1020 LS&A Building
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Professor Conrad P. Kottak, Chair

May be elected as a departmental concentration program in Anthropology and an interdepartmental concentration in Anthropology-Zoology


Ruth Behar, Cultural Criticism, Ethnographic Writing, Life Stories, Feminist Ethnography, Visual Anthropology, Religion; Spain, Mexico, Cuba, U.S. Latinos
C. Loring Brace, Human Evolution, "Race," Dentition, History of Biological Anthropology
David William Cohen, Pre-colonial and 20th Century Africa - eastern and southeastern
E. Valentine Daniel, Semiotic Anthropology, Philosophical Anthropology, South Asia
Kent Flannery, Archaeology, Cultural Ecology: Near East, Middle America
Richard I. Ford, Cultural Ecology and Evolution, Ethnobotany, Archaeology, American Indians
A. Roberto Frisancho, Biological Anthropology, Adaptive Responses to Environmental Extremes: Growth, Nutrition, Physiology; Latin America
Philip Gingerich, Primate Paleontology and Evolution
Raymond Kelly, Ethnology, Social Inequality, Social Organization, Witchcraft, Warfare, Melanesia
Conrad P. Kottak, General and Cultural Anthropology: Brazil, Madagascar, U.S.
J. Stephen Lansing, Anthro/Natural Resources; Ecology, Complexity, Social Theory; Bali, Southeast Asia
Joyce Marcus, Latin American Ethnohistory and Archaeology
John O'Shea, Prehistoric Economics, Archaeology, Method and Theory: Old World, North America, Great Lakes
Maxwell Owusu, Ethnography and History, Social Anthropology of Colonial and Postcolonial States, Comparative Legal and Political Systems, Democratization and Socioeconomic Development and Underdevelopment; Africa, Caribbean
Jeffrey R. Parsons, Archaeology, Mesoamerican and Andean Prehistory
Roy A. Rappaport, Melanesia, Religion, Ritual, Ecology, Evolution
Jennifer Robertson, Sociocultural and Historical Anthropology, Ethnography, Colonialism, Popular/Mass Culture, Sex/Gender Systems, Art and Performance; Japan, East Asia
Barbara Smuts, Primatology, Animal Behavior, Human Social Evolution, Complex Adaptive Systems, Non-Verbal Communication
John Speth, Archaeology, Method and Theory: North America, Middle East
Ann L. Stoler, Colonial Cultures, Critical Theory, Gender, Historical Anthropology, Southeast Asia
Thomas Trautmann, Kinship, History of Anthropology, India
Katherine Verdery, Property, Ethnicity and Nationalism, Ideology, Socialist Systems, Transition from Socialism; Eastern Europe.
Robert Whallon, Archaeology, Europe, Near East, Paleolithic-Neolithic, Hunter-Gatherers
Melvin D. Williams, Macroanthropology, Religion, African-Americans, Contemporary American Society, Global Village
Milford Wolpoff, Paleoanthropology, Evolution Theory, Biomechanics
Henry Wright, Archaeology: Middle East, Eastern United States, Africa
Norman Yoffee, Assyriology, Mesopotamian cultures; Near Eastern Archaeology

Associate Professors

Fernando Coronil, Historical Anthropology, Post-Coloniality, State-Formation, Capitalism, Popular Culture, Gender; Latin America
Thomas E. Fricke, Family and Household, Cultural Ecology, Demography, Nepal, South Asia
Janet Hart, Ethnology, Oral Histories, Narrative Analysis, Women's Studies; Greece
Lawrence Hirschfeld, Social and Cognitive Development, Psychological Anthropology, Anthropology of Childhood
Bruce Mannheim, Linguistic Theory, Historical Linguistics, Syntax/Semantics, Social Structure, Semiotic, Ethnopoetics; Andean South America
Brinkley Messick, Political and Legal Anthropology; Cultural Theory; Middle East
John Mitani, Primate Behavior, Animal Communication, South East Asia, Africa
Carla Sinopoli, Archaeology, Complex societies, early states and empires

Assistant Professors

Crisca Bierwert, Native North America, Oral Tradition, Visual Arts, Ritual and Other Cultural Performance
Sarah Caldwell, Ethnology, Religion, South Asia, Gender, Expressive Culture, Psychological Anthropology
Alaina Lemon, Ethnology; Racial and National Ideologies; Sociolinguistics; Performance; Russia and Former USSR; Romani Diaspora
D. Andrew Merriwether, Molecular Anthropology, Population Genetics, Molecular Evolution, Ancient DNA, Mitochondrial Diseases, mtDNA & Y Chromosome Variation; New World, Pacific, West Africa, North Asia, Siberia
Erik Mueggler, Ethnology, Religion, Ritual, Memory, Ideology, State Power, Gender; China
Roger Rouse, Popular Culture in the U.S., Mexican Migration to the U.S., History of Anthropological Theory
Sharon Stephens, Anthro/Social Work, History of Social Theory, Political Economy, Anthropology of Science and Environmental Risk, Anthropology of Childhood; Europe, Former USSR
Beverly Strassmann, Behavioral Ecology, Reproductive Physiology, Evolution and Culture; West Africa

