Department of Biology

1121 Natural Science
764-2446
Web site: http://www.biology.lsa.umich.edu/

Professor Julian P. Adams, Chair
Professor Richard I. Hume, Associate Chair for Curriculum
Associate Professor Eran Pichersky, Associate Chair for Research and Facilities

May be elected as a departmental concentration program in Biology, General Biology, Botany, or Cell and Molecular Biology and as an interdepartmental program in Microbiology


Professors

Julian P. Adams, Population genetics
Richard D. Alexander, Animal behavior, entomology
Sally L. Allen, Microbial genetics
William R. Anderson, Systematics of neotropical angiosperms
Robert A. Bender, Microbiology
Wesley M. Brown, Molecular evolution
John B. Burch, Malacology
Bruce M. Carlson, Regeneration in vertebrates
Stephen S. Easter, Jr., Neuroscience
George F. Estabrook, Biometry
William L. Fink, Ichthyology
Robert D. Fogel, Plant taxonomy, hypogeous fungi, fungal ecology
Carl Gans, Functional morphology
Brian A. Hazlett, Animal behavior, invertebrate zoology
Robert B. Helling, Genetics, bacteriology
Richard I. Hume, Developmental neurobiology and cellular neurophysiology
Hiroshi Ikuma, Plant cell physiology
Peter B. Kaufman, Plant developmental physiology
Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Molecular biology
Arnold G. Kluge, Systematics, herpetology
John P. Langmore, Molecular biology
John T. Lehman, Aquatic ecology
Michael M. Martin, Chemical ecology
Thomas E. Moore, Entomology
Larry D. Noodén, Plant developmental physiology
Ronald A. Nussbaum, Herpetology
Bruce Oakley, Neuroscience
Robert B. Payne, Ornithology
David G. Shappirio, Comparative physiology and biochemistry, cellular and developmental biology
Gerald R. Smith, Ichthyology
James A. Teeri, Plant ecology
Kathryn W. Tosney, Developmental neurophysiology
John H. Vandermeer, Ecology
Paul W. Webb, Physiological ecology and bioenergetics of animals
Earl E. Werner, Ecology and evolutionary biology
Michael J. Wynne, Phycology
Charles F. Yocum, Cell biology, photosynthesis


Associate Professors

Rolf Bodmer, Molecular genetics of the developing nervous system
Deborah E. Goldberg, Plant ecology
John Y. Kuwada, Developmental neurobiology
Philip Myers, Mammalogy
Ruthann Nichols, Molecular genetics of neuropeptides
Barry M. O'Connor, Entomology, parasitology, acarology
Eran Pichersky, Molecular genetics
Beverly J. Rathcke, Community ecology
John W. Schiefelbein, Jr., Plant molecular genetics and development
Priscilla K. Tucker, Mammalian organismal, chromosomal, and genome evolution
Mark L. Wilson, Ecology of Diseases


Assistant Professors

James Bardwell, Catalysis of protein folding
Robyn J. Burnham, Paleobotany
Steven Clark, Plant development, molecular genetics
Lisa Curran, Tropical ecology
Robert Denver, Comparative Endocrinology
Cunming Duan, Molecular animal physiology
Ronald Ellis, Developmental biology, molecular genetics
Michael Frohlich, Plant molecular systematics
Gregory Gibson, Population Genetics
George W. Kling, Limnology
Janine Maddock, Microbial development
David P. Mindell, Ornithology
Diarmaid Ó Foighil, Malacology
Laura Olsen, Plant Cell and Molecular Biology


Lecturers

Marc Ammerlaan, Microbiology
Santhadevi Jeyabalan, Genetics and development
Eric Mann, Cellular and molecular biology
Karen Ocorr, Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Physiology
Marcy Osgood, Biochemistry
Anton A. Reznicek, Systematics of the cyperaceae


Professors Emeriti

John M. Allen, Reeve M. Bailey, Charles B. Beck, Irving J. Cantrall, David C. Chandler, Howard A. Crum, William R. Dawson, Harry A. Douthit, Francis C. Evans, David M. Gates, Helen Gay, Kenneth L. Jones, Norman E. Kemp, Robert J. Lowry, Rogers McVaugh, Robert R. Miller, T. M. Rizki, Erich E. Steiner, Robert W. Storer, Alfred S. Sussman, Frederick H. Test, Edward G. Voss, Warren H. Wagner, Conrad S. Yocum.


Associate Professor Emerita

Lois A. Loewenthal.


