History

1029 Tisch Hall
764-6305
Web site: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/history/

Professor Rebecca J. Scott, Chair

May be elected as a departmental concentration program


Professors

W. Andrew Achenbaum, Aging, U.S. social
Francis X. Blouin, Archives administration
Jane Burbank, Russian intellectual
Chun-shu Chang, Ancient and early imperial China, early modern, Chinese historical literature
David W. Cohen, Pre-colonial and 20th Century Africa - eastern and southeastern; International Institute
Juan R. Cole, Modern Middle East, Muslim South Asia, social, cultural
Frederick Cooper, East Africa
Geoffrey Eley, Modern Europe, Germany, nationalism and socialism
Todd M. Endelman, Modern Jewish
John V. A. Fine, Medieval and modern Balkans, Byzantium
Sidney Fine, Recent U.S., American labor
Thomas A. Green, England, U.S. constitutional and legal
Raymond Grew, Modern Europe, social and comparative, Italy and France
Sarah C. Humphreys, Ancient, Greek
David L. Lewis, United States business
Earl Lewis, Afroamerican history
Victor B. Lieberman, Southeast Asia, pre-modern Burma
Rudi P. Lindner, Ottoman, inner Asia, Byzantium
Sabine MacCormack, Late antiquity, Spanish Empire
Michael MacDonald, Early modern England, social and cultural, history of medicine
Terrence McDonald, U.S, political, urban, historiography
Regina Morantz-Sanchez, History of medicine, gender/women, social
Bradford Perkins, U.S., American diplomacy
Martin Pernick, History of medicine
Sonya Rose, Modern Britain, labor, women
William G. Rosenberg, Russia, comparative revolutionary movements
Rebecca J. Scott, Latin America, slavery and emancipation, labor systems
Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, women's history, history of sexuality, early America
Nicholas H. Steneck, History of science and values, science policy
Ann Stoler, Race and colonial history, gender/women's history, Southeast Asia
Thomas N. Tentler, Early modern, Reformation, late medieval
J. Mills Thornton, U.S. South, U.S. 1815-1877
Thomas R. Trautmann, Ancient India, kinship, history of anthropology
Raymond Van Dam, Roman and early medieval history
Martha J. Vicinus, British women's history
Maris A. Vinovskis, U.S. social, family, demographic
Ernest P. Young, East Asia, modern China


Associate Professors

Kathleen M. Canning, Modern German and European social history, gender/women's history
Laura Lee Downs, Modern Europe, labor, women
Joel D. Howell, History of medicine
Diane O. Hughes, Medieval
Susan Juster, Early American, gender, religion
Carol Karlsen, U.S. women's history
Valerie A. Kivelson, Early modern Russia
Rudolf Mrazek, Southeast Asia
Leslie Pincus, modern Japan, intellectual, cultural
Hitomi Tonomura, Premodern Japan, East Asia, social, women's history


Assistant Professors

Richard Candida Smith, U.S. Intellectual, oral history
Sueann Caulfield, Modern Latin America, Brazil, gender studies
Ferdnando Coronil, Latin America, cultural, political history, state formation, post coloniality.
Paul Forage, Imperial China, Chinese Society and Technology
David J. Hancock, early America, economic history
Nancy Hunt, Africa, women's history, history of medicine
Kali Israel, Modern Britain, women's history, modern Europe
Maria Montoya, American West, environmental, Latino
Brian Porter, East Europe, intellectual
Helmut Puff, early modern Europe, history of sexuality
David Scobey, U.S. cultural, social, working class history
Julius Scott, African American, early America, the Atlantic
Scott Spector, German intellectual
Michael Wintroub, early modern Europe, France


The field of historical study embraces all recorded expressions of human activity. History includes the record of the political experiences of a people in its internal and external phases, and it also surveys the social and economic aspects of life, forms of artistic expression, intellectual achievements, scientific progress, and religious beliefs. Because of its broad scope, history provides an excellent approach to all studies that emphasize human activities.

