Geological Sciences

2534 C.C. Little Building
764-1435
Web site: http://www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/

Professor David K. Rea, Chair
Professor Robert M. Owen, Associate Chair

May be elected as a departmental concentration program in Geological Sciences, Environmental Geology, or Oceanography


Professors

Eric J. Essene, Metamorphic petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, chemical thermo-dynamics
William R. Farrand, Archaeological geology (especially sediment and stratigraphic analysis), geochronology of primitive sites
Daniel C. Fisher, Invertebrate paleontology, evolutionary functional morphology
Philip D. Gingerich, Vertebrate paleontology and mammalian evolution
Alexander N. Halliday, Isotope geochemistry
Stephen E. Kesler, Economic geology, exploration geology and geochemistry and the origin of base metal ore deposits
Kyger C Lohmann, Sedimentology, trace element and isotope geochemistry
Philip A. Meyers, Organic geochemistry, paleoceanography, paleolimnology
Theodore C. Moore, Oceanography, Great Lakes geology, paleoclimatology
James R. O'Neil, Isotope geochemistry
Samuel I. Outcalt, Permafrost and physical geography
Robert M. Owen, Marine and lacustrine geology and geochemistry
Donald R. Peacor, Mineralogy, crystallographic studies of minerals
Henry N. Pollack, Geophysics, terrestrial heat flow, tectonic evolution of the earth
David K. Rea, Marine geology, oceanography, sedimentology, paleoclimatology
Gerald R. Smith, Paleontology, numerical taxonomy, ecological biogeography, biostratigraphy of fishes
Rob Van der Voo, Geophysics, paleomagnetism and its application to pre-Mesozoic plate tectonics
James C. G. Walker, Biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric evolution
Lynn M. Walter, Aqueous geochemistry, sedimentary diagenesis
Bruce H. Wilkinson, Sedimentary geology, ancient lacustrine and marine carbonates


Associate Professors

Robyn Burnham, Paleobotany
Samuel B. Mukasa, Igneous petrology, isotope geochemistry
Larry J. Ruff, Geophysics, seismology
Bernardus van der Pluijm, Structural geology


Assistant Professors

Rebecca Lange, Igneous petrology, volcanology
Kenji Satake, Geophysics, seismology
Youxue Zhang, Mineral physics, chemical thermodynamics


Adjunct Professors

Michael W. McElhinny (Australia), Paleomagnetism and geomagnetism
William B. Simmons (Univ. New Orleans), Mineralogy and petrology


Professors Emeriti

Charles B. Beck, Paul L. Cloke, Donald F. Eschman, Edwin N. Goddard, William C. Kelly, Robert V. Kesling, and James Lee Wilson


The Department of Geological Sciences offers: (1) a General Concentration Program in Geological Sciences, for students whose interest in the geological sciences as a form of cultural endeavor serves as the basis of a liberal education; (2) a Professional Concentration Program in Geological Sciences, for those seeking professional training in geological sciences; (3) a Teacher's Certificate Program, for prospective science teachers who are candidates for a secondary teaching certificate in earth science and general science; (4) an Oceanography Concentration Program, for those seeking professional training in oceanography; and (5) Honors Concentrations. Each concentration program option is briefly described; detailed descriptions are available from the department.

Junior/Senior Writing Requirement. The College of Literature, Science, and the Arts requires that every upperclass concentrator satisfy an upperclass writing requirement before graduation. The writing program which satisfies this requirement in the Department of Geological Sciences is explained in detail in a publication which every concentrator should obtain from the departmental office immediately upon entering any of the departmental concentration programs. Additional explanation may be obtained from Professor Stephen E. Kesler (4022 C.C. Little Building, 763-5057).

Advising and Advance Approval of Program and Elections. A concentration plan in geological sciences or oceanography is developed in consultation with a concentration advisor. A proposed plan must be approved in its entirety by the appropriate advisor prior to registration for the first term of concentration. Thereafter, progress through the plan and future elections must be reviewed, and approved in advance, whenever a change is proposed and in any case no less frequently than at the beginning of each new academic year of residence. Certification that the plan has been, or will be, carried to successful completion must also be obtained from the advisor, on an official LS&A Concentration Release Form, immediately prior to submission of the application for the degree.