Concentration Programs. The Department of Biology offers the following six concentration programs:

  1. Biology

  2. General Biology

  3. Botany (Professional Concentration Program)

  4. Botany (Cultural Concentration Program)

  5. Cell and Molecular Biology

  6. Microbiology

Advising. Students who are interested in any of the concentrations offered by the Department should consult a general advisor during the freshman year and a concentration advisor during the second term of the sophomore year. It is not necessary to complete every prerequisite before declaring a concentration.

Teaching Certificate. Students interested in obtaining a secondary teaching certificate with a major or minor in Biology should consult the "Teacher Certification Program" section in this Bulletin and the School of Education Office of Academic Services.

Writing Requirement. The LS&A Junior/ Senior writing requirement in Biology may be met by completing Biology 301, Writing for Biologists, with a grade of C or better. Enrollment is open to prospective concentrators who have completed the prerequisites for Biology 301 as well as those who have formally entered one of the concentration programs in Biology. Biology 301 also counts 3 credits toward the biology concentration.

Field of Concentration. For purposes of calculating grade point average, the term "field of concentration" (for all Biology concentration programs) means the following:

  1. All Biology and Biological Station courses, including cross-listed ones, at the 200-level and above.

  2. All required cognate courses (if any).

  3. All mandatory prerequisites.

Introductory Biology Credit Limitation: The maximum amount of credit that can be earned in introductory biology courses is 12 credits. Students interested in concentrating in biology or a related science must complete either Biology 195, an intensive one-term course for 6 credits, or Biology 152-154, a two-term sequence for a total of 8 hours credit.

Supporting Facilities. Modern teaching and research laboratories house electron microscopes, controlled environment rooms, analytical and preparative centrifuges, spectrophotometers, and other tools essential for modern research in all areas of the biological sciences. In addition, the Herbarium, the Museum of Paleontology, the Museum of Anthropology Ethnobotanical Laboratory, the Museum of Zoology, and the Matthaei Botanical Gardens supplement the instructional and research programs. University-owned research facilities in the vicinity of Ann Arbor include Saginaw Forest, Edwin S. George Reserve, Stinchfield Woods, and Mud Lake Bog. The Biological Station provides additional facilities for instruction and research. The University of Michigan is also a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies.

Biological Station. It is recommended that students with concentrations in the Biology Department give serious consideration to spending a summer at a field station, especially the University of Michigan Biological Station, or a marine laboratory. The training and experience provided by such facilities are particularly valuable for students interested in ecology, systematics, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology.

The curriculum at the Biological Station places a strong emphasis on ecology, systematics, field biology, and environmental studies. Courses are taught during the Spring and Summer Terms (IIIa and IIIb) at the Biological Station on the shores of Douglas Lake in northern Lower Michigan. The Biological Station occupies a 10,000 acre tract between Burt and Douglas Lakes and is the world's largest inland field station for instruction and research in biological science. Located in the transition zone between coniferous forests to the north and deciduous forests to the south, it is surrounded by a remarkable variety of natural communities.

The Biological Station offers students and faculty an opportunity to study together the biota of the regions with a full appreciation of the dynamics of the natural systems involved. The small community of students, faculty, and scientists shares knowledge during meal and recreation times as well as in the classroom, field, and laboratory. Many courses offered at the Biological Station can be used as part of a concentration plan in biology or botany with approval from a concentration advisor.

Two courses in college biology are normally required for admission to Biological Station courses, all of which are either upper level or graduate level and are offered for 5 credits. A normal load at the Biological Station is two courses (10 credits). Each formal course occupies the entire days assigned to it. Field work is supported by modern equipment, vehicles, boats, laboratories, and a fine library.

The campus office is located at 1111 Natural Science Building, 763-4461.


Biology

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The Department of Biology offers a program which develops an appreciation of the level of organization of life, its diversity, and the processes by which life has achieved its present forms. The program is recommended for those who wish to study biology as part of a liberal education, to prepare for a teaching career in secondary schools, or to prepare for graduate study in biology or the health professions.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Chemistry 210, 211, 215, and 216; Mathematics 115 and 116; Physics 125/127 and 126/128 or Physics 140/141 and 240/241.

Concentration Program. 30 credits distributed as follows:

  1. Required courses in genetics and biochemistry: Biology 305 and Biology 310, 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451 and 452.

  2. Select at least one course from three of the four groups A-D. (See Course Listings A-D for the available courses in each group.)

