96-97 LS&A Bulletin

Department of Biology

May be elected as a departmental concentration program in Biology, General Biology, Botany, or Cell and Molecular Biology and as an interdepartmental program in Microbiology

Professors

Associate Professors

Assistant Professors

Lecturers

Professors Emeriti John M. Allen, Reeve M. Bailey, Charles B. Beck, Irving J. Cantrall, David C. Chandler, William R. Dawson, Harry A. Douthit, Francis C. Evans, David M. Gates, Helen Gay, Kenneth L. Jones, Norman E. Kemp, Robert J. Lowry, Rogers McVaugh, Robert R. Miller, T. M. Rizki, Erich E. Steiner, Robert W. Storer, Alfred S. Sussman, Frederick H. Test, Edward G. Voss, Warren H. Wagner, Conrad S. Yocum.

Associate Professor Emerita Lois A. Loewenthal.

Concentration Programs. The Department of Biology offers the following six concentration programs:

  1. Biology
  2. General Biology
  3. Botany (Professional Concentration Program)
  4. Botany (Cultural Concentration Program)
  5. Cell and Molecular Biology
  6. Microbiology
  1. All Biology and Biological Station courses, including cross-listed ones, at the 200-level and above.
  2. All required cognate courses (if any).
  3. All mandatory prerequisites.
Experience at a field station is strongly recommended for students concentrating in Biology and especially to students interested in ecology, systematics and evolution, and resource ecology. Many courses offered at the Biological Station can be used as part of a concentration plan in biology or botany with approval from a concentration advisor.

Two courses in college biology are normally required for admission to Biological Station courses, all of which are either upper level or graduate level and are offered for 5 credits. A normal load at the Biological Station is two courses (10 credits). Each formal course occupies the entire days assigned to it. Field work is supported by modern equipment, vehicles, boats, laboratories, and a fine library.

The campus office is located at 1111 Natural Science Building, 763-4461.

It is recommended that students with concentrations in the Biology Department give serious consideration to spending a summer at a field station, especially the University of Michigan Biological Station, or a marine laboratory. The training and experience provided by such facilities are particularly valuable for students interested in ecology, systematics, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology.

Biology


May be elected as a departmental concentration program

General Biology


May be elected as a departmental concentration program

  1. Required courses in genetics and biochemistry: Biology 305 and Biology 310, 311, or Biological Chemistry 415.
  2. One laboratory or field course in the Biology Department beyond the introductory level (Biology 300 or 400, independent study, elected for a minimum of 3 credit hours, may be used.)
  3. At least one course from group C - Biological Evolution and Diversity, and one course from group D - Ecology and Population Biology. (See Course Listings C-D for the available courses in each group.)
  4. One cognate course from the "General Biology Cognate List." This list, which is put together by the Biology Curriculum Committee, includes courses offered by non-natural science units that treat biology or natural science generally in the humanistic or social context. These are not science courses, but courses that treat science or scientific issues from a historical, cultural, ethical, or political perspective. A list of these may be obtained from the Biology Office, 1121 Natural Science.

Course Listings by Biology Distribution Group

Botany


May be elected as a departmental concentration program.

1. At least one course from each of the following groups:
a. Biology 255, 458, 459, or 468

b. Biology 209 and 210, 275 or 461;

c. Biology 381 (or the equivalent);


2. Two (or more) additional courses in botany. These may include genetics (Biology 305), but not a course counted toward 1 above.

3. At least 8 credits of intermediate or advanced courses in cognate fields. Recommended cognates include (but are not limited to) courses in zoology, natural resources, geology, biophysics, human genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, statistics, chemistry, and anthropology. Courses designated "Biology" are usually not accepted as cognates.

1. One course from each of the following categories:
a. Biochemistry (Biology 310, 311, or Biological Chemistry 415)

b. Genetics (Biology 305)

c. Plant physiology (Biology 209 and 210; both lecture and laboratory are required and are considered as a single course for the purpose of this category)

d. Plant structure and development (Biology 275 or 462)

e. Systematics and evolution (Biology 255 or 459)

f. Cryptogamic botany (Biology 408, 458, 468, 472, or a course in cryptogamic botany taught at the Biological Station, approved by a concentration advisor)

g. Ecology (Biology 381 or a comparable course approved by a concentration advisor. Some courses taught at the Biological Station may be used to meet this requirement)


2. One additional intermediate or advanced course at the 300-level or above in anthropology, biological chemistry, biology, botany, chemistry, computer science, geological sciences, human genetics, microbiology, natural resources, oceanography, statistics, or zoology. This course must be approved by a concentration advisor.

