Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110(101). Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is designed to give students a general view of the western tradition as it developed in Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire down to the seventeenth century. I assume that many of you will have had no exposure to the evolution of some of our most important traditions like the Christian Church (both as an institution and as a body of doctrines); the capitalist economy; the renaissance and reformation; and the growth of the modern state. I shall examine these various problems in lectures, always giving consideration where appropriate to cultural developments such as art, architecture, and music, and then break the class down into small study groups for discussion. In these sections you will have the opportunity to follow up on the lectures and to work in depth on problems of your own interest. Readings will be in primary sources such as the Bible and in historical analyses such as H. Miskimin The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe. The requirements for the course will be a mid-term examination and a final examination. In addition, you will have an opportunity to write three short papers that will be analyzed for content, organization, and style; so that you develop your writing skills as well as your analytic capabilities. (Vann)

111(102). Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

History 111 is intended as an introductory survey to the history of Europe during the past three centuries. Consequently it will emphasize the dynamic forces which have transformed the society and culture of Europe and by extension that of the world rather than a minute examination of events and particular national histories. Among those dynamic forces to be considered will be: the process of rationalization and bureaucratization, the growth of science and technology, industrialism and urbanization, centralization and the growth of state power, the transformation of the art of war into a military-technological-industrial enterprise, the dissolution of community and the secularization of society and culture. Particular national histories will be used to elucidate the functioning of these dynamic forces. There will be a text and appropriate readings, a mid-term and a final examination and three short papers (1000 words each). (Tonsor)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 121. (Murphey/Hackett)

151(101)/Asian Studies 111. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Trautmann)

160(331). United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the reading instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's Democracy in America), and a novel ( Uncle Tom's Cabin ). The major theme of the lectures is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The growth and development of American individualism," although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be of the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meetings will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161(332). United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

A survey of American history since the Civil War, with two lectures and two discussion sections each week. While many aspects of that history will be touched upon in the lectures, the discussions and the reading, no effort will be made to cover all of those aspects in equal depth; in particular, conventional political history will occupy a subordinate place, while Blacks, economic development and foreign policy will be stressed. Textbook plus outside reading; hour exam and final. (Perkins)

180, 181(103, 104). Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures. No credit granted for 180 to those who have completed 350; no credit granted for 181 to those who have completed 351. (4 each). (SS).

History 180 is offered Fall Term, 1982.

Progress or Decay? Conflicting Ideas on the Development of the Modern World. This course differs from the usual introductory course in two important ways. First, it stresses the value of comparison in understanding civilizations and cultures, including our own civilization. Thus, unlike traditional American, Western or Oriental civilization courses, this course will not limit itself to a single historical culture but will try to draw on the experience of many cultures, classical and modern, Western and non-Western. Secondly, the course will be problem oriented, not survey oriented. It will not follow the "one damned thing after another" approach, by attempting to summarize the entire history of any of the cultures studied. Rather, it will emphasize the relevance of history as a tool for social analysis by examining the cross-cultural ramifications of major human problems. The focus will be the question: "Progress or Decay? Conflicting Ideas on the Development of the Modern World. " At the outset there will be consideration of the widespread belief in Western Civilization throughout the past 300 years that humans have progressed. Specific topics will then be chosen for more careful scrutiny; the expansion of Europe; the nation state and nationalism; bureaucracy; the military. As these topics are examined it will be shown that, in each case, there have been (and remain) schools of thought in the West that have been denied that humans have progressed in such areas of activity. Similarly it will be shown that when there has been an intrusion into non-Western cultures, the fundamental differences of perception have resulted in even more radical disagreements. The course will explore the nature of "history" itself, and its fundamental importance to Western civilization. Students will be asked to consider some novel propositions: that there is not one history, but many histories; that a history is the perception in the present of the past; that in the study of history, uncontested fact is of relatively little significance compared with conflicting interpretations and varying perceptions of the past. History is a great debate. Students in this course will be asked to think for themselves. They will be offered challenging interpretations of the past and the present, and they will be invited to return the challenge: to the instructors, and to the books and articles they are asked to read. There will be three lectures a week and one discussion section. Course requirements will consist of two short papers and a final exam. No midterm exam. (Broomfield)

196, 197. Freshman Seminar. (4 each). (SS).

History 196 is offered Fall Term, 1982.