    1. Molecular and Cellular Biology

    2. Anatomy, Physiology, and Development

    3. Biological Evolution and Diversity

    4. Ecology and Population Biology

  3. Select additional Department of Biology courses at the 200-level or above (except Biology 302, 412) to bring the concentration total to at least 30 credits. Two advisor-approved cognate courses may be used. A partial list of these may be obtained from the Biology Office, 1121 Natural Science, or from any concentration advisor.

  4. A minimum of three laboratory courses. Library "research" and introductory biology laboratories do not qualify. A maximum of three credits of independent research under the direct supervision of a faculty member (Biol 300/400), or, on approval of a biology department advisor, three credits of independent research under a faculty member of another University of Michigan department, may be used as one of the three laboratory experiences.


General Biology

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

General Biology has many of the same aims as Biology, but it is not recommended for students who wish to pursue graduate work in biology. It is an appropriate preprofessional concentration. It differs from Biology in that it requires fewer credits, less laboratory work, and has more breadth, particularly in the form of a non-science cognate course (see below).

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Chemistry 210, 211, 215, and 216; Mathematics 115 and 116; Physics 125/127 and 126/128 or Physics 140/141 and 240/241.

Concentration Program. 24 credits in biology and cognate fields, including:

  1. Required courses in genetics and biochemistry: Biology 305 and Biology 310, 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451 and 452.

  2. One laboratory or field course in the Biology Department beyond the introductory level (Biology 300 or 400, independent study, elected for a minimum of 3 credit hours, may be used.)

  3. At least one course from group C - Biological Evolution and Diversity, and one course from group D - Ecology and Population Biology. (See Course Listings C-D for the available courses in each group.)

  4. One cognate course from the "General Biology Cognate List." This list, which is put together by the Biology Curriculum Committee, includes courses offered by non-natural science units that treat biology or natural science generally in the humanistic or social context. These are not science courses, but courses that treat science or scientific issues from a historical, cultural, ethical, or political perspective. A list of these may be obtained from the Biology Office, 1121 Natural Science.Course Listings by Biology Distribution Group

    1. Molecular and Cellular Biology: 207*, 224, 318,* 320, 405, 408, 415, 416, 422, 423*, 427, 428, 429*, 436, 512.

    2. Anatomy, Physiology, and Development: 209, 210*, 222, 252*, 275*, 306*, 307, 308*, 325, 326*, 351*, 409, 410*, 413*, 414, 418, 419*, 425, 534.

    3. Biological Evolution and Diversity: 215*, 255*, 330*, 341*, 355*, 380, 390, 431*, 433*, 437*, 438*, 440*, 442*, 450*, 451*, 457*, 458*, 459*, 460, 461*, 462*, 468*, 471*, 491*, 494, 532*, 556*.

    4. Ecology and Population Biology: 281, 282*, 331*, 381*, 382*, 383*, 444*, 447*, 453*, 477*, 480, 481, 482*, 483, 484*, 486*, 487*, 488, 489*, 490, 492, 493*, 495, 496*, 497, 498, 499, 585*, 589.

    * Laboratory courses or courses that include a laboratory.Students planning careers in biology are encouraged to choose a variety of courses involving the study of plants, animals, and microbes; basic courses in genetics and biochemistry are required.

Honors Concentration. A student pursuing a concentration in biology who wishes to be admitted to the Honors program should notify the Biology Honors Chair by the end of the junior year. To be considered for Honors, the student must:

  1. Maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0, and at least a 3.3 average in the field of concentration, including all prerequisites.

  2. Elect a total of at least 4 credits of undergraduate research with a Biology faculty member who agrees to serve as research advisor. Relevant courses include Biology 300 or 400; Honors 390 or 490.

  3. Obtain, as soon as a faculty sponsor is identified, written commitments to serve as readers from two other faculty members, one of whom must be in the Department of Biology, knowledgeable in the area to be investigated.

  4. Submit a well-written scientific paper on the results of the research, incorporating pertinent literature. Four identical typewritten copies are to be provided, at least two weeks before the last day of classes of the student's last term, to the Biology Honors Chair, the research advisor, and the two readers.

Advising. Appointments with concentration advisors are scheduled at the Biology Counseling Office (1121 Natural Science Building). Office staff are also prepared to answer questions about various aspects of the program. Questions about content and appropriateness of course elections should be directed to individual instructors or advisors.

Teaching Certificate. Students interested in obtaining a secondary teaching certificate with a major or minor in Biology should consult the "Teacher Certification Program" section in this Bulletin and the School of Education Office of Academic Services.


