Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, Anthropology 161 serves as an introduction to Anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the concept of evolution and the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human "racial" variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. Three weekly lectures and one discussion section which functions as a fourth lecture hour with occasional quizzes will be conducted as review or question and answer sessions. One midterm and final exam: essay and short answer. Text: Weiss and Mann, Human Biology and Behavior. Closed sections will be reopened after registration. To be admitted to a closed section, students should register in section 020, which is a holding section only (not a wait list). All students registered in the holding section will be placed in existing or new sections at the first class meeting. (Wrangham)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The biological and cultural determinants of human behavior are the major focus of the course. Evolutionary and ecological theory, together with evidence from