We'll read a textbook description of the American Revolution to learn the flow of events from 1763 to 1783 and to become aware of possible interpretations of these events. From then on, we will examine two vital episodes of the Revolution, first the American colonists' reaction to the Stamp Tax imposed on them by Parliament in 1765, and second the efforts of the newly independent citizens of Massachusetts to arrive at a just society by writing their first constitution. We will study these landmarks of American independence of the American political system entirely through documents written by the persons who were involved. The aim is to draw our own conclusions about the American Revolution. Survey course (160) background desirable but not necessary. The class will be largely discussion save when the instructor takes wing into a lecture. Three books, a text and two collections of documents, are the core of the reading. Page assignments are light, but documents must be read with care so the reading will take the normal amount of time. There will be a quiz, a paper, and a final examination. (Lockridge)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200(311). Near East and Greece to 201 B. C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Political history is considered only as a background for cultural changes. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. Students are also expected to read the Iliad and several of Plutarch's Greek lives. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be substituted for one) plus a final examination. Each of the three has approximately the same weight. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading to avoid repetitions. Lectures are mainly interpretive. (Starr)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "dignity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

A course taught jointly by (this year) three specialists in European and American history, focusing on the Vietnam War 1945-73, but treating that war in the larger context of Western imperialism, power politics, modern revolutions, and decolonization since World War II. Emphasis will be on American and European foreign policies, on international relations, and on the aims and impact of colonial and revolutionary warfare. While the course deals primarily with the Vietnam War, and with American and French involvement in it, it will also make clear that the Vietnam War was only one among many similar wars in the Third World. The internal histories of Vietnam and other parts of the Third World will not be neglected, but cannot be treated in the depth that this aspect should normally receive. Assigned reading includes George C. Herring, America's Longest War (1979) as well as works by Jeffrey Race, David Halberstam, Gunther Lewy, William Shawcross, and others, including selected memoirs and novels. There will be midterm and final examinations, an optional term paper, and two 75-minute lectures each week. There will be six section meetings (one every two weeks) to discuss the assigned reading. (Geyer, Perkins, Shy)

250(543). China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of Chinese history from the Neolithic Age to the early 1800s, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

262(355). The American South. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course concerns the history of one of America's largest minorities: Southerners. Beginning with the colonial origins of Southern society, it will explore the social, economic, political, cultural, and religious characteristics that have, until recently, made the South a region unto itself. Readings will include the work of distinguished historians of the South like C. Vann Woodward, David Potter, Charles Sydnor, Edmund Morgan, Eugene Genovese, John Hope Franklin, and Harold Woodman, as well as the work of literary and journalistic interpreters of the South, such as Frederick Law Olmsted, Mark Twain, Ellen Glasgow, and William Faulkner. Some background in American history is advisable though, for energetic students, not essential. The course will be taught through lectures and discussion. Requirements include a midterm and final examination, a book review, and a short (10-page) final paper. (Fields)

274(201)/CAAS 230. Survey of Afroamerican History I. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 230. (Holt)

283(263). Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

287(270)/REES 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the periods of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (R. Suny)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

316(443). History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (4). (SS).

The course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of 8 to 10 pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

332/REES 395/Econ. 395/Poli. Sci. 395/Slavic 395. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Gitelman)

350. Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures I. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 180. (4). (SS).

The course is taught in conjunction with History 180 and should not be elected by students who have taken that course. The focus is upon the non-Western world and the intrusion into it of Western ideas and institutions. See the description of History 181. Course requirements will consist of two short papers and a final exam. (Broomfield)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books and films America's wars of the past eighty years, with emphasis on those that have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience as they alter from war to war. In large historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's pattern of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be almost no discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. The class will meet from 2:00 to 4:00 on Tuesday afternoons and from 2:00 to 3:00 on Thursday afternoons, with Tuesday's second hour ordinarily devoted to film showings. The general format will be that of the lecture, but the instructor asks, and needs, frequent and vigorous student intervention. Reading assignments generally require the mastery of one paperback volume each week. Tentative marking requirements include a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. (Linderman)

376/Amer. Cult. 372/Eng. Hums. 372. American Technology and Society: Historical Perspective. (3). (SS).

See American Culture 372. (Segal)

384(470). Modern Jewish History 1880-1948. (4). (SS).