Botany

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The Professional Concentration Program is designed for students who plan to pursue graduate study and careers in the plant sciences, while the Cultural Concentration Program is intended for students who seek cultural enrichment or who are preparing for careers in botany-related fields but who do not require the amount of specialization built into the Professional Concentration Program.

Prerequisites to Concentration. For the Cultural Concentration Program: Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Biology 255 or 355; one term of college chemistry; one term of college mathematics.

For the Professional Concentration Program: Biology 152 and 154 or Biology 195 (or the equivalent); Chemistry 210, 211, 215, 216; Mathematics 115 and 116, or the equivalent; Physics 125/127 and 126/128, or 140/141 and 240/241 (or the equivalent).

Cultural Concentration Program. Students interested in plants (but not contemplating graduate work in botany) who would like to be better informed about their living environment may prefer the Cultural Concentration Program. This program is not designed to prepare students for a career in the plant sciences or for advanced training in botany.

A minimum 30 credits, including:

  1. At least one course from each of the following groups:

    1. Biology 255, 458, 459, or 468;

    2. Biology 209 and 210, 275 or 461;

    3. Biology 381 (or the equivalent);

  2. Two (or more) additional courses in botany. These may include genetics (Biology 305), but not a course counted toward 1 above.

  3. At least 8 credits of intermediate or advanced courses in cognate fields. Recommended cognates include (but are not limited to) courses in zoology, natural resources, geology, biophysics, human genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, statistics, chemistry, and anthropology. Courses designated "Biology" are usually not accepted as cognates.

Professional Concentration Program. This program provides undergraduates with training in those areas of science that are essential to an understanding of modern botany. It is intended to prepare students for graduate study or professional work in basic and applied areas of the plant sciences and related fields, such as ecology, genetics, microbiology, and biochemistry.

A minimum of 30 credits, including:

  1. One course from each of the following categories:

    1. Biochemistry (Biology 310, 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451 and 452)

    2. Genetics (Biology 305)

    3. Plant physiology (Biology 209 and 210; both lecture and laboratory are required and are considered as a single course for the purpose of this category)

    4. Plant structure and development (Biology 275 or 462)

    5. Systematics and evolution (Biology 255 or 459)

    6. Cryptogamic botany (Biology 408, 458, 468, 472, or a course in cryptogamic botany taught at the Biological Station, approved by a concentration advisor)

    7. Ecology (Biology 381 or a comparable course approved by a concentration advisor. Some courses taught at the Biological Station may be used to meet this requirement)

  2. One additional intermediate or advanced course at the 300-level or above in anthropology, biological chemistry, biology, botany, chemistry, computer science, geological sciences, human genetics, microbiology, natural resources, oceanography, statistics, or zoology. This course must be approved by a concentration advisor.

    Each professional concentration student is also strongly encouraged to elect at least two credits of independent instruction or research (Biology 300 or 400) and to enroll for a summer session at the Biological Station.

Honors Concentration. This program is open to students who have demonstrated superior academic ability and who desire the challenge of original work to supplement their standard courses. Students in the College Honors Program and others who qualify are invited to participate in the botany Honors program early in their junior year. (Potential Honors students should be sure to notify a concentration advisor of their interest.) Eligible students must enter the program by the beginning of their senior year. The program consists of:

  1. Prerequisites and Concentration Program: Either the Cultural or Professional program as described above.

  2. Independent Study: at least 4 credits in Biology 300 and/or 400, including preparation of a senior thesis, to be completed at least two weeks before graduation, under the direction of faculty member.

  3. Grade Point Average: A cumulative 3.0 and at least a 3.3 average in the field of concentration are required for admission to and continuance in the program.

Advising. Professor L.D. Noodén is the advisor. Appointments are scheduled at 1121 Natural Science Building. Office staff are also prepared to answer questions about various aspects of both programs. Questions about content and appropriateness of course elections should be directed to individual instructors or advisors.

K.L. Jones Award. Since 1977, this award has been made each year to the outstanding botany undergraduate. The Kenneth L. Jones Undergraduate Award for excellence in botany was endowed by colleagues, friends, and alumni upon the retirement of Professor Jones and consists principally of a sum to enable the recipient to purchase books or equipment of his or her own choice.

J.T. Slater Award. Since 1983, this award has been given to systematic and/or field botanists from among upper-division students. Awards are made on the basis of excellence in classes as well as field work, and are in the form of a check. The award was financed by Professor Slater of the University of Puget Sound, expert in field studies of northwestern ferns. Awardees may be in any school at the University of Michigan, so long as individuals selected excel in the targeted fields.