  1. Prerequisites and Concentration Program: Either the Cultural or Professional program as described above.
  2. Independent Study: at least 4 credits in Biology 300 and/or 400, including preparation of a senior thesis, to be completed at least two weeks before graduation, under the direction of faculty member.
  3. Grade Point Average: A cumulative 3.0 and at least a 3.3 average in the field of concentration are required for admission to and continuance in the program.

Cell and Molecular Biology


May be elected as a departmental concentration program

  1. Required courses. Biology 305; 310 or 311 (or Chemistry 451 and 452, or Biological Chemistry 415); Biology 427, 428, and 429; Chemistry 340 OR Chemistry 260 and 241-242.

  2. Two advanced CMB courses chosen from among Biology 400, 405, 406, 416, 418, 422, 423, 430, 513, 523, and 534.

  3. One elective course, which can be:
A. Any Biology class at the 300- or 400-level (except Biol. 320 or 412). A third advanced CMB course is permitted to meet this requirement.

B. Chemistry 452 for students who elected the sequence Chemistry 451-452.

C. One cognate course (as approved by the concentration advisor) in Chemistry (courses with a Chem. 260 prerequisite), Mathematics (courses with a Math. 116 prerequisite), or Statistics (Statistics 402 or Biostatistics 503).

Microbiology


May be elected as an interepartmental concentration program

1. Required courses include:
A. Biology 207 (or Biology 206 and 408; or Microbiology 501, 502, and 503; or Microbiology 350).

B. Biology 310 or 311 or Biological Chemistry 415, or equivalent.

C. Biology 429 or Biological Chemistry 416.

D. Biology 305 (Genetics).


2. Electives (19 credits). A minimum of nine credits selected from three of the five groups A-E (a minimum of two credits must be selected within three of the groups). The remaining ten credits may be selected from groups A-E, or from the cognate list (#3).

A. Immunology: Biology 336; Epidemiology 507; Micro. 641, 642.

B. Virology: Epidemiology 543; Micro. 615, 616, 617.

C. Bacterial Pathogenesis: Epidemiology 560; Micro. 607, 608.

D. Genetics and Molecular Biology/ Physiology: Biol. 427, 513; Micro. 604, 605.

E. Ecology and Evolution: Biology 390, 458, 468, 483, 488, 589; Micro. 525.


3. Cognate Courses. A maximum of two advisor-approved cognate courses listed below may be applied toward a Microbiology concentration.


A. Chemistry: Any course at the 300-level or above.

B. Human Genetics: Any course at the 500-level or above.

C. Natural Resources 423.

D. Mathematics: Any course with a Math. 116 prerequisite.

E. Physics: Any course approved by the advisor.

F. Statistics 402.

Courses in Biology (Division 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (4). I: Goldberg and Osgood. (NS). (BS).

101. Biology and Human Affairs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (Not offered Fall, 1996). (4). (NS). (BS).

102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (4). I: Kaufman; II: Estabrook. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

104/RC Nat. Sci. 104. Introduction to the Natural Sciences. Freshman or sophomore standing; written application to the Biological Station. Does not meet prerequisites for any of the biology concentration programs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. IIIa at the Biological Station. (5). Teeri. (NS). (BS).

106. Plants, People, and Environment. High school biology and chemistry. Open only to freshmen and sophomores, juniors and seniors by permission only. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. II. (Not offered Winter 1997). (3). (NS). (BS).

108. Introduction to Animal Diversity. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. II. (4). Myers. (NS). (BS).

110/AOSS 171/UC 110/NR&E 110. Introduction to Global Change I. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (4). (NS). (BS).

130. Animal Behavior. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (Offered in alternate years). (3). Payne. (NS). (BS).

140. Genetics and Society. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (4). Adams, Gibson. (NS). (BS).

150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152, 154, or 195. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I, II, and IIIa. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (1). (Excl). (BS).

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (1). (Excl). (BS).

195. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 130, or equivalent. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. II. (6). Ikuma. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required.

200. Undergraduate Tutorial. Permission of faculty member in biology. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

207. Introductory Microbiology. Biol. 152. I. (4). Mann. (NS). (BS).

209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. I. (3). Ikuma. (Excl). (BS).