This course is built around a series of themes: socialism and the varieties of Jewish nationalism, Jewish life in Eastern and Western Europe, Zionism, the Mandate for Palestine, the Nazi genocide, the Jews in Russia and Palestine and the rise of the State of Israel. The readings are drawn from books, articles in a number of periodicals and some general texts. There will be a midterm and final examination. At least one will be typed at home. (Reinharz)

389(591). War Since the Eighteenth Century. (4). (SS).

The course deals with the experience of war, mainly in Western societies (Europe and North America), from the appearance of permanent military forces in the eighteenth century to the present time. It emphasizes certain themes or problems: the relationship of armed forces to the societies they are supposed to defend; the effects of change political, social, economic, and technological - on warfare and military policy; the problem of using armed force purposefully, together with the related problem of the unexpected and unintended effects of warfare; and the relationship between military theory and military practice. The approach is comparative, stressing the commonalities of Western military experience during the last three centuries, and also identifying the differences that make the American military experience in certain respects peculiar. The course is not a history of military operations as such, but uses selected military operations in an illustrative way. Monday and Wednesday mornings are lectures; Friday morning is spent on discussion of reading and lectures, and occasionally on graded written exercises. There is a two-hour final examination. Required texts; Michael Howard, War in European History, John Keegan, Face of Battle, Edward M. Earle (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy, Bruce Catton, This Hallowed Ground, A. J. P. Taylor, History of the First World War, Kent R. Greenfield, American Strategy in World War II, George Herring, America's Longest War. (J. Shy)

396, 397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

History 396 and 397 are offered Fall Term 1982.

History 396.

Section 001 American Political Development. The Colloquium will consider the historical development of American political institutions, processes and practices. Alternative interpretations of American political history will be considered, and emphasis will be placed upon interpretive perspectives rather than specific historical events and personages. Attention will be directed to such themes as political modernization, national political integration, popular participation in politics and government, and political corruption. Reliance will be placed upon class discussion rather than lectures, and student papers will provide the basis for evaluation. (Clubb)

Section 003 Work Since the Industrial Revolution. This course will examine the historical process by which work in its modern form arose. Beginning with the industrial revolution, it will consider how people's habits, conceptions, and experience of working have been formed and altered. Included will be a section on work discipline under slavery, a system at once sustained by the industrial revolution and embodying principles antithetical to it. The evolution of work will be traced through readings drawn from social commentators, social theorists, historians, novelists, and individual working people themselves. Course work may include a field trip. (B. Fields)

Section 004 The Development of Education in Modern Europe. By comparing the history of education in the major European nations since the French Revolution, this course will seek to analyze the relationship of education to political systems, industrialization, social structure, and intellectual currents. Primary education will be studied for what it reveals of social class, religious conflict, and regional differences. National systems will be compared as an aspect of the growth of the state. Secondary and higher education will be assessed for what they reveal of social mobility, occupational opportunities, and cultural attitudes. The course is built around assigned readings, discussions, reports, and papers; and students will have considerable latitude in choosing topics of special interest to them for their individual assignments. (Grew)

Section 005 Immigrant Experience in America. The course is designed to explore the personal and collective experience of immigrants arriving in the United States during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Categories of special interest will include the following: immigrant expectation and adaptation; the tension between ethnic exclusiveness and assimilation; the fit of the immigrant within the new city and its politics; native-born reactions; and the condition of ethnicity in contemporary America. Films and meetings with members of local ethnic communities will be employed to convey particular ethnic patterns. Tentative marking requirements include vigorous class discussion and several short analytical essays. The course does not form part of a departmental sequence, nor do special background or prerequisite courses bear on its successful completion. (Linderman)

Section 007 Soldiers, Diplomats, Merchants and Missionaries: The American Involvement in Modern Japan. This course concerns one aspect of the encounter between the United States and Japan. It deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It focuses on individual Americans from different walks of life government representatives military figures, businessmen, government advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers, and explorers - their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as a way of examining the broader involvement of Americans in the history of modern Japan. Charles E. Neu's The Troubled Encounter: The United States and Japan, N. Y. John Wiley, 1975 (paperback) will be used as general text for the history of U.S. -Japanese relations. Each student will prepare four or five short biographical sketches. Grades will be based on class discussions of readings and on the quality of assigned papers. (Hackett)