Information about concentration program options in geological sciences and about appointments with concentration advisors is available at 2534 C.C. Little.

Teaching Certificate. The Department of Geological Sciences offers prospective secondary school science teachers an opportunity to earn a bachelor's degree from the College with a concentration in geological sciences while satisfying the requirements for a provisional secondary school teaching certificate with a major in earth science or general science.

This concentration program requires a minimum 25 credits of courses in geological sciences, including 8 credits of introductory geology (G.S. 117 or 120 and another course, or G.S. 116, or the equivalent); G.S. 231, 305, 310, and 351. Students choosing this program must elect either Program 1, an earth science major and a general science minor; or Program 2, a general science major and an earth science minor, as they are defined by the School of Education; the general requirements for a secondary teaching certificate are described elsewhere in this Bulletin. An outline with specific information about the major and minor in earth science, general science, and the other teaching certificate requirements should be obtained from the School of Education Office of Academic Services.

Either program requires Astronomy 111 and 112, or Astronomy 160 and 204; Biology 195 or the equivalent; two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230; and Physics 125/127 or 140/141. In addition, Program 1 requires Mathematics 215 and 216, and Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences (College of Engineering) 304, 305, 308, and 309; Program 2 requires one term of mathematics (preferably Mathematics 115 or 116), a two-term sequence in Biology, Physics 125/127 and 126/128 or Physics 140/141 and 240/241, Physiology 101, and Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences 202 (or Geological Sciences 201) and 203 (or Geological Sciences 222), or Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences 304, 305, and 308. Interested students should consult the teaching certificate advisor as early as possible.

Summer Field Courses. A summer field course (G.S. 440) is offered at Camp Davis, the University's Rocky Mountain Field Station near Jackson, Wyoming, where geologic structures, sedimentary strata, fossils, and igneous and metamorphic rocks are well exposed. This experience provides a type of training and direct observation not paralleled by any course work offered by the department during the regular academic year. The Department of Geological Sciences considers field instruction fundamental to its programs of study and requires this work of all students whose goal is professional specialization. It is strongly recommended to students electing the cultural concentration or a teaching certificate. Further information is available at 2534 C.C. Little.

The department also offers an introductory course in geological sciences (G.S. 116) at Camp Davis. Although similar to introductory geological sciences courses taught on campus, this course offers students an opportunity for direct observation of geological phenomena. The course is open to any student in good health and good academic standing. Details are available at 2534 C.C. Little.

The Museum of Paleontology has many collections of American and foreign fossils arranged systematically and available for study to geological sciences students. More than 120,000 catalogued specimens are grouped in the fields of invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants. Some of the more striking paleontological specimens are on exhibit in the Hall of Evolution.

The Mineralogical Collections of the department include a study collection of minerals and rocks for use by advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Outstanding specimens and suites of minerals, crystals, rocks, and ores are on exhibit in hall cases in the C.C. Little Building (on floors 1-4).


Geological Sciences

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

Prerequisites to Concentration. The General Concentration Program prerequisites include: College algebra and trigonometry, a laboratory course in introductory chemistry, and an introductory course with laboratory in geological sciences (G.S. 116, 117, 118 and 119, or 120). These should be completed as soon as possible. The Professional Concentration Program prerequisites are five, which also should be completed as soon as possible:

  1. One introductory geological sciences course with laboratory from among G.S. 116, 117, 120.

  2. One year of introductory chemistry with laboratory, ordinarily two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230.

  3. One year of introductory physics with laboratory, preferably Physics 140/141 and 240/241. Concentrators certain to specialize in paleontology may substitute one term of physics with laboratory (ordinarily Physics 140/141) and one term of biology with laboratory which may be Biology 195 or the equivalent (e.g., Biology 152 and 154).

  4. Two courses in college mathematics (ordinarily 115 and 116) covering at least the level and content of Mathematics 115 and 116.