Cell and Molecular Biology

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

The curriculum in cellular and molecular biology offers students an integrated program of study and training in the biological and physical sciences. It is a pathway to graduate study in areas of biology and medicine which emphasize a quantitative and analytical approach to the life sciences.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152 and 154, or Biology 195; Chemistry 210, 211, 215, 216; Mathematics 115 and 116; Physics 140/141 and 240/241 (or Physics 125/127 and 126/128). It is recommended that students interested in pursuing graduate work acquire a reading knowledge of French, German, or Russian.

Concentration Program. Must include:

  1. Required courses. Biology 305; 310 or 311 (or Chemistry 451 and 452, or Biological Chemistry 415); Biology 427; Biology 428; Biology 306, 413, 423, or 429; Chemistry 340 OR Chemistry 260 and 241-242.

  2. Two advanced CMB courses chosen from among Biology 400, 405, 406, 416, 418, 422, 423, 430, 513, 523, and 534.

  3. One elective course, which can be:

    1. Any Biology class at the 300- or 400-level (except Biol. 320 or 412). A third advanced CMB course is permitted to meet this requirement.

    2. Chemistry 452 for students who elected the sequence Chemistry 451-452.

    3. One cognate course (as approved by the concentration advisor) in Chemistry (courses with a Chem. 260 prerequisite), Mathematics (courses with a Math. 116 prerequisite), or Statistics (Statistics 402 or Biostatistics 503).

Honors Concentration. Qualified students may elect an Honors concentration. This program requires a thesis which describes and analyzes independent experimental work. The research topic and advisor must be approved by an advisor in Cell and Molecular Biology. Students in this program are expected to maintain an overall grade point average of 3.3 and at least a 3.3 in field of concentration, including prerequisite courses.

Advising. Professors S. Allen, R. Bodmer, S. Clark, R. Ellis, L. Olsen, E. Pichersky, J. Schiefelbein, and D.G. Shappirio are the concentration advisors. Appointments are scheduled at 1121 Natural Science Building.


Microbiology

May be elected as an interdepartmental concentration program

Microbiology includes the study of viruses, algae, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. Immunobiology, including immunochemistry, immunological defense mechanisms, and host-parasite interactions are also included within the science of microbiology. A concentration in microbiology prepares students for graduate study in microbiology, biochemistry, agricultural science, and food science as well as for study in other areas of biology which emphasize cellular structures and their function. A bachelor's degree in microbiology may qualify students for entry-level positions in medical, industrial, or governmental laboratories.

Prerequisites to Concentration. Biology 152-154, or Biology 195; Chemistry 210, 211, 215, 216; Mathematics 115 and 116; and Physics 140/141 and 240/241 (or Physics 125/127 and 126/128). The Physics 140/141 and 240/241 sequence is recommended for students interested in an Honors concentration and for those who anticipate graduate work in the field of microbiology.

Concentration Program.

  1. Required courses include:

    1. Biology 207 (or Biology 206 and 408; or Microbiology 501, 502, and 503; or Microbiology 350).

    2. Biology 310, 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451 and 452.

    3. Biology 429 or Biological Chemistry 416.

    4. Biology 305 (Genetics).

  2. Electives (19 credits). A minimum of nine credits selected from three of the five groups a-e (a minimum of two credits must be selected within three of the groups). The remaining ten credits may be selected from groups a-e, or from the cognate list (#3).

    1. Immunology: Biology 436; Epidemiology 507; Micro. 641, 642.

    2. Virology: Epidemiology 543; Micro. 615, 616, 617.

    3. Bacterial Pathogenesis: Epidemiology 560; Micro. 607, 608.

    4. Genetics and Molecular Biology/ Physiology: Biol. 427, 513; Micro. 604, 605.

    5. Ecology and Evolution: Biology 390, 458, 468, 483, 488, 589; Micro. 525.

  3. Cognate Courses. A maximum of two advisor-approved cognate courses listed below may be applied toward a Microbiology concentration.

    1. Chemistry: Any course at the 300-level or above.

    2. Human Genetics: Any course at the 500-level or above.

    3. Natural Resources 423.

    4. Mathematics: Any course with a Math. 116 prerequisite.

    5. Physics: Any course approved by the advisor.

    6. Statistics 402.

Honors Concentration. Microbiology concentrators of superior ability may be invited (normally during the junior year) to elect an Honors concentration. After consulting with an academic advisor, qualified students are directed to find an appropriate research advisor. Qualified students should ideally contact prospective research mentors before the end of the sophomore year. Candidates for an Honors concentration must elect two or more credits of independent research (Biology 300 and 400; or Microbiology 399) in addition to the regular departmental requirements for the concentration, and must submit an acceptable senior Honors thesis for evaluation by a committee of advisors.