Section 008 Problems in the European Left. This course will explore the social and intellectual origins of the European radical tradition concentrating on seminal thinkers (Proudhon, St. Simon, Marx, Lenin, Gramsci), on major structural transformations (industrialization, urbanization), and on the significance of particular revolutionary episodes. The relationship between Soviet socialism and European social democracy will be explored in some detail, and an effort made to understand in historical terms more recent phenomena, such as Eurocommunism. Class format: discussion based on assigned readings. Requirements: three short papers, and possibly a final exam. (Rosenberg)

Section 009 Russian Revolution and Civil War. Readings and discussions in this colloquium will focus on the causes, development, and outcome of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Background in Russian or European history is helpful. Readings will include the works of Rabinowitch, Rosenberg, Wildman, as well as original sources. Each student will write a short paper to be discussed in class, and there will be an oral examination on the readings at the end of the semester. (Suny)

Section 010 Poland since 1918. Select problems in 20th century Polish history with special emphasis on the politics, ideas, and social change since 1944, including the period 1976-1981. There will be readings and discussions. Poland in the 20th Century by M. K. Dziewanowski will be the introductory text; more substantial readings will include the works of contemporary Polish writers, scholars, and politicians, and monographs by Western scholars. This course emphasizes writing and students will be expected to produce 3 papers (approximately 15 pages each) by the end of the term. (Szporluk)

History 397.

Sections 001-004 of History 397 have been approved as ECB Junior-Senior Writing Courses for Fall 1982.

Section 001 The New South. The major focus of this course will be the idea, reality, and significance of the "New South" in the period embraced by the Reconstruction and the Populist Movement. This theme will be explored from perspectives provided by three distinct but interrelated sets of source material: historical studies of the political economy of the postwar South (e.g., C. Vann Woodward and Jon Weiner); literary portraits of the era (W.E.B. DuBois, William Faulkner, and Charles W. Chestnut); and ethnographic studies of the everyday life of Black and white southerners (Powdermaker and Hagood). Hopefully, through these materials we will gain understanding of the historical and cultural context for the development of values and value conflicts among racial groups and classes. The course format will be readings and discussions. Course requirements include at least one oral presentation, a review essay, and a term paper. (Holt)

Section 002 The American Revolution through the Documents. We'll read a textbook description of the American Revolution to learn the flow of events from 1763 to 1783 and to become aware of possible interpretations of these events. From then on, we will examine two vital episodes of the Revolution, first the American colonists' reaction to the Stamp Tax imposed on them by Parliament in 1765, and second the efforts of the newly independent citizens of Massachusetts to arrive at a just society by writing their first state constitution. We will study these landmarks of American independence and of the American political system entirely through documents written by the persons who were involved. The aim is to draw our own conclusions about the American Revolution. Survey course (160) background desirable but not at all necessary. The class will be largely discussion save when the instructor takes wing into a lecture. Three books, a text and two collections of documents, are the core of the reading. Page assignments are light, but documents must be read with care so the reading will take the normal amount of time. There will be a quiz, three short papers, and a final examination. (Lockridge)

Section 003 Race, Class and Power in the American City. It is probably true that, as John Kenneth Galbraith has noted, "to understand the modern city is to understand the social ills which most oppress us. " To understand the modern city, however, one must first recognize that it is the product of concrete historical experience. This course takes this recognition as its point of departure and focuses on patterns of historical development in the areas of race, class and power in urban America in order to provide historical perspective on contemporary urban problems. By means of both general works and more specific case studies, the course will consider such things as the relationships among urban ethnic and racial groups, the development of the urban class structure, and the distribution of such scarce resources as wealth and power. Of special concern will be the means by which a social system of obvious inequality has been legitimated. The heart of this course will be the discussion of about one book a week. As an aid to critical reading, students will write short (1-2 pp.) weekly papers and a longer (10-15 pp.) final paper, all based on the required course readings. Grades will be based on a combination of class participation and performance on the papers. Students who have completed History 566 will be admitted to this course by special permission of the instructor only. (McDonald)

Section 004 Science in Restoration England. The reign of Charles II is a key period in the development of English science. Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton, Christopher Wren, Robert Hooke, and a host of lesser scientists dominate the period, as does the major institutional event in the establishment of modern science, the founding of the Royal Society of London. In this course, the milieu of Restoration science will be studied through the documents of the period. We will read one basic book, Michael Hunter's new survey of Restoration science, and then spend the rest of the semester "in the archives," looking at the correspondence of the leading and lesser scientists, their published works, their diaries and the Restoration in general. The objective of the course will be to come to understand the Restoration better through one of its major activities. History and culture will be stressed, not science. (Steneck)

400(411). Greece from the Bronze Age to the Death of Philip. (4). (HU).