  5. Elements of Mineralogy (G.S. 231).

General Concentration Program. This program is designed to provide a broad background in the fundamental of Earth Science for students who intend to have careers in business, law and government. The concentration requires a minimum of 30 credits, including (1) GS 231, (2) either GS 305, 310, or 351, (3) at least 6 credits of approved science cognate courses, (4) 16 additional credits in Geological Science, of which at least 8 are in 300/400-level courses and no more than 3 are in half-term mini courses. Students interested in a professional career in Geological Science should follow the Professional Concentration Program.

Students interested in combining a background in geological sciences with preparation for professional school (e.g., business administration, law school, medical school) should consult an appropriate source for information about requirements for admission to those schools.

Professional Concentration Program. This program of study leads to a Bachelor of Science degree. The program is designed to prepare students for graduate study in the geological sciences and for later professional work.

The concentration program requirements are: G.S. 305, 310, 351, 440, and three additional geological sciences courses numbered at the 400-level. At least two of these must be elected from Group A but one may be elected from Group B.

  1. G.S. 418, 420, and 422.

  2. Any geological sciences courses numbered in the 400 level and from the list entitled "Primarily for Concentrators" except for research, seminar, and field courses. (Research, seminar, and field courses, however, are highly recommended as extra electives.)

  3. In addition concentrators must elect 6 credits of advanced cognate courses. These must be above the prerequisite level, in chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, or some combination thereof, and must be approved in advance by the Professional Concentration Advisor. Students who are certain to specialize in paleontology may, with advance agreement of the advisor, elect an approved statistics course as advanced mathematics. Computing courses are not applicable as advanced cognates (but see below).

Honors Concentration. The Honors concentration consists of a series of special academic opportunities supplementary to the Professional Concentration Program. The Honors concentration is tailored to fit the needs and interests of individual students. Geological Sciences 490 is elected for 1 credit during each of the four terms of the junior and senior years for (1) reading and discussion of the professional literature; (2) library research and reporting on a special research problem; (3) research as an assistant to a faculty member or as part of a graduate seminar; and (4) individual research and reporting on a problem or graduate seminar. The Honors concentration offers well-qualified students an opportunity to increase the breadth and depth of their undergraduate experience. To be eligible for the Honors concentration, students must have at least (1) a 3.25 grade point average in geological sciences courses elected in the department; and (2) a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0 at the time of acceptance. Students admitted to the Honors concentration complete the requirements for the Professional Concentration Program.

Ideally, the selection of candidates for Honors concentration is made at the beginning of the junior year, but qualified students may be admitted to the program as late as the end of the junior year. Interested students should contact the departmental office for referral to the Honors advisor, 2534 C.C. Little Building, 764-1435.


Environmental Geology

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

Prerequisites to Concentration. There are four prerequisites, which should be completed as soon as possible:

  1. One introductory geological sciences course with laboratory from among GS 116; 117; 120; 205/206 or 284, and 118 or 207.

  2. One year of introductory chemistry with laboratory, ordinarily two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230. Students should note that Chem. 215/216 are prerequisites for several advanced cognate courses in chemistry and biochemistry

  3. One year of introductory physics with laboratory (Physics 140/141 and 240/241) and/or Biology 152/154, or one term of physics with laboratory (Physics 140/141) and one term of biology with laboratory (Biology 195 or 152).

  4. Two courses in college mathematics (Math 115 and 116). Students should note that Math 215 and 216 are prerequisites for several advanced cognate courses in math, statistics, and engineering.Concentration Program.

The concentration requires a minimum 29 credits. A concentration plan must include:

  1. GS 232, 442, 425 (or one of GS 422, 473, 478, 479), and 447.

  2. Two additional geological sciences courses chosen from GS 201, 222/223, 280, or any geological sciences courses numbered at the 300 level and above, from the list entitled "Primarily for Concentrators" except for research, seminar, and field courses. (Research, seminar, and field courses, however, are highly recommended as extra electives.)

  3. In addition concentrators must elect 9 credits of advanced cognate courses. These must be above the prerequisite level, in biology, chemistry, mathematics, statistics, civil and environmental engineering, natural resources and environment, or environmental and industrial health (Public Health), or some combination thereof, and must be approved in advance by the concentration advisor.