Advising. Appointments with Professors Bender, Helling, and Maddock are scheduled at 1121 Natural Science.

LS&A courses in Microbiology. All courses in Microbiology, Immunology, or Epidemiology are listed in the Time Schedule under the Medical School. Biological Chemistry 415 and 416 are listed in this Bulletin and therefore are not included in the non-LS&A hours which may be applied toward the degree. (See "Non-LS&A Course Work" in Chapter III). Courses not listed in this Bulletin and not cross-listed through an LS&A department (e.g., Epid 543) count as non-LS&A course work. Students pursuing a concentration in microbiology should elect cross-listed courses through the LS&A department whenever possible. Concentrators may, with the signed approval of a concentration advisor, elect 20 credits of non-LS&A course work in the minimum 120 required for an A.B. or B.S. degree.


Courses in Biology (Division 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (4). I: Goldberg and Osgood. (NS). (BS).

101. Biology and Human Affairs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (4). Vandermeer, Wilson. (NS). (BS).

102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. II. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

104/RC Nat. Sci. 104. Introduction to the Natural Sciences. First- or second-year standing; written application to the Biological Station. Does not meet prerequisites for any of the biology concentration programs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. IIIa at the Biological Station. (5). Teeri. (NS). (BS).

107. Evolution of Life. (4). Mindell. (NS). (BS).

108. Introduction to Animal Diversity. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. II. (4). Myers. (NS). (BS).

110/AOSS 171/UC 110/NR&E 110. Introduction to Global Change I. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (4). (NS). (BS).

124. Cells, Cancer, and Society. Not open to biology concentrators. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 224. II. (3). Kleinsmith. (NS). (BS).

130. Animal Behavior. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (This course will be offered Fall, 1997). (3). Payne. (NS). (BS).

140. Genetics and Society. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I. (4). Adams, Gibson. (NS). (BS).

150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152, 154, or 195. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I, II, and IIIa. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (1). (Excl). (BS).

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. I and II. (1). (Excl). (BS).

195. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 130. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 is a prerequisite. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. II. (6). Ikuma. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required.

200. Undergraduate Tutorial. Permission of faculty member in biology. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

207. Introductory Microbiology. Biol. 152. I. (4). Mann. (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. I. (3). Ikuma. (Excl). (BS).

210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 209. I. (3). Ikuma. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($65) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

215. Spring Flora of Michigan. Biol. 152, 195, or 102. (3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

222. From Message to Mind: An Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. II. (3). Oakley. (Excl). (BS).

224. Biology of Cancer. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 124. I. (3). Kleinsmith. (NS). (BS).

252. Chordate Anatomy and Phylogeny. Biol. 152-154 or 195. I. (4). Fink. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

255. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. II. (5). Wynne. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

275. Introduction to Plant Development. Biol. 154 or 195. II. (4). Noodén. (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

281. General Ecology. Biol. 152 and 154 and a laboratory course in chemistry. (3). Rathcke. (NS). (BS).

282. General Ecology Laboratory. Biol. 152 and 154, a laboratory course in chemistry, and concurrent or prior enrollment in Biol. 281. (3). Rathcke. (Excl).

300. Undergraduate Research. Eight credits of biology and 3.0 grade point average in science; permission of faculty member in biology. I, II, III, IIIa and IIIb in Ann Arbor; IIIb at Biological Station. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125. I and II. (3). I: Martin; II: Helling. (Excl). (BS).

302. Teaching Experience for Undergraduates. Permission of instructor. I, II, IIIa, and IIIb. (1-3). (Excl). May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (EXPERIENTIAL).

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. I, II, and IIIa. (4). I: Brown, Ellis; II: S. Allen, Clark. (Excl). (BS).

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. I, II. (3). Jeyabalan. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

307. Introductory Developmental Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). II. (3). Kuwada. (Excl). (BS).

308. Developmental Biology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 307. II. (3). Jeyabalan. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

311. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 310, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. I, II, and IIIa. (4). (Osgood). (Excl). (BS).