The time span of this course is from Minoan times to the accession of Alexander in 336 B. C. ; the subject is primarily the rise of Greek civilization and its stage as the foundation of Western culture. No prior preparation is required; beside a textbook students read in Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, and Plutarch's lives. One hour-examination (essay) and a research paper on a topic of the student's choice count equally with the final examination (one-third each). Most sessions are given over to lectures on specific topics, but periodically discussions fill the hour. (Starr)

404(415). The Later Roman Empire. (4). (HU).

This course explores the major developments of the later Empire - e.g. the conflict between Paganism and Christianity, the problem of 'decline' through lectures, discussions, and reading of the ancient sources in translation. In addition to his/her participation in discussions, each student will be expected to write a midterm and final examination and to produce a term paper. Some familiarity with Roman history before A. D. 284 (through History 201 or even an equivalent course) is desirable. (Eadie)

416(459). Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (HU).

This is a lecture course which attempts to discuss and to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of romanticism to the antipositivist revolt in the 1870s. The course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism, and the emergence of realism and naturalism. (Tonsor)

423(465). Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930s, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: modern European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

432(501). Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (SS).

The course covers the first seven centuries of recorded Russian history and focuses on such major topics as the Norsemen's conquest of Russia, the Golden Age of Kiev, the Mongol invasion, the rise of Moscow, relations with the West, expansion into Siberia, the Ukraine, and first contacts with China. During the first ten weeks, lectures follow a roughly chronological sequence (to the reign of Peter the Great). The last five weeks feature a series of survey lectures on special topics such as women in Old Russia, Jews and Jewish influences in Old Russian history, Cossacks, the rise of serfdom, Ivan the Terrible, aristocrats and bureaucrats, holy fools, problems in Old Russian culture, and legends and myths that shaped Russian history. The basic text is N. Riasanovsky's A History of Russia. Modest additional readings will be assigned. Questions and comments from the class during a lecture are welcome. The course is open to all students and assumes no prior knowledge of Russian history. (Dewey)

434(503). History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

A history of twentieth-century Russia, which concentrates on the social, political, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism as they developed before 1917, and as they were applied in domestic and, to some extent, foreign policies after 1917. Stress is placed on understanding Russian perspectives of Russian history, and on developing an awareness of important aspects of social development generally. Readings are drawn from various literary and historical monographs, rather than from a single text; and students are asked to integrate their own interests with the substantive material of Soviet history through class "projects," which may or may not be written term papers. There is also a midterm exam (with a graded/ungraded option as well as a take-home/in-class choice), and a final (graded, choice of take-home/in-class). (Rosenberg)

439(507). Eastern Europe Since 1900. (4). (SS).

This course covers primarily Poland and Czechoslovakia and the Soviet republics of the Ukraine, Belorussia and Lithuania, in connection with the history of their neighbors and in a larger European context. Emphasis will be placed on political institutions, movements and ideologies. A portion of the course will be devoted to the political history of the Second World War and its impact on East Europe. The post-1945 developments, including the 1970s, will also be considered. The course is open to undergraduates and graduates but those without background in modern European history are expected to do introductory reading early in the term. Required readings will include Joseph Rothschild, East Central Europe Between the World Wars 1919-1939; Richard Pipes, The Formation of the Soviet Union, 1917-1923, (Atheneum); and Russia's Road to the Cold War by Vojtech Mastny (Columbia). There will be one midterm and a final examination. A short (not exceeding 10-12 pages) paper will be due on the last day of classes, on a topic of particular interest to the writer. Graduate students should discuss their program of work (including paper) on an individual basis. The purpose of the paper is to give each student an opportunity to explore independently and more thoroughly a theme suggested in readings and/or lectures. Lists of books and articles for additional reading paper-writing, discussion, etc., will be distributed from time to time. (Szporluk)

445. Europe Discovers the World: Travel and Exploration from the Middle Ages to the Present. (4). (HU).

In the Middle Ages Scandinavia sent Vikings to Newfoundland and the King of France sent missionaries to convert the Mongols. Travel, exploration, and discovery have been a part of our heritage and experience ever since. This course introduces the history of that adventure, and its impact upon the adventurers, from the Middle Ages until the present. We shall look over the shoulders of the soldiers, sailors, and scoundrels who discovered the New World, charted the globe, sledded to the poles, and brought TV to the moon. I plan to assign readings from contemporary accounts written by travelers; in addition, there will be some text readings. About one-third of the class meetings will be devoted to discussion of the texts. There will be one hour exam in addition to the final. There are no prerequisites for the course, but bring your own seasickness pills. (Lindner)

447(536)/CAAS 447. Africa in the Nineteenth Century. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 447. (Uzoigwe)

449(535). Modern History of North Africa Since 1500. (4). (SS).