210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 209. I. (3). Ikuma. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($65) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

215. Spring Flora of Michigan. Biology 152, 195, or 102. (3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

222. From Message to Mind: An Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. I. (3). Easter. (Excl). (BS).

224. Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. I. (3). Kleinsmith. (NS). (BS).

252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). II. (4). Kluge. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

255. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. II. (5). Wynne. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 154 or 195, or the equivalent. II. (4). Noodén. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

300. Undergraduate Research. Eight credits of biology and 3.0 grade point average in science; permission of faculty member in biology. I, II, III, IIIa and IIIb in Ann Arbor; IIIb at Biological Station. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. I and II. (3). I: Martin. (Excl). (BS).

302. Teaching Experience for Undergraduates. Permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. I, II, IIIa, and IIIb. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL).

304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (2). Pichersky. (Excl). (BS).

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. I, II, and IIIa. (4). I: Schiefelbein; II: S. Allen. (Excl). (BS).

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. I. (3). Jeyabalan. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

307. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). II. (3). Tosney, Kuwada. (Excl). (BS).

308. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. II. (3). Jeyabalan. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). Ocorr. (Excl). (BS).

311(411). Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. I, II, and IIIa. (4). (Osgood). (Excl). (BS).

318. Project Laboratory in Microbiology and Genetics. Biol. 305 or Biol. 206, and permission of instructor. II. (Offered in Alternate Years, This course will be offered in Winter 1997). (10). Bender. (Excl). (BS).

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215 or equivalent. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. I. (3). Shappirio. (Excl). (BS).

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 420. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biology 325 will not be admitted to Biology 326 without special permission. II. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

330. Biology of Birds. Two collegiate courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). Cuthbert. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

336. Introductory Immunology. Biol. 152 and 154 or permission of instructor. I. (3). Mann. (Excl). (BS).

341. Parasitology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). I. (Offered in alternate years). (4). OConnor. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

355/NR&E 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biol. 152 or 195 or equivalent. I. (4). Barnes and Wagner. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. I. (3). Lehman. (Excl). (BS).

381. General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. I and IIIb in Ann Arbor; IIIa and IIIb at Biol. Station. (6 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). I: Rathcke, Werner. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

382. Introduction to Field Research and Analytic Skills. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent; and participation in the Comprehensive Studies Program. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent. I in Ann Arbor; IIIa at Biol. Station. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). I: Tucker. (Excl). (BS).

400. Advanced Research. 12 credits of biology, 3.0 average in science, and permission of faculty member in biology. Also offered at the Biological Station during IIIb. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

401. Special Topics in Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

402. Enhancement Workshop for Science Teachers. Two college level courses in biology. Enrollment in ASSIST Program at Biological Station. IIIb at Biological Station. (5). Teeri. (Excl). (BS).

405. Molecular Basis of Development. Biol. 152-154 and 305. A course in molecular and developmental biology is helpful but not required. II. (3). Bodmer. (Excl). (BS).

406. Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem 415), and Genetics (Biol. 305). I. (3). Clark. (Excl). (BS).

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. I, II, and IIIa. (3). Osgood. (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

413. Introduction to Plant Biotechnology. Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415; at least junior standing. II. (5). Kaufman. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

415. Plant Constituents and Their Functions. Biol. 154 or 195 and one term of organic chemistry. I. (Offered in alternate years). (3). Noodén. (Excl). (BS).

418. Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. I. (3). Denver, Duan. (Excl). (BS).

422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. I. (3). Bodmer, Kuwada. (Excl). (BS).

423. Introduction to Research in Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 422; or completion of Biol. 222 or 422, and permission of instructor. (3). Hume. (Excl). (BS).

425/Anatomy 425. Systems Neurobiology. Biol. 222, 325 or 422, or permission of instructor. II. (3). Easter. (Excl). (BS).

427. Molecular Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. I. (4). Helling, Pichersky. (Excl). (BS).

428. Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. II. (4). Olsen. (Excl). (BS).

429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. II. (3). Mann. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.

430(515). Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). Schiefelbein. (Excl). (BS).

431. Ecology of Animal Parasites. Two laboratory courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). Blankespoor. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

433. Ornithology. Introductory Biology. IIIa. (4). Payne. (Excl). (BS).

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. I. (Offered in alternate years). (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

438. Biology of Mollusks. Introductory biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Burch. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

440/NR&E 422. Biology of Fishes. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. I. (3). Webb. (Excl). (BS).