318. Project Laboratory in Microbiology and Genetics. Biol. 305 or Biol. 206, and permission of instructor. II. (Offered in Alternate Years; this course will not be offered in Winter 1998). (10). Bender. (Excl). (BS).

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. I. (3). Shappirio. (Excl). (BS).

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and a year of chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 420. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Biol. 325 will not be admitted to Biol. 326 without special permission. II. (2). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

330. Biology of Birds. Two collegiate courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). Cuthbert. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

341. Parasitology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). I. (Offered in alternate years). (4). OConnor. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($30) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

355/NR&E 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biol. 152 or 195. I. (4). Barnes and Wagner. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics. I. (3). O'Foighil. (Excl). (BS).

381. General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. IIIa and IIIb at Biol. Station. (6 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

382. Introduction to Field Research and Analytic Skills. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent; and participation in the Comprehensive Studies Program. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154. I in Ann Arbor; IIIa at Biol. Station. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). I: Hazlett. (Excl). (BS).

400. Advanced Research. 12 credits of biology, 3.0 average in science, and permission of faculty member in biology. Also offered at the Biological Station during IIIb. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

401. Special Topics in Biology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

402. Enhancement Workshop for Science Teachers. Two college level courses in biology. Enrollment in ASSIST Program at Biological Station. IIIb at Biological Station. (5). Teeri. (Excl). (BS).

404. Genetics, Development, and Evolution. Biol. 305 or 390. (3). (Excl).

405. Molecular Basis of Development. Biol. 152-154 and 305. A course in molecular and developmental biology is helpful but not required. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

406. Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415), and Genetics (Biol. 305). I. (3). Clark. (Excl). (BS).

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. I, II, and IIIa. (3). Osgood. (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

413. Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory. Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415; at least junior standing. II. (3). Pichersky. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

415. Plant Constituents and Their Functions. Biol. 154 or 195; and one term of organic chemistry. I. (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Fall 1997). (3). Noodén. (Excl). (BS).

418. Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. I. (Not offered Fall 1997). (3). Denver, Duan. (Excl). (BS).

422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195, one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. I. (Not offered Fall 1997). (3). Kuwada. (Excl). (BS).

423. Introduction to Research in Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 422; or completion of Biol. 222 or 422, and permission of instructor. I. (3). Hume. (Excl). (BS).

425/Anatomy 425. Systems Neurobiology. Biol. 222, 325, or 422. II. (3). Easter. (Excl). (BS).

427. Molecular Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. I, II. (4). I: Helling, Pichersky; II: Maddock. (Excl). (BS).

428. Cell Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415 or their equivalents. Students with credit for Biol. 320 must obtain permission of instructor. II. (4). Olsen. (Excl). (BS).

429. Laboratory in Cell and Molecular Biology. Biol. 427 or 428, or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 428. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 416 or 516. II. (3). Mann. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($70) required.

430(515). Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl). (BS).

431. Ecology of Animal Parasites. Two laboratory courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). Blankespoor. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

433. Ornithology. Introductory biology. IIIa. (4). Payne. (Excl). (BS).

436(336). Introductory Immunology. Biol. 305 and biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415). I. (3). Mann. (Excl). (BS).

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 152-154 or 195, or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. II. (Offered in alternate years; This course will be offered Winter 1998). (5). Burch. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement. Laboratory fee ($55) required.

438. Biology of Mollusks. Introductory biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Burch. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

440/NR&E 422. Biology of Fishes. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. I. (3). Webb. (Excl). (BS).

441/NR&E 423. The Biology of Fishes Laboratory. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. (1). Smith. (Excl). (BS).

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. I in Ann Arbor; IIIb at Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years in Ann Arbor; Not offered Fall 1997). (5). I: Moore; IIIb: Scholtens. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($35) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

444. Fish Behavior. Biol. 440. II. (4). Smith. (Excl). (BS).

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 152-154 or 195. II. (Not offered Winter 1998). (5). Nussbaum. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

451. Biology of Mammals. Biol. 152-154 or 195. I. (Offered in alternate years; Will be offered Fall 1997). (4). Myers. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

453. Field Mammalogy. Two laboratory courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Myers. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

455. Ethnobotany. Two college-level biology courses. III at the Biological Station. (5 in the half-term). Ford. (Excl).

457. Algae in Freshwater Ecosystems. Two laboratory courses in botany. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5 in the half-term). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

458. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 152 or 195, or Biol. 255. I. (Offered in alternate years; Will be offered Fall 1997). (5). Wynne. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($40) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, or Biol. 255. I. (4). Anderson, Wagner. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($30) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

461. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. Biol. 154 or 255. I (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Fall 1997). (5). Burnham. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($70) required.