Prerequisites to Concentration. One of the five introductory survey sequences: History 110-111, 121-122, 151-152, 160-161, or 200-201.

Concentration Program. Concentration in history requires eight 3- or 4-credit courses, at least four of which must be taken in residence at the UM-Ann Arbor. At least five of the eight courses in history must be elected at the 300-level or above. Credits earned from survey sequence courses taken as a prerequisite to concentration may not be included in a concentration program, but credits earned from survey sequence courses not used to satisfy the prerequisite requirement may be counted for concentration. The concentration program must include at least one junior-senior colloquium (History 396 or 397). In addition, concentrators must elect at least one course in American history, at least one course in European or ancient history, and at least one course in non-Western or Latin American history. Students should consult a concentration advisor on whether a course satisfies this area requirement. Courses taken to satisfy the prerequisite requirement or the colloquium requirement may also be used to satisfy this area requirement. Finally, concentrators must elect six credits of cognate courses. Cognate courses are usually elected in the social sciences or the humanities; the cognate credits must be earned in a single department and must be from upper-level courses. In most cognate departments there are some courses which do not satisfy the history cognate requirement; a course is cognate to history only if it deepens the student's understanding of history. Thus, for instance, in the English department, literature courses are cognate but creative or expository writing courses are not, and in the language departments, courses in the literature or culture of a people are cognate but courses which offer training in how to speak the language are not. Students should consult with a concentration advisor to be certain whether or not a given course is acceptable to the History Department.

Aside from the necessity to satisfy the requirements listed above, the department specifies no single pattern of courses for concentration. Students develop a concentration plan in consultation with their advisor. Generally, such plans focus upon geographic areas (e.g., American or French history), methodological themes (e.g., demography), or topical developments (e.g., industrialization).

For purposes of history concentration credit, no more than 12 credits may be elected from History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399.

Honors Concentration. The Junior-Senior Honors Program in the Department of History is open to juniors interested in concentrating in history who have maintained at least a 3.25 grade point average overall and a 3.5 average in history courses. Applications for the program, which are available in the History Department office in 1029 Tisch Hall, are accepted annually at the end of October, and the usual applicant is a first term junior. The History Department's Honors Committee accepts about 25 students into the program, and admission decisions will be based on a student's academic performance, background in history, demonstrated ability to write, and recommendations by history faculty. High grade point average alone does not guarantee admission. Accepted students will be notified in November and will begin their participation in the program the following January in History 398, the Junior Honors Colloquium.

Members of the Honors Program must fulfill all the usual requirements for concentration in history and the two Honors courses they are required to take, History 398 (4 credits) and History 399 (6 credits), count toward the fulfillment of these requirements. History 398, the Junior Honors Colloquium, provides a rigorous introduction to historical research in general and Honors thesis topics and research in particular. During this course students must arrive at a topic and obtain an advisor for their senior Honors thesis. This course also provides intensive training in writing and, therefore, satisfies the junior/senior ECB writing requirement. Completion of the History 398-399 Honors Sequence also satisfies the "colloquium" requirement for history concentration, described above.

History 398 is offered only in the winter term and because it is the foundation for work on the senior thesis, it is normally an inflexible prerequisite for all Honors students. Students who cannot fit this course into their schedules will not be admitted to the program. In the case of a truly exceptional student, however, the Honors Committee is willing to waive this requirement when the student is abroad during the second term of junior year but wishes to write a thesis nonetheless. Such an exception will be made only under the following conditions: Before leaving for the term/year abroad, the student must find an advisor and work out a thesis topic in conjunction with the advisor. Next, the student must submit an application for admission to the Honors Program, understanding that chances for admission to the Program are no better, or worse, than those of other applicants. The application must include a detailed project proposal, endorsed by the student's advisor. Finally during the study time abroad, the student remains provisionally accepted until a full prospectus has been submitted for the thesis project, approved by the advisor and by two instructors in History 398. The prospectus is due by April 1 of the junior year and admission to History 399, like that of those students enrolled in History 398, is contingent on having an acceptable prospectus approved by the end of winter term in the junior year. Those who wish to write an Honors thesis in history but do not plan to be in residence during the winter term of junior year, are strongly encouraged to seek out an Honors History advisor during the sophomore year, so that those requirements can be met in a timely fashion. Students failing to achieve a B+ or better in History 398 will not be encouraged to continue in the program.