Visiting Assistant Professors

Rachel Caspari, Human Evolution, Functional Morphology, Race and Racism, History
David Frye, Historical Anthropology, Racial Ideologies, Colonialism, Peasant Society; Latin America
Holly Peters-Golden, Medical Anthropology, Cancer, Physician-Patient Interaction, Explanatory Models of Illness, Social Construction of Disease, Medical Education, Illness Narrative; North America
Julie Skurski, Ethnology, Historical Anthropology, Nationalism, Gender, Social Movements, Popular Culture; Latin America, Caribbean

Professors Emeriti

Robbins Burling, Norma Diamond, Ernst Goldschmidt, Peter Gosling, Stanley M. Garn, James B. Griffin, Frank B. Livingstone, William Lockwood, William D. Schorger

Anthropology is a science that deals with both the biological and cultural aspects of humanity. Its basic concerns include the organic evolution of the human species; the origin, development, and integration of customs, techniques, and beliefs which define a way of life (or culture) of human social groups; and the interrelations between these biological and cultural factors in human behavior.

The subject matter of anthropology is divided into two major areas of study: Biological Anthropology (Division 318) and Cultural Anthropology (Division 319). The latter, in turn, includes archaeology, ethnology, and linguistic anthropology.

Biological Anthropology considers human evolutionary history, the causes of present genetic diversity, and the biological basis of human behavior. It uses the evidence and concepts of paleontology, population genetics, and ecology.

Archaeology seeks to understand human behavior through the longest possible time span by examining the remains of human activity (e.g., settlements, tools, pottery) which have survived from antiquity.

Ethnology describes, analyzes, and compares the widest possible range of human cultures and social institutions. Some ethnologists concentrate on societies dissimilar from our own, e.g., hunters and gatherers, tribal peoples, and preindustrial societies; others examine contemporary European and American societies with the wider perspective gained from looking at other cultures and societies.

Linguistic Anthropology views language as one of the most distinctive characteristics of human beings and makes language a special field of study.

The Mischa Titiev Library. The Mischa Titiev Library, established in 1976, has an extensive collection of materials in all the subdisciplines for both reference and circulation. In addition, the Library has audio-visual equipment for anthropological research.

The Museum of Anthropology. This museum is a separate university unit administered by the Director of Museums. All members of the curatorial staff of the museum offer instruction and hold academic titles in the Anthropology Department. The collections and laboratory facilities of the museum are made available to qualified students in the Department of Anthropology for instruction and research. The Museum has extensive collections of material on the ethnology and archaeology of the Great Lakes region and of the eastern United States. Other major collections include ethnological materials from the American Southwest; materials from Japan, China, and Tibet; and considerable archaeological, ethnological, and skeletal materials from the Philippines. There are smaller, representative collections from Africa, Oceania, Latin America, and Europe. While no formal program in museology is offered, two courses in Museum Techniques (Anthropology 496 and 497, Division 319) provide an opportunity to learn museum research methodology and administration through individually supervised work.

Half-Term Information. Courses are offered normally in half terms for 2 credits.

Concentration Programs. The department offers undergraduate concentration programs for a bachelor's degree in anthropology and anthropology-zoology. The department also participates in the interdepartmental concentration program in social anthropology.


An anthropology concentration may prepare students for further advanced training and professional careers in teaching, research, and/or applied anthropology within government and private organizations, but it is not intended primarily as a training-ground for professional anthropologists. An undergraduate concentration in anthropology contributes to a liberal arts education, offering a disciplined awareness of human behavior and social institutions in different times and places.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Anthropology 101 and 161 are recommended.

Concentration Program. Concentrators are expected to include at least one course in each of four subdivisions: biological anthropology, archaeology, ethnology, and linguistics. 27 credits beyond the 100 level are required. Please note that the following courses do not count toward the 27 credit requirement: 101, 161, 222. It is recommended that students also take at least two cognates that are selected in consultation with their concentration advisor. Students are strongly encouraged to elect at least one undergraduate seminar in anthropology. For students primarily interested in ethnology, we recommend at least one course from each of the following categories: (1) regional courses; (2) topical courses; and (3) theory/method courses. A detailed description of the concentration program is available at the department office.

Honors Concentration. Students interested in scholarly research are encouraged to consider the Honors concentration. Previous participation in the College Honors program is not a prerequisite. Seniors admitted to the Honors concentration normally elect a seminar in their special field of interest: biological anthropology (division 318, course 398), archaeology or ethnology (division 319, course 398). The seminars give students an opportunity for intensive training and research experience; the Honors concentration normally requires a senior thesis. Interested students should consult an Anthropology concentration advisor.