Honors Concentration. The Honors concentration consists of a series of special academic opportunities supplementary to the regular Environmental Geology Concentration Program. The Honors concentration is tailored to fit the needs and interests of individual students. Geological Sciences 490 is elected for 1 credit during each of the four terms of the junior and senior years for (1) reading and discussion of the professional literature; (2) library research and reporting on a special research problem; (3) research as an assistant to a faculty member or as part of a graduate seminar; and (4) individual research and reporting on a problem or graduate seminar. The Honors concentration offers well-qualified students an opportunity to increase the breadth and depth of their undergraduate experience. To be eligible for the Honors concentration, students must have at least (1) a 3.25 grade point average in geological sciences courses elected in the department; and (2) a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.0 at the time of acceptance. Students admitted to the Honors concentration complete the requirements for the Environmental Geology Concentration Program.

Ideally, the selection of candidates for Honors concentration is made at the beginning of the junior year, but qualified students may be admitted to the program as late as the end of the junior year. Interested students should contact the departmental office for referral to the Honors advisor, 2534 C.C. Little Building, 764-1435.


Oceanography

May be elected as a departmental concentration program

Prerequisites to Concentration. Mathematics 115 and 116; Physics 140, 141, 240, and 241; two of three from Chemistry 125/130, 210/211, and 230; Biology 195 (or equivalent); and Introductory Geology (116, 117, 119, or 120) and Geological Sciences 231.

Concentration Program. All concentrators must complete Geological Sciences (G.S.) 222/223 and one course from among 305, 310, 351, and 418/419. All concentrators must also complete Mathematics 215, 216, and Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 425 as cognates to the concentration. Each concentrator must then also complete one of the following four options:

  1. Marine Geology. 16-18 credits that must include G.S. 449 and the remaining credits chosen from 305, 310, 351, 415, 418/419, 420, 422, 430, 455, 466, 467, 470, 478, 479, 485, Biology 380, Chemistry 365, Natural Resources and Environment (NR&E) 438, and AOSS 440.

  2. Marine Geophysics. 16-18 credits that must include G.S. 449 and the remaining credits chosen from 305, 310, 351, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, Chemistry 365, Mathematics 405, 450, 454, 471, and NR&E 438.

  3. Marine Geochemistry. 16-18 credits that must include G.S. 478 and the remaining credits chosen from 305, 310, 415, 422, 430, 449, 455, 466, 473, 474, 479, 485, Chemistry 210/211, 215/216, 302, 340, 365, Biology 380, and NR&E 438.

  4. Marine Biology/Paleobiology. 16-18 credits that must include Biology 380 and the remaining credits from G.S. 305, 418/419, 430, 437, 449, 456, 473, 478, 485, Biology 305, 381, 408, 411, 437, 438, 440, 483/484, Chemistry 365, and NR&E 438.


Courses in Geological Sciences (Division 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

100. Coral Reefs. (1). (NS). (BS).

101. Waves and Beaches. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 276. (1). (NS). (BS).

102. Energy from the Earth. (1). (NS). (BS).

103. Dinosaurs and Other Failures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 273. (1). (NS). (BS).

104. Ice Ages, Past and Future. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 275. (1). (NS). (BS).

105. Continents Adrift. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205 or 270. (1). (NS). (BS).

106. Fossils, Primates, and Human Evolution. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 125. (1). (NS). (BS).

107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 205, 270, or 271. (1). (NS). (BS).

108. Minerals in the Modern World. (1). (NS). (BS).

110. The History of the Oceans. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 222. (1). (NS). (BS).

111. Climate and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 201 or 275. (1). (NS). (BS).

113. Planets and Moons. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 204 or 278. (1). (NS). (BS).

114. The Elements. High School math, physics, and chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 266. (1). (NS). (BS).

115. Geologic Time. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 135 or 269. (1). (NS). (BS).

116. Introductory Geology in the Field. Reduced credit is granted for GS 116 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology on campus (GS 117, 118, 119, 120, 205, or 206). Contact the department undergraduate advisor for details about reduced credit. IIIb at Camp Davis, Wyoming. (8). (NS). (BS).

117. Introduction to Geology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 119, or 120. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 117 for 4 credits. I and II. (5). (NS). (BS).

118. Introductory Geology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in GS 119, or 205 and 206, or 135. Credit is not granted for GS 118 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (GS 116, 117, or 218). I and II. (1). (NS). (BS).