441/NR&E 423. The Biology of Fishes Laboratory. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. (1). Smith. (Excl). (BS).

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. I in Ann Arbor; IIIb at Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years in Ann Arbor). (5). I: Moore; IIIb: Scholtens. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($35) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

444. Fish Behavior. Biol. 440. II. (4). Smith. (Excl). (BS).

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. II. (5). Nussbaum. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

451. Biology of Mammals. Permission of instructor. I. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Myers. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

453. Field Mammalogy. Two laboratory courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Myers. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

457. Freshwater Phycology. Two laboratory courses in botany. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

458. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent, or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. I. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Wynne. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. I. (4). Wagner. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

461. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. Biol. 154 or 255; or permission of instructor. I (Offered in alternate years). (5). Burnham. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required.

468. Mushrooms and Molds: Biology and Use. Biol. 154 or equivalent. I. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Fogel. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

471. Bryophytes. Two laboratory courses in biology and one course in organismal botany. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 472. IIIb at the Biological Station. (3-5). Crum. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

475. Conservation Biology and Ecosystem Management. Two courses in the biological sciences including ecology, or permission of instructor. III at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS).

478. Advanced Ecology. A general ecology course (Biol. 381 or equivalent); or permission of instructor. II. (3). Rathcke. (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

480. Computer-Aided Inferences in Evolution and Ecology. Senior natural science concentrator or graduate student. I. (4). Estabrook. (Excl). (BS).

482. Limnology. Three laboratory courses in botany or zoology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

483. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. II. (3). Kling. (Excl). (BS). (QR/1).

484. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483 and permission of instructor. II. (4). Kling. (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

485/Geol. 450. Aquatic Science Field Studies. Junior science or engineering concentrators. Those with credit for GS 223 may only elect GS 450 for 5 credits. IIIa in Grand Haven, Michigan. (6 in the half-term). (NS). (BS).

486. Biology and Ecology of Fish. Two laboratory courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Webb. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

487/NR&E 409. Ecology of Fishes. One course in ecology. II. (Lectures: 3 credits; lectures and lab: 4 credits). (Excl). (BS).

489/NR&E 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. I. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

490. Population and Quantitative Genetics. Biol. 305. II. (3). Gibson. (Excl). (BS).

491. Principles of Systematics. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or permission of instructor. I. (Offered in alternate years). (4). Kluge. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

492. Behavioral Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent) and one additional course in zoology. I in Ann Arbor; IIIb at the Biological Station. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 in the half-term; 5 at Biol. Station, which also includes Biology 493). I: Hazlett. (Excl). (BS).

494. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. I. (4). Alexander. (Excl). (BS).

495. Plant Population and Community Ecology. A course in ecology. II. (3). Goldberg. (Excl). (BS).

496/NR&E 425. Population Ecology. General ecology and NR&E 438; calculus recommended. II. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

497. Community Ecology. A course in ecology. II. (3). Goldberg, Werner. (Excl). (BS).

498. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology. I. (Offered in alternative years). (3). Vandermeer. (Excl). (BS).

499. Dynamic Systems in Population and Community Ecology. A course in calculus and a course in ecology. I. (Offered in alternate years). (3). Vandermeer. (Excl). (BS).

513. Microbial Genetics. Genetics; and microbiology or biochemistry or permission of instructor. I. (3). (Excl). (BS).

514. Topics in Molecular Evolution. Biol. 305 and one upper level course in either molecular or evolutionary biology, and permission of instructor. I. (Offered in alternate years). (3). Tucker. (Excl). (BS).

523. Cellular and Molecular Approaches to Neurophysiology. Introductory neurobiology and permission of instructor. I. (2). Hume. (Excl). (BS).

532. Birds of the World. Sixteen credits of biology and permission of instructor. II. (Offered in alternate years). (4). Payne. (Excl). (BS).

534. Developmental Neurobiology. Previous courses in neurobiology and development; and permission of instructor. I (Offered in alternate years). (3). (Excl). (BS).

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. II. (4). Foster. (Excl). (BS).

556. Field Botany of Northern Michigan. A course in systematic botany (Biol. 459). IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). Voss. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

585. Ecology of Streams and Rivers. A previous or concurrent course in limnology, aquatic ecology, phycology, or aquatic invertebrates is recommended. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

588. Plant-Animal Interactions. Organic chemistry and one course in ecology. (Offered in alternate years). (3). (Excl). (BS).

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. II. (3). Adams. (Excl). (BS).