and
completeness of this class schedule printout. Therefore, it is important
for the student to listen carefully to the read-back before exiting a telephone
registration transaction; and it is important for the student to direct
the system to provide a printed copy of the registration. Touch-Tone Registration
has full instructions for receiving a printed copy.
7. Non-graded courses earn credit toward a degree but not honor points.
Therefore, "Pass" (or Credit) grades do not enter into the computation
of the term or cumulative grade point averages and the credit earned is
reflected only as Credit Toward Program (CTP) and not as Michigan Semester
8. Instructor approval is not required for a choice in elected grading pattern
nor should the instructor be informed of such a choice. Instructors report
letter grades (A+ through E) for all students in their courses, except mandatory
CR/NC courses, and in the case of a student who has chosen to elect a course
"Pass/Fail," the Office of the Registrar converts the letter grades
according to the following policies:
a. Grades of A+ through C- are posted on a transcript as "P"
(Pass); credit toward a degree is earned.
b. Grades of D+ through E are posted on a transcript as F (Fail); no degree
credit is earned.
9. In the case of an incomplete course elected "Pass/Fail," credit
is posted only when the work has actually been completed and a grade of
at least C- has been reported. "Pass/Fail" courses which are not
finished lapse to "Fail," although the term and cumulative grade
point averages remain unaffected.
10. If the instructor of a mandatory Credit/ No Credit course believes that
the amount and quality of a student's work is such that it deserves credit,
CR (Credit) is posted on the transcript. If the instructor believes that
a student's work does not justify the awarding of credit, NC (No Credit)
is posted on the transcript. Courses offered mandatory Credit/No Credit
are designated in the course listings in Chapter VI.
11. In computing the grade point average for honorary societies, the reported
letter grades for "non-graded" elections are computed into
the cumulative grade point average.
12. No course elected Pass/Fail will receive the Honors notation on the
transcript or be counted as an "Honors" course for the Sophomore
13. Residential College courses are normally offered on a graded basis (A+
through E) for non-RC students. A non-RC student may elect
an RC course on an optional non-graded, "Pass/Fail," basis through
the Touch-Tone Registration system. Check with the Residential
College Office for further information.
14. During the final term in residence, a student may pay a special fee
set by the Registrar's Office and request a specially prepared appendix
to the transcript on which the original grades submitted for all courses
elected "Pass/Fail" are listed.
15. Students who have transferred "non-graded" credit to the College
must count that credit as part of the maximum 30 hours of "non-graded"
credit which may be counted toward an LS&A degree.
16. A student cannot choose to elect a course by the CR/NC and S/U grading
patterns; the optional non-graded pattern is P/F.
Students are expected to elect courses for credit. Occasionally, however,
a student may wish to attend a course but not elect it for credit. This
arrangement can take the form of an official audit (sometimes called Visitor
An official audit obligates a student to attend classes regularly
and complete course requirements (e.g., papers, laboratory assignments,
tests, and the final examination). Regular tuition fees apply, and the course
appears on the transcript with the notation VI (VIsitor); no grade is posted
and no degree credit is earned. To arrange an official audit, a student
must submit to the Academic Standards
Board a written statement, signed by the student and instructor, indicating
the reasons for the official audit and outlining the student's obligation
to course requirements. A request to officially audit a course should be
approved before the election is made and at least by the end of the third
week of a full term. Students who do not fulfill course requirements earn
the grade ED to indicate that the course was unofficially dropped. In these
special cases, the term and cumulative grade point averages remain unaffected.
A course elected as an official audit without permission will be posted
on the transcript as an unapproved election. Tuition is assessed by the
Office of the Registrar for both approved and unapproved audits.
H, E and I symbols are used to designate Honors, experiential and
independent study courses and appear immediately after the course number.
Repetition of Courses
If a course is taken in residence and a grade of A+ through C-, P,
CR, or S is earned, then repetition of this course results in no additional
credit or honor points. The course and grade appear on the transcript with
the notation "Not for Credit." This notation also results if a
course is elected which is a prerequisite for in-residence credits already
received. A student repeating a course in which D+ through D- was previously
earned will receive honor points but no additional credit toward a degree.