468. Mushrooms and Molds: Biology and Use. Biol. 154. II. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Fogel. (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

471. Bryophytes. Two laboratory courses in biology and one course in organismal botany. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 472. IIIb at the Biological Station. (3-5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

474. Wetlands Ecology. Two college-level courses in Biology, preferably one in Ecology. III at the Biological Station. (5 in the half-term). Craft. (Excl).

475. Conservation Biology and Ecosystem Management. Two courses in the biological sciences including ecology. III at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS).

477. Laboratory in Field Ecology. A course in ecology and field biology. (5). Curran, Vandermeer. (Excl). (BS).

478. Advanced Ecology. A general ecology course (Biol. 381 or equivalent). II. (3). Rathcke. (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

480. Computer-Aided Inferences in Evolution and Ecology. Senior natural science concentrator or graduate student. I. (Not offered Fall 1997). (4). Estabrook. (Excl). (BS).

481. Population Dynamics and Ecology. A course in ecology. Calculus is strongly recommended. (4). Goldberg, Vandermeer, Wilson. (Excl). (BS).

482. Limnology. Three laboratory courses in botany or zoology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

483. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. II. (3). Lehman. (Excl). (BS). (QR/1).

484. Limnology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483. II. (3). Lehman. (Excl). (BS). (QR/1). Laboratory fee ($70) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

485/Geol. 450/NavArch 450. Aquatic Science Field Studies. Junior science or engineering concentrators. Those with credit for GS 223 may only elect GS 450 for 5 credits. IIIa in Grand Haven, Michigan. (6 in the half-term). (NS). (BS).

486. Biology and Ecology of Fish. Two laboratory courses in biology. IIIb at the Biological Station. (Offered in alternate years). (5). Webb. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

487/NR&E 409. Ecology of Fishes. One course in ecology. II. (Lectures: 3 credits; lectures and lab: 4 credits). (Excl). (BS).

488. Microbial Ecology of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Biol. 152. II. (3). Fogel. (Excl). (BS).

489/NR&E 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. I. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($25) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

490. Population and Quantitative Genetics. Biol. 305. II. (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Winter 1998). (3). Gibson. (Excl). (BS).

491. Principles of Phylogenetic Systematics. Biol. 152-154 or 195. I. (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Fall 1997). (4). Kluge. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

492. Behavioral Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and one additional course in zoology. I in Ann Arbor; IIIb at the Biological Station. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 in the half-term; 5 at Biol. Station, which also includes Biology 493). I: Hazlett. (Excl). (BS).

494. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. II. (This course will be offered Winter 1998). (4). Alexander. (Excl). (BS).

495. Plant Population and Community Ecology. A course in ecology. II. (Not offered Winter 1998). (3). Goldberg. (Excl). (BS).

496/NR&E 425. Population Ecology. General ecology and NR&E 438; calculus recommended. II. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

497. Community Ecology. A course in ecology. II. (3). Goldberg. (Excl). (BS).

498. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology. I. (Offered in alternative years). (3). Vandermeer. (Excl). (BS).

499. Dynamic Systems in Population and Community Ecology. A course in calculus and a course in ecology. I. (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Fall 1997). (3). Vandermeer. (Excl). (BS).

513. Microbial Genetics. Genetics; and microbiology or biochemistry. I. (3). Maddock. (Excl). (BS).

514. Topics in Molecular Evolution. Biol. 305 and one upper-level course in either molecular or evolutionary biology, and permission of instructor. I. (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Fall 1997). (3). Tucker. (Excl). (BS).

532. Birds of the World. Sixteen credits of biology and permission of instructor. II. (Offered in alternate years). (4). Payne. (Excl). (BS).

534. Developmental Neurobiology. Previous courses in neurobiology and development; and permission of instructor. I (Offered in alternate years; Not offered Fall 1997). (3). (Excl). (BS).

541/Anatomy 541/Physiology 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology. Permission of instructor. II. (4). Foster. (Excl). (BS).

556. Field Botany of Northern Michigan. A course in systematic botany (Biol. 459). IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). Voss. (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

585. Ecology of Streams and Rivers. A previous or concurrent course in limnology, aquatic ecology, phycology, or aquatic invertebrates is recommended. IIIb at the Biological Station. (5). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

589. Mechanisms of Microbial Evolution. Biol. 305. II. (3). Adams. (Excl). (BS).


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