This lecture course focuses on French-speaking Northwest Africa (the Maghreb) and to some extent Libya. The course will begin with the Islamization and Arabization of the area and its subsequent development in the modern world beginning about 1500. The focus of the course will be on the period after 1800 beginning with the colonial experience and moving forward into the period of national liberation and independence. In the process the course will deal with relations with the eastern Arab world and sub-Saharan Africa. Normal requirements are a book review and an exam, more than likely a take-home. (Mitchell)

452(549). Premodern Southeast Asia. (4). (SS).

This course will explore the historical development of traditional Southeast Asian societies from prehistoric times through the age of the traditional kingdoms, ca. mid-second millennium A. D. Although some political history will be inevitable in establishing the basic chronological framework, the emphasis, wherever possible, will be on cultural and economic themes. We shall also explore themes from Southeast Asian intellectual history, particularly the idea of history itself. Every other week one session will be devoted to discussion of items from the reading list short articles, historical documents (all such items will be indicated in advance and will be on reserve); occasionally, short handouts will also be included for reading and discussion. The requirements will include one paper (approx. 10-12 pages) and a final exam (and, possibly, a midterm, if the class so chooses). (Gesick)

454(588). The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A. D. (4). (HU).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B. C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautman)

462(557). The United States in the Early National Period, 1789-1830. (4). (SS).

This course is an intensive examination of the major political currents in the period 1789-1830. Examples of these topics are the formation of a national government under the Constitution, the gradual and increasingly bitter party division during the 1790's, the foreign policy issues leading to the War of 1812 and the uneasy experiment with one-party politics after the War. The reading consists of major monographs on these topics. There is no text. The one midterm examination will be a "take-home" and for the final examination there will be a choice between the "take-home" and standard two-hour forms. (Livermore)

466(562). The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

490. The Left in Europe, 1848-1970. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to explore the development of the Left as a distinct political tradition between the 1848 revolutions and the present-day. Detailed attention will be given to Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Russia, and to the left as an international movement. The course will begin with the main traditions of the 19th century (Jacobinism and radical democracy; anarchism and utopian socialism; populism; social democracy) and will then focus on the relations between socialism and communism in the 20th century. The leading theoreticians (from Marx to Kautsky, Lenin and Gramsci) will be considered as far as possible in their immediate historical settings, and to this purpose the course will be organized around a series of critical periods, including the 1st World War, the revolutionary years 1917-23, the rise of fascism, the 2nd World War, and the Cold War. Equal attention will be paid to theoretical developments, to the left's changing sociology, and to the general relationship between social and economic conditions and radical politics. The course will end with a discussion of the contemporary situation. (Eley)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Webb)

507/GNE 463. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing with at least one course in ancient literature, ancient philosophy, or ancient history; and reading knowledge of at least one modern foreign language. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 463. (Orlin)

513(516). Great Britain From 1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

A survey of British history from the 1830's to the 1950's emphasizing the character of 19th century middle class liberalism, the rise of socialism and the trade union movement, the problems and limitations of great power status and the decline in Britain's power position since 1918. Attention is also given to the Irish question and to religious divisions within Britain. The course is given in lectures and involves about 100 pages of reading (text, articles, documents) per week. History 111 or 221 is recommended as background. There will be a final, two hour exams (the second optional in some cases) and an optional term paper. (Price)

521(488). Germany Since 1870. (4). (SS).

German political, social, economic, and cultural developments from the foundation of the Empire through the emergence of East and West Germany in the post-War period. Particular emphasis will be placed upon select themes including: the problems arising from the impact of industrialization upon Germany's traditional social and political order and the question of continuity and the discontinuity in the foreign and domestic policies of modern Germany. The lectures will emphasize recent interpretations and are to be supplemented by a textbook. Students will be required to take a mid-term and a final examination. In addition, graduate students will be asked to prepare a bibliographic essay based upon the reading and analysis of several monographs dealing with the topic chosen by the student in cooperation with the instructor. (Geyer)

543(592)/GNE 472. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (HU).