119. Introductory Geology Lectures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both 205 and 206. Those with credit for GS 205 may only elect GS 119 for 3 credits. I and II. (4). (NS). (BS).

120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments. Credit is not granted for GS 120 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology (116, 117, 119). No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 205 and 206. II. (4). (NS). (BS).

123/AOSS 123/Environ. Stud. 123. Life and the Global Environment. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 277. (2). (NS). (BS).

124/AOSS 124/Environ. Stud. 124. Environment, People, Resources. (2). (NS). (BS).

125. Evolution and Extinction. Those with credit for GS 106 may only elect GS 125 for 2 credits. May not be included in a concentration plan in geological sciences. (3). (NS). (BS).

130/Phys. 119/Chem. 108. The Physical World. High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

135. History of the Earth. High school chemistry, physics and mathematics recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 269. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 135 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Mankind. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 268. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 201 for 3 credits. I. (4). (NS). (BS).

204/AOSS 204/Astronomy 204. The Planets: Their Geology and Climates. High school mathematics through plane geometry and trigonometry. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 204 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

205. How the Earth Works: the Dynamic Planet. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 117, 119, or 270. No credit granted to those who have completed both GS 105 and 107. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 205 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

206. How the Earth Works: the Water Cycle and Environment. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 206 for 1 credit. (2). (NS). (BS).

207. How the Earth Works: A Hands-On Experience. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 116, 117, 118, or 120. (2). (NS). (BS).

222. Introductory Oceanography. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in GS 222. (1). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

231. Elements of Mineralogy. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 125/130 or 210/211. Those with credit for GS 232 may elect GS 231 for only 2 credits. I. (4). (Excl). (BS).

232. Earth Materials. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem 125/130 or 210/211. Those with credit for GS 231 may elect GS 232 for only 2 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

265. How to Build a Habitable Planet. (3). (NS). (BS).

266. From Stars to Stones. High school math and science. Those with credit for GS 114 may only elect GS 266 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

267. Gems and Gem Material. (3). (NS). (BS).

268. Climate Change: Peril or Pork. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 201. Those with credit for GS 111 may only elect GS 268 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

269. Evolution of the Earth. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 135. Those with credit for GS 115 may only elect GS 269 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

270. Plate Tectonics. No credit granted to those who have completed three of GS 105, 107 and 205. Those with credit for one of GS 105 and 107 may only elect GS 270 for two credits. Those with credit for GS 205, or both GS 105 and 107, may only elect GS 270 for one credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

271. Natural Hazards. Those with credit for GS 107 or 205 may only elect GS 271 for 2 credits. Those who have credit for both GS 107 and 205 may only elect 271 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

272. Seminar: Environmental Geology. High school math and science. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 284. Those with credit for GS 109 may only elect GS 272 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

273. Contemporary Dinosaurs. Those with credit for GS 103 may only elect GS 273 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

274. Dinosaur Extinction and Other Controversies. (3). (NS). (BS).

275. The Ice Ages: Past and Present. Those with credit for GS 104 may only elect GS 275 for 2 credits. I. (3). (NS). (BS).

276. Coastal Systems and Human Settlements. Those with credit for GS 101 may only elect GS 276 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

277/Environ. Stud. 361. Humans and the Natural World. Those with credit for GS 123 may only elect GS 277 for 1 credit. (3). (NS). (BS).

278. Earthlike Planets. High school science and math recommended. Those with credit for GS 113 may only elect GS 278 for 2 credits. (3). (NS). (BS).

279/Environ. Stud. 359. Ocean Resources. High school science and math recommended. II. (3). (NS). (BS).

280/Environ. Stud. 360. Mineral Resources, Economics, and the Environment. May not be included in a concentration plan in geology. II. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2).

283. Evolution of North America. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 411. (3). (NS). (BS).

284. Environmental Geology. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 272. Those with credit for GS 271 may only elect GS 284 for 3 credits. (4). (NS). (BS).

411. Geology of Michigan. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GS 283. (3). (Excl). (BS).

417. Geology of the Great Lakes. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). (BS).

B. Primarily for Concentrators

305. Sedimentary Geology. An introductory geological sciences laboratory course; or permission of the instructor. I. (4). (Excl). (BS).