History 399, the Senior Honors Colloquium, is a year-long writing workshop led by a faculty member which includes all seniors writing Honors theses. Although the thesis is written primarily under the guidance of the faculty advisor, students help one another with projects in the workshop by sharing experiences, advice, interests, and, ultimately, portions of their theses. Completed theses, which must be submitted by April 1, usually range anywhere from 60 to 100 pages. They are evaluated by a committee of three faculty members including the student's advisor, on the basis of the quality of the research, analysis, and writing. The letter grade for History 399 and the level of Honors with which the student will be graduated (i.e., "Honors," "high Honors," "highest Honors") are based on the evaluations of the thesis. Theses handed in more than two weeks past the due date are not eligible for an Honors rank.

Students with questions about the program are welcome to pursue them by meeting with the History Department's Honors concentration advisors.

Advising. Appointments with concentration advisors and Honors concentration advisors are scheduled at the History department, 1029 Tisch Hall. Students should see a concentration advisor as soon as possible. Advisors are available during regularly scheduled office hours.

Teaching Certificate. A teaching certificate with a major in History requires at least 30 credits of history and must include 8 credits of U.S. history (colonial or national period) and two courses in non-United States history. The remaining courses for the teaching major must be distributed in such a way that students acquire a broad understanding of as many subfields as possible. Courses are selected with the approval of the concentration advisor. A teaching minor requires a minimum 20 credits of history including 8 of U.S. history (colonial or national period) and two courses in non-United States history.

The general requirements for a teaching certificate are described elsewhere in this Bulletin. Students should also consult the School of Education Office of Academic Services.

Student Associations. History concentrators with an average of 3.5 or better in their history courses are encouraged to join the history Honors society, Phi Alpha Theta, a group which fosters an exchange of ideas between students and faculty, and among students, about common historical interests. Two members of the society are elected to sit on the department's curriculum committee.

Half-Term Information. Some courses offered in half terms will carry reduced credit hours. Refer to the Time Schedule for specific credit hour information.


Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for First- and Second-Year Students

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4;3 in the half-term). (SS).

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

112. Modern Europe Film Series. Concurrent enrollment in Hist. 111. (1). (Excl).

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

122/Asian Studies 122. Modern Transformation of East Asia. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

130/ACABS 181. The First States and Civilizations: Introduction to the History of the Ancient Near East. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

132/APTIS 100/ACABS 100/HJCS 100. Peoples of the Middle East. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

152/Asian Studies 112. Southeast Asian Civilization. (4). (SS).

160. United States to 1865. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

170/Amer. Cult. 170/WS 210. New Worlds: Colonialism and Cultural Encounters. First-year students only. (4). (Introductory Composition).

171/German 171. Coming to Terms with Germany. (4). (HU).

195. The Writing of History. (4). (Introductory Composition). This course may not be included in a history concentration.

196. Freshman Seminar. (3). (SS).

197. Freshman Seminar. (3). (HU).

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

201. Rome. (4). (HU).

209/ABS 265. Clash of Empires: History of the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. Familiarity with the history and geography of the Near East is helpful. (3). (Excl).

210/MARC 210. Early Middle Ages, 300-1100. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (4). (SS).

213/MARC 213. The Reformation. (3). (HU).

214/French 214. Interpretations of French Society and Culture. (3). (HU).

216. War and Society in the 20th Century: World War I. (3). (Excl).

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

221. Survey of British History from 1688. (4). (SS).

225. Europe and the New World. (4; 3 in the half term). (Excl).

249/Korean 249. Introduction to Korean Civilization. (3). (HU).