The course appears on the transcript with the notation "Repetition."
Repetition of a course in which an E, F, or U grade was originally earned
produces both credits toward a degree, and honor points for courses elected
on the graded pattern; there is no special transcript notation. In all such
cases, the first election and grade earned remain on the transcript. The
grades earned by repetition of courses are not averaged and posted as a
single entry; they are posted as separate elections.
Grade Point Average
Term and Cumulative Grade Point Averages
The Term Grade Point Average is determined by dividing the total number
of Michigan Semester Hours (MSH) elected during a term into the total number
of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned during the same term. The Cumulative
Grade Point Average is determined by dividing the total number of Michigan
Semester Hours (MSH) into the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP)
earned. Notations of Q, Y, I, X, and NR are not initially calculated into
the term or cumulative grade point averages. Notations of I, X, and NR,
if unresolved by the end of the fourth week of the next fall or winter term
in residence or by an approved extension deadline in the case of an I or
X, lapse to E and are computed into both the term and cumulative grade point
averages, if the course was a graded election.
Minimum Term and Cumulative Grade Point Averages Required
To be in good academic standing, a student must earn at least a 2.0
term grade point average and a 2.0 cumulative grade point average. If a
student fails to accomplish this, the "honor point deficit" can
be determined by multiplying the Michigan Semester Hours (MSH) elected by
2.0 and subtracting the total number of Michigan Honor Points (MHP) earned.
Only honor points earned in courses elected at the University of Michigan
(Ann Arbor, Dearborn, or Flint campus) may affect the grade point average.
At the end of each term and half term the Academic
Standards Board reviews the academic records of all LS&A students
showing evidence of academic difficulty. The College uses three major types
of actions: Action Pending, Probation, and Dismissal.
Action Pending (AP) is assigned when a student's academic record for
a term just concluded is incomplete and the student is in danger of completing
the term with less than a 2.0 grade point average. The transcript is reviewed
again when final grades have been reported or after incomplete grades have
lapsed. This review normally takes place during the fifth week of a student's
next fall or winter term in residence. If all incomplete work has not been
finished, or if it has been finished with grades that result in a grade
point average below a 2.0, a student will be placed on Probation.
Probation (P) is assigned to all students in the College whose term
grade point average falls below 2.0 for the first time but not severely
enough to justify dismissal. Students are placed on probation whenever the
term grade point average falls below a 2.0 during a term or half term, regardless
of the number of courses or credits elected or whether the cumulative grade
point average remains above a 2.0. There is no automatic term of probation.
A significant honor point deficit in a single term or half term can result
in dismissal from the College even though a student's cumulative grade point
average remains above a 2.0.
Probation Continued (PC) typically is assigned when a student on probation
has earned a term grade point average above a 2.0 even though the cumulative
grade point average of 2.0 has not yet been achieved. Probation Continued
might also be assigned if a probationary student has a term average of exactly
2.0 or slightly below 2.0, so long as members of the Academic Standards
Board feel that the student is making minimum progress toward fulfilling
degree and program requirements.
Raised Probation (RP) officially confirms that a student has completed
a probationary term with better than a 2.0 grade point average and that
a student's cumulative grade point average is at least a 2.0.
Normally, during a fall or winter term, the conditions for a student
on Probation or Probation Continued are that all courses in the ensuing
term will be completed by the end of the term with a term grade point average
greater than 2.0. Specific conditions of probation are stated in a letter
which notifies the student of the action taken by the College.
All students placed on probation are urged to discuss their academic
problems with an academic advisor or a Member of the Academic Standards
Board and to take full advantage of College and University resources to
assist them in improving their level of academic performance.
Students may be dismissed from the College
- for incurring a significant honor point deficit in a single term
or half term,
- for failure to make satisfactory progress toward a degree, or
- for any other reason deemed sufficient under the academic discipline
policies of the LS&A Academic Standards Board.