310. Petrology. GS 231 and either an introductory geological sciences course or GS 351 to be elected prior to or concurrently with GS 310. II. (4). (Excl). (BS).

351. Structural Geology. GS 117 or 119. II. (4). (Excl). (BS).

415. Introductory Economic Geology (Metals). GS 310, 351. I. (4). (Excl). (BS).

418. Paleontology. GS 117 (or the equivalent), or Biol. 154 or 195. I. (3). (Excl). (BS).

419. Paleontology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in GS 418. I. (1). (Excl). (BS).

420. Introductory Earth Physics. Math. 116. I. (3). (Excl). (BS).

422. Principles of Geochemistry. GS 231, 305, 310 and Chem. 125/130. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

424. Introductory Cosmochemistry and Early Evolution of Planets. Math. 116, Phys. 126, and Chem. 130. (3). (Excl). (BS).

425. Environmental Geochemistry. Introductory chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).

430. Depositional Environments. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

433. Field Studies in Economic Geology. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

434. Field Studies in Geophysics, Tectonics, and Structure. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

435. Field Studies in Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

436. Field Studies in Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Sedimentology. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

437. Evolution of Vertebrates. A course in general biology or historical geology. (4). (Excl). (BS).

438. Evolution of the Primates. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS).

440. Field Course in Geology. Elementary trigonometry, GS 310 and 351. IIIb at Camp Davis, Wyoming. (8). (Excl). (BS).

442. Earth Surface Processes and Soils. Junior/ senior standing; an introductory course in physical geology is recommended but not required. I. (4). (Excl). (BS).

446. Permafrost, Snow, and Ice. Math. 116 and Physics 140/141. (3). (Excl). (BS).

447. Archaeological Geology. GS 442 or 448; and one 300-level (or higher) course in anthropological or classical archaeology. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

448. Geomorphology II: Glacial and Periglacial. An introductory physical geology course. I. (4). (Excl). (BS).

449. Marine Geology. GS 222/223 or introductory physical geology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

450/Biol. 485/NavArch 450. Aquatic Science Field Studies. Junior science or engineering concentrators. Those with credit for GS 223 may only elect GS 450 for 5 credits. IIIa in Grand Haven, Michigan. (6 in the half-term). (NS). (BS).

451. Introductory Earth Structure. Permission of Instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials. One term of elementary chemistry and physics. II. (4). (Excl). (BS).

458. X-ray Analysis of Crystalline Materials. GS 455. II. (3). (Excl). (BS).

465/AOSS 467/Chem. 467. Biogeochemical Cycles. Math. 116, Chem. 210, and Phys. 240. (3). (Excl). (BS).

467. Stratigraphy. GS 305, 310, and 351. I. (3). (Excl). (BS).

468. Introduction to Signal and Image Processing in the Earth Sciences. Math. 116. Prior or concurrent enrollment in a structured computer language such as "C" or Pascal. (3). (Excl). (BS).

469. Experimental Microclimatology. Math. 116 and Physics 140/141. (3). (Excl). (BS).

473. Fundamentals of Organic Geochemistry. GS 305 or Chem. 215/216. (3). (Excl). (BS).

477. Hydrogeology. Phys. 140/141, Chem. 125/ 130, and Math 116; Math 215 and 216 are recommended. (4). (Excl). (BS).

478. Aqueous Geochemistry. Chem. 365. (3). (Excl). (BS).

479. Marine Geochemistry. Chem. 125/130. (3). (Excl). (BS).

480/AOSS 480. The Planets: Composition, Structure and Evolution. Math 216, Physics 240, and Chem. 125/130. (3). (Excl). (BS).

483. Geophysics: Seismology. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 215 and Phys. 240. (4). (Excl). (BS).

484. Geophysics: Physical Fields of the Earth. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 216 and Phys. 240. (4). (Excl). (BS).

486. Geodynamics. GS 420 and prior or concurrent election of Math. 215 and Physics 240. (3). (Excl). (BS).

489. Geological Sciences Honors. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

490. Geological Sciences Honors. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

498. Research or Special Work. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

499. Research or Special Work. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.


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