See Near Eastern Studies (GNE) 472. (Luther)

551(545). Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (HU).

In this course, we shall seek the origins of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, which was so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely for antecedents and shall hear testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, or Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, bandits and warlords, cultural iconoclasm and conservative reaction, nationalism and women's liberation, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Mao's social vision and the Peoples' Republic as a model of development. Some familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful. Those entering the course without background should be ready to do some catch-up work. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write three short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

563(572). Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (4). (HU).

This course explores the intellectual experience of educated Americans since the mid-19th century. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, politics, society, knowledge, morality, the physical world, and American national destiny, as these ideas surfaced in the discourse of leading thinkers. Attention will be devoted to Mark Twain, William James, Thorstein Veblen, John Dewey, Randolph Bourne, Lincoln Steffens, Malcolm Cowley, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Reinhold Niebuhr, Lionel Trilling, and Thomas S. Kuhn, as well as to Europeans whose works were prominent referent points in American discourse (e.g., Charles Darwin, Matthew Arnold, Sigmund Freud, Leon Trotsky, Thomas Mann, and Jacob Bronowski). Students will probably be asked to complete one short paper, one midterm examination, and one final examination. Readings for the course are likely to include many of the following titles: Louisa May Alcott, Little Women; Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams; William James, Pragmatism; F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby; Edmund Wilson, The Finland Station; Lionel Trilling, Beyond Culture; Harold Frederic, Damnation of Theron Wave; Margaret Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa; and brief selections from Charles Peirce, John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thorstein Veblen, Robert K. Merton, Clifford Geertz, and Thomas Kuhn. (Hollinger)

566(573). History of the American City. (4). (SS).

History 566 is a general survey of the history of American cities which is especially concerned with the period from the onset of the industrial revolution (circa 1840) to the present. It will consider cities primarily as systems of social relationships and focus upon the interactions among economic development, class structure, social differentiation, and political economy. Both chronological and topical approaches to the subject will be presented, and topics to be considered in some detail include the development of the urban class structure, the origins and professionalization of urban institutions such as police, schools, etc., machine and reform-style urban politics, the urban experience of racial and ethnic minorities, and the political economy of post World War II suburbanization, urban renewal, and central city fiscal crisis. On average there will be two lectures and one discussion of required reading per week. Students will read about ten paperback books, write an essay-type midterm and final examination, and prepare a brief (5-8pp.) interpretive essay based upon the course readings. Graduate students will be expected to accomplish an essay of greater length and complexity. (McDonald)

571(491). History of the American Family. (4). (SS).

This course will analyze the American family from the colonial period to the present. It will trace changes in the family from a pre-industrial society to a post-industrial one. The approach is topical and will cover such issues as the use of birth control and abortions, childbearing practices, adolescence, role of women, old age, and death and dying. Particular attention will be placed on analyzing the impact of changes in American institutions on the development of the family. Course format consists of lectures and classroom discussions with an emphasis on a critical reading of the assigned materials. The grading will be based upon the midterm and final examination. Some of the reading will include Michael Gordon's The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective, Nancy Cott and Elizabeth Pleck's A Heritage of Her Own, David Fischer's Growing Old In America, David Stannard's Death in America, James Mohr's Abortion in America, and Sar Levitan and Richard Belous' What is Happening to the American Family ? (Vinovskis)

581(429). Utopian and Millennial Movements. (4). (HU).

This course surveys past utopian and millennial movements and begins with a study of the most recent of them, the "counter culture" of the late 1960s. The course then takes a great leap backward to the beginnings of utopian idealism as represented by the prophetic message of ancient Judaism and the Christian apocalyptic vision. These two traditions are then compared with the Buddhist "Nirvana" and similar eastern ideals. After a rather brief review of the principal millennial trends of the middle ages, the course focuses on four utopian movements of modern times: the rationalist utopians of the French Revolution; communism from Hegel through Marx, Lenin, and Stalin to Mao; the Nazi vision of a "Third Reich"; and anarchism. The course then returns to the present with an analysis of recent and current communalism including an evaluation of the Israeli kibbutz. If time permits, modern science fiction as a form of utopian thought and sentiment will also be considered. (Mendel)

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