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (3). (HU).

255. Gandhi's India. History 151 recommended. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

260/Amer. Cult. 260. Religion in America. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (3). (HU).

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (4). (HU).

266(366). Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (3). (SS).

275/CAAS 231. Survey of Afro-American History II. (3). (SS).

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

285. Science, Technology, and Society: 1940 to the Present. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

286/Rel. 286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

287/REES 287/Armenian 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (3). (Excl).

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

306/ACABS 321/Rel. 358. History and Religion of Ancient Israel. (3). (HU).

307/ACABS 322/Rel. 359. History and Religion of Ancient Judaism. May be elected independently of Hist. 306. (3) (HU).

308/Religion 308. The Christian Tradition in the West from New Testament to Early Reformation. (3). (Excl).

309/Religion 309. The Christian Tradition in the West from Luther and Calvin to the Present. (3). (Excl).

316. History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (3). (SS).

318. Europe in the Era of Total War, 1870-1945. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

319. Europe Since 1945. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

320. Britain, 1901-1945: Culture and Politics. (3). (Excl).

321. Postwar Britain. Hist. 221 is recommended. (3). (Excl).

332/REES 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/Soc. 392. Survey of Russia: The Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Successor States. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

333/Pol. Sci. 396/Slavic 396/REES 396/Soc. 393. Survey of East Central Europe. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

346/NR&E 356. Environmental History and the Tropical World. (3). (Excl).

351(251). Modern China. (3). (SS).

362/WS 362. Women, Men and Nations: How Is Nationalism Gendered? (3). (Excl).

365/CAAS 334/Amer. Cult. 336. Popular Culture in Contemporary Black America. (3). (HU).

368/Amer. Cult. 342/WS 360. History of the Family in the U.S. (3). (SS).

370/WS 370. Women in American History to 1870. (3). (Excl).

371/WS 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

372/WS 372. Women in European History, 1750 to the Present. (3). (Excl).

373/Amer. Cult. 373. History of the U.S. West. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

374/Amer. Cult. 374. The Politics and Culture of the "Sixties." (3). (SS).

376/Amer. Cult. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (Excl).

377/Amer. Cult. 312. History of Latinos in the U.S. (3). (Excl). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

378/Amer. Cult. 314. History of Asian Americans in the U.S. (4; 3 in the half-term). (Excl).

381. History of the Jews from the Moslem Conquests to the Spanish Expulsion. (3). (Excl).

382. History of the Jews from the Spanish Expulsion to the Eve of Enlightenment. (3). (Excl).

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (3). (Excl).

384. Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (3). (Excl).

386. The Holocaust. (4). (Excl).

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (3). (Excl).

391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

392. Topics in Asian and African History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

394. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-4; 1-3 in the half-term). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

395. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-4; 1-3 in the half-term). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

398. Honors Colloquium, Junior. Honors students and junior standing. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (Excl).

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, Hist. 398, and senior standing. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

400. Problems in Greek History I. (3). (Excl).

401. Problems in Greek History II. (3). (Excl).

402. Problems in Roman History I. (3). (Excl).

403. Problems in Roman History II. (3). (Excl).

405/Class. Civ. 476/Rel. 476. Pagans and Christians in the Roman World. (4; 3 in the half-term). (HU).

408(430). Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

409(431). Byzantine Empire, 867-1453. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

411. Medieval Society, Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries. (3). (Excl).

412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

413/MARC 413. Intellectual History of the Italian Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

414/MARC 428. Northern Renaissance and Reformation. (3). (Excl).

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).

417. Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (3). (Excl).

419(521). Twentieth-Century Germany. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in History 420. (3). (SS).

420. Modern Germany. No credit for those who have completed or are enrolled in History 418 or 419. (3). (SS).

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (3). (SS).

429(143). Discovery. (3). (Excl).

430(530). History of the Balkans from the Sixth Century to 1878. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

431(531). History of the Balkans Since 1878. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

432. Russia to Peter the Great. (3). (Excl).

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

438. Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (3). (Excl).