The Academic Standards Board
maintains more liberal policies for freshmen than for other students because
of the adjustment problems encountered by many freshmen. As a general rule,
unless there is a significant honor point deficit the first term, freshmen
are placed on probation and are permitted a second term of enrollment to
improve their level of academic performance. Similarly, transfer students
are given special consideration unless the first term's work in residence
shows marked inability to meet the academic standards of the College. However,
there is no automatic, one-term probation period before a student may be
dismissed from the College.
Not to Register without Permission of the
Academic Standards Board (NTR) is a dismissal action taken when a student's
academic performance during a term indicates evidence of serious academic
difficulty. The College may also take a Not to Register action if a student's
overall grade point average falls below a 2.0 in courses required for a
concentration. Students may appeal a Not to Register action, and such appeals
require an interview with a Member of the Academic Standards Board and a
written petition. The purpose of the conversation is to discuss the reasons
for the action taken by the College and for a student's poor academic performance.
All factors bearing upon a student's academic record are examined during
this interview, and the opportunity exists for a student to disclose all
circumstances that affected the level of academic performance. A student
may then submit a written petition for reinstatement.
The petition should reflect a student's insight into the causes and
resolution of past academic difficulties and should be submitted at least
four weeks prior to the term for which a student is requesting readmission.
In reaching a decision, Members of the Academic Standards Board carefully
consider a student's academic promise and any special circumstances that
may have contributed to past unsatisfactory academic performance. Students
who have received a Not to Register action are permitted one appeal for
reinstatement to the College for a given term.
Honors and Awards for Superior Academic
The College acknowledges the superior academic achievement of its
students in a variety of ways. These include the awarding of class Honors,
special awards, Honors at graduation, election to national honor societies,
the LS&A Scholarship Program, and departmental academic awards. Transfer
credit does not count for Honors.
Students who elect a minimum of 28 credits in courses taken on the
Ann Arbor campus during a calendar year (January 1 through December 31)
including a minimum 20 credits elected on a graded basis, and who earn a
3.5 grade point average are eligible for Class Honors. Incoming freshmen
and transfer students who elect a minimum 14 credits during the fall term,
including a minimum of 10 graded, and who earn at least a 3.5 GPA are also
eligible for Class Honors. This distinction is posted on a student's transcript
by the Registrar's Office, and recipients of this honor are invited to attend
the annual Honors Convocation. The criteria for awarding Class Honors are
currently under review and are subject to change.
James B. Angell Scholars are students who earn all A+, A, or A- grades
for two or more consecutive terms based on a minimum 12 graded credits elected
each term; all other grades must be P, S, or CR. Terms of fewer than 12
credits completed with grades of A+, A, A-, P, S, or CR enable a student
to maintain standing as an Angell Scholar. Any other grades earned during
a full or half term make a student ineligible for this honor. This distinction
is posted on a student's transcript by the Registrar's Office, and recipients
of this honor are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation.
Students in the top 5% of the freshman class are eligible for this
honor, administered by the Office of the Registrar, if they have earned
at least 14 graded credits at Michigan. A book with an inscribed nameplate
is presented to each student, and a notation is made on the official transcript,
and recipients of this award are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation.
Highest Distinction/High Distinction/ Distinction
Degrees with distinction are awarded on the basis of rank in class.
Students who have completed at least 58 credits in residence, at least 45
of which are "graded" (A+ to D-), and rank in the top 3% of their
class are recommended for a degree "with highest distinction."
Those students who rank in the top 10% of their class but not in the top
3% are recommended for a degree "with high distinction." Those
students who rank in the top 25% of their class but not in the top 10% are
recommended for a degree "with distinction." The average cutoffs
for the past six years are approximately: 3.82 to 4.00 (highest distinction),
3.64 to 3.81 (high distinction), and 3.40 to 3.63 (distinction). A notation
is made on the diploma and the transcript.
Highest Honors/High Honors/Honors
Students who have completed at least 58 credits in residence and have
demonstrated high academic achievement and capacity for independent work
in a department or degree program may be recommended for a degree "with
highest Honors," "with high Honors," or "with Honors"
in the field of concentration. Capacity for independent work must be demonstrated
in part by superior performance in an Honors program or some achievement
of equivalent character. A minimum overall grade point average of 3.0 is
required. A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.
Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is the oldest scholastic society
in America. Up to four per cent of each year's graduating seniors, and a
very few juniors of the highest scholastic ranking, in the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts may be invited to join Phi Beta Kappa. Seniors with
outstanding achievements in the liberal arts in other schools and colleges
of the University of Michigan may be invited to join if they have earned
at least forty-five credits in LS&A. Transfer students with superior
academic records in the liberal arts and at least forty-five credits earned
in LS&A may also receive invitations to join.
Invitations to membership in the national Phi Beta Kappa Society are
issued by the local chapter, taking into account achievement in the liberal
arts as indicated by a student's cumulative grade point average, numerical
rank, and percentile rank. Letter grades reported for Pass/Fail courses
will be used in estimating such rankings.
LS&A Scholarship Program
Each year the College awards a number of scholarships to students
who have completed at least one full term. These scholarships are awarded
on the basis of high scholastic performance and demonstrated financial need.
Applications for LS&A Scholarships are available from 1402 Mason Hall.
Awards that recognize superior academic performance in the area of
concentration are described in the departmental/program information in Chapter
The College's Academic Judiciary has been established to adjudicate
cases of alleged academic misconduct by students in the College.
The Judiciary sees a mutual student and instructor responsibility
to be clear on the community's values for scholarship. An instructor has
the responsibility to make clear what academic dishonesty is and to help
his or her students understand what uses may be made of the work of others
and under what conditions. A student is responsible for becoming familiar
with the Code of Academic Conduct (see below) and for discovering the sort
of conduct which will be viewed as an attack upon the community's values.
Questions regarding alleged academic misconduct should be addressed
to the LS&A Assistant Dean of Student
Academic Affairs, 1402 Mason Hall. Procedures to be followed in judiciary
hearings are detailed in the "Academic
Judiciary Manual of Procedures," available in 1402 Mason Hall.
The judiciary's charge is to uphold the scholarly values of the University
community (punishment of civil crimes remains with the state courts). Appeals
are accepted only on procedural, not on substantive, grounds. An appeal
for clemency may be made to a three-member appeal panel only in the case
of expulsion or suspension.
Code of Academic Conduct
The College, like all communities, functions best when its members
treat one another with honesty, fairness, respect, and trust. Therefore,
an individual should realize that deception for the purpose of individual
gain is an offense against the members of the community. Such dishonesty
Falsification of Records and Official Documents: altering documents
affecting academic records; forging signature of authorization or falsifying
information on an official academic document, election form, grade report,
letter of permission, petition, or any document designed to meet or exempt
a student from an established College or University academic regulation;
unauthorized or malicious interference/tampering with computer property.
- Plagiarism: submitting a piece of work (for example an essay,
research paper, assignment, laboratory report) which in part or in whole
is not entirely the student's own work without attributing those same portions
to their correct source.
- Cheating: using unauthorized notes, or study aids, or information
from another student or student's paper on an examination; altering a graded
work after it has been returned, then submitting the work for re-grading;
and allowing another person to do one's work and to submit the work under
one's own name.
- Double Submission of Papers: Submitting or resubmitting substantially
the same paper for two or more classes in the same or different terms without
the express approval of each instructor.
- Fabrication: presenting data in a piece of work which were
not gathered in accordance with guidelines defining the appropriate methods
for collecting or generating data and failing to include a substantially
accurate account of the method by which the data were gathered or collected.
- Aiding and Abetting Dishonesty: providing material or information
to another person with knowledge that these materials or information will
be used improperly.
Other Grievance Procedures
- Students also have non-judicial means to redress other grievances.
(1) Students may appeal any supposed act of unfair or improper grading through
the grievance procedure established by that department or program of the
College; students may contact the Assistant
Dean for Student Academic Affairs for information and assistance; and
(2) students may register a complaint with the
Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs, which is empowered
to assist a student in seeking just treatment through whatever College or
University procedure may be appropriate.