Teaching Certificate. Students interested in obtaining a secondary teaching certificate with a minor in Anthropology should consult the "Teacher Certification Program" section in this Bulletin and the School of Education Office of Academic Services.

Advising. All anthropology faculty members are available for informal discussion with students during scheduled office hours (check the department office for times). Concentration advisors are available to explain program objectives and requirements and to help with the planning of your concentration program (appointments are scheduled in the department office). Students who elect an anthropology concentration should develop (and file) a preliminary plan listing the courses they expect to take. This should be reviewed with the student's advisor or a concentration advisor each term.


This program is designed to relate anthropological and zoological perspectives to the study of the human species and is especially appropriate for students pursuing pre-professional studies in preparation for a career in the health sciences.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152 and 154, or Biology 195 (or the equivalent). Anthropology 161 is recommended but only if elected during the first or second year. Juniors and seniors without prior course work in biological anthropology should elect Anthropology 361 and/or 365.

Concentration Program. Requires 32 credits distributed as follows:

A. Anthropology. A minimum of four of the courses below, at least two of which must be at the 400-level or above and must represent two of the three groups:*

  1. Evolution, paleontology, morphology: Anthropology 365, 466, 564, 565, 566.

  2. Primatology, ecology, behavior: Anthropology 361, 368, 468, 568, 569.

  3. Genetics, growth, adaptation, race: Anthropology 362, 364, 461, 462, 563.

*Courses taken as Anthropology 469 (Topics in Biological Anthropology) can be counted in the appropriate group.

B. Zoology. A minimum of three courses representing three of the groups below:

  1. Biochemistry: Biology 310, 311, or Biological Chemistry 415.

  2. Physiology: Biology 320, 325/326.

  3. Genetics and Development: Biology 305, 307/308, 406, 407.

  4. Biology of Vertebrates: Biology 252, 351, 451.

  5. Ecology and Evolution: Biology 381, 390, 492/493, 494.

C. Any remaining credits required to complete the concentration may be selected, subject to approval by the program advisor, from other anthropology or biology courses or from courses in other departments relevant to the concentration.

Honors Concentration. Students who meet requirements for admission to the Honors concentration program in either anthropology or zoology may, with permission of the instructors, elect a total of three Honors courses from among those offered by the participating departments.

The Honors concentration is individually arranged by the concentration advisor in consultation with the appropriate Honors instructors in either or both departments. Recommendations for degrees with Honors are made by the concentration advisor after consultation with these instructors.

Advising. The concentration advisor is Professor Frank B. Livingstone. Appointments are scheduled at 1020 LSA (764-7274).

Social Anthropology

This interdepartmental program combines study in the departments of anthropology and sociology. Mutual interest in problems of social organization and culture provides the interdisciplinary focus for the program. The program is designed to acquaint the student with the factual, methodological, and theoretical contributions of sociologists and anthropologists.

Qualified students are eligible to participate in the Honors concentration program and prepare a senior Honors thesis.

Students interested in the Social Anthropology concentration should consult the "Sociology" section in this Bulletin.

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. I and II. (4). (NS). (BS).

168. First Year Seminar in Primate Field Studies. (3). (NS). (BS).

297. Topics in Biological Anthropology. (3). (NS). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

362. Problems of Race. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).

364. Nutrition and Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS).

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS). (BS).

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS). (BS).

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

398. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. I. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

399. Honors in Biological Anthropology and Anthropology/Zoology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

450. Molecular Anthropology. At least one anthropology or biology course. (3). (Excl).

451. Molecular Anthropology Lab. Biol. Anthro. 450 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Biol. Anthro. 161, and junior standing. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

463. Research Strategies in Human Biology. Senior standing, and/or any 300-level course in biological anthropology. (3). (Excl).

468/Psych. 439/WS 468. Behavioral Biology of Women. One of the following: Biol. Anthro. 161, 361, 368, Psych. 335, Biol. 494. (4). (Excl). (BS).

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl). (BS).

470. Undergraduate Seminar in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). (BS).

471. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing. (3). (Excl). (BS).

564. Hominid Origins. Biol. Anthro. 365 or 466. Primarily for biological anthropology concentrators. (4). (Excl). (BS).

565. Evolution of Genus Homo. Anthro. 365 or 466. Primarily for students concentrating in biological anthropology or vertebrate evolution. (4). (Excl). (BS).

566. Laboratory in Human Osteology. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

568. Primate Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Biol. Anthro. 368. (3). (Excl). (BS).

570. Biological Anthropology: An Overview. An undergraduate concentration in anthropology or its equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for first- and second-year students. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. I and II. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

256(Biol. Anthro. 256)/NR&E 256. Culture, Adaptation, and Environment. (3). (Excl).

272/Ling. 272. Language in Society. Primarily for first- and second-year students. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4; 2 in the half-term). (SS).

285. Cult Archaeology. (4). (SS).

286. Food in Human Affairs. (4). (SS).

296. Topics in Archaeology. (3). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

298. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. (3). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

299. Topics in Linguistic Anthropology. (3). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 12 credits.

Ethnology-Regional Courses

302. Sex and Gender in Japan. (3). (Excl).

304. Mass/Popular Culture in Japan. (3). (Excl).

315. Native American Peoples of North America. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

319. Latin American Society and Culture. (4). (SS).

323. Pacific Islands Anthropology. (3). (SS).

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

403. Japanese Society and Culture. Anthro. 101, 222, or any Japan course. (4). (Excl).

404. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

411/CAAS 422. African Culture. Junior standing or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

413. Brazil: Anthropological Perspectives. (3). (Excl).

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures, I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

416/Hist. 476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

417. Indians of Mexico and Guatemala. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

420. Anthropology of Contemporary American Culture. Two courses in anthropology. (4). (Excl).

421. The Immigrant Community in North American Society. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

422. Ethnography in America. Junior standing, and one course in anthropology or American culture at the 200 level or above. (3). (Excl).

442/ACABS 413/Hist. 440. Ancient Mesopotamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).


327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (3). (Excl).

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

432. Social Theory. (3). (Excl).

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

460. Cognition in Culture: Anthropological Approaches to Thinking and Reasoning. One course in anthropology, psychology. (3). (Excl).

Ethnology-Topical Courses

310. Religious Movements and Social Change. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

329. The Anthropology of Childhood: Growing Up in Culture. One course in anthropology or psychology. (3). (Excl).

333. Non-Western Legal Systems, I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

347/CAAS 420. Race and Ethnicity. (3; 2 in the half-term). (SS).

348. Poetics of Power: Rethinking (Post/Neo) Colonialism. (3). (Excl).

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing. (3). (Excl).

358. Undergraduate Seminar in the Semiotics of Culture. Anthro. 330. (3). (Excl).

425. Evolution of War and Peace in Stratified Societies. One course in anthropology. (3). (Excl).

427/CAAS 427/WS 427. African Women. One course in African Studies, anthropology, or women's studies. (3). (SS).

429. Television, Society, and Culture. (3). (Excl).

438. Urban Anthropology. (3). (Excl).

439. Economic Anthropology and Development. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

440. Cultural Adaptation. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl).

444. Medical Anthropology. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

446. Social Construction of Emotion: The Anthropology of Feelings and Sentiments. One course in anthropology or psychology. (3). (Excl).

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

450/Rel. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

453/CAAS 454. African-American Culture. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

455/WS 455. Feminist Theory and Gender Studies in Anthropology. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. An introductory course in cultural anthropology, American culture, women's studies, or film and video studies. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.

459. Inequality in Tribal Societies. Two courses in ethnology. (3). (Excl).

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

543/Population Studies 543. Demographic Approaches in Anthropology. Senior or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

586. Prehistoric Cultural Ecology. Senior or graduate standing. (3). (Excl). Credit is granted for a total of 6 credits earned through Anthro. 541 and 586.


472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics, or literature. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

474/Ling. 410. Language and Discrimination: Language as Social Statement. (3). (SS).

475. Ethnography of Writing. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411. (3). (Excl).

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 313. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

576. Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Two courses in anthropology or biology. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

577. Language as Social Action. Anthro. 576. (3). (Excl).

578. Monographs in the Ethnography of Speaking. Anthro. 576. (3). (Excl).


380/Class. Arch. 380/Hist. of Art 380. Minoan and Mycenaean Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 and 222. (3). (Excl).

382(482). European Prehistory. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

383(485). Prehistory of Africa. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

384. Prehistory of Egypt. (3). (SS).

385. The Archaeology of Early Humans. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

386. Early New World Civilizations. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).

394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology. (3). (Excl).

407. Archaeology of South Asia. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

489. Maya and Central American Archaeology. (3). (SS).

491. Prehistory of the Central Andes. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

493. Environmental Archaeology. Junior standing. (4). (Excl).

587/Class. Arch. 531/Hist. of Art. 531. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222. (3). (Excl).

593. Archaeological Systematics. Senior concentrators, graduates, with permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. I. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration advisor.

399. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. II. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration advisor.

487. UM Training Program in Archaeology. III in South East New Mexico. (6). (Excl).

490. Practica in Archaeological Research Techniques. Junior standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

497. Museum Research Techniques. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 hours credit.

556. Fieldwork, Research Methods, and Cultural Anthropology as a Profession. (3). (Excl).

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