439. Eastern Europe Since 1900. (3). (Excl).

440/ACABS 413/Anthro. 442. Ancient Mesopotamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

442/APTIS 461. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

443/APTIS 487. Modern Middle East History. (3). (Excl).

444. Inner Asia, Russia, and China. One course in Russian, Chinese, or Near Eastern history. (3). (Excl).

445/Chinese 478. Genghis and Khubilai: A Cultural History of the Mongol Empire. Hist. 121 is recommended. (3). (HU).

446/CAAS 446. Africa to 1850. (3). (SS).

448/CAAS 448. Africa Since 1850. (3). (SS).

449. Topics in Middle Eastern History. (3). (Excl).

450. Japan to 1800. (3). (Excl).

451. Japan Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (3). (Excl).

455. Classical India and the Coming of Islam 320-1526 A.D. (3). (Excl).

456. Mughal India. (3). (Excl).

459. Gender, Medicine, and Culture in U.S. History. (3). (Excl).

460. American Colonial History to 1776. History 160, or a similar survey course in early American history, is strongly recommended thought not required. (3). (SS).

461. The American Revolution. (3). (SS).

463. The Origins of the American Civil War, 1830-1860. (3). (SS).

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

467. The United States Since 1933. (4). (SS).

476/Anthro. 416. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4; 3 in the half-term). (SS).

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

478. Topics in Latin American History. (3). (Excl).

487/Engl. 416/WS 416. Women in Victorian England. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 101 or 102. (3). (Excl).

494/Econ. 494. Topics in Economic History. Econ. 101 and 102. (3). (Excl).

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

508. Magic, Religion and Science in Early Modern England. Hist. 220 and junior standing are recommended. (3). (Excl).

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (3). (HU).

517. History of Ireland Since 1603. (3). (HU).

523. France, 1661-1789. (3). (Excl).

528. Modern Italy, 1815 to the Present. (3). (Excl).

531/APTIS 587. Studies in Pahlavi and Middle Persian. (3). (Excl).

532. 18th Century Russia: Revolution from Above. Some background in history or Russian studies. (3). (Excl).

535/Armenian 535. Armenia and the Armenians in the 20th Century. Hist. 287 recommended but not required. (3). (Excl).

536/APTIS 462. The Rise of Islam. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

537/APTIS 463. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

538. The Ottoman Enterprise. Hist. 110. (3). (Excl).

539/APTIS 585. Modern Egypt and North Africa Since 1500. (3). (Excl).

540/APTIS 477. Economic History of the Medieval Near East. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (3). (Excl).

541/APTIS 467/Religion 467. Shi'ism: The History of Messianism and the Pursuit of Justice in Islamdom. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

543/APTIS 464. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

546/APTIS 495/WS 471/Religion 546. Gender and Politics in Early Modern Islamdom. Students should preferably have had one course in Islamic Studies. (3). (Excl).

550. Imperial China: Ideas, Men, and Society. (3). (HU).

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (3). (Excl).

552. Topics in the Early Modern History of Mainland Southeast Asia. (3). (Excl).

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (3). (Excl).

559. U.S. Diplomacy from 1914. (3). (Excl).

561. Social History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).

562. American Intellectual History to 1870. Hist. 160 and junior standing strongly recommended. (3). (Excl).

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

577. History of Brazil. (3). (Excl).

578/LACS 400/CAAS 478. Ethnicity and Culture in Latin America. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

580. The History of American Constitutional Law. (3). (Excl).

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (3). (Excl).

587. History of History I. (3). (Excl).

588. History of History II. (3). (Excl).

589. Comparative History of Women in the United States and Europe: 1750-1950. Hist. 371 or 372. (3). (Excl).

590. History Topics Mini-course. (1-2). (Excl).

591. Topics in European History. Upperclass students and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

592. Topics in Asian History. Upperclass students and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

593. Topics in U.S. History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

595. Topics in African History. (3). (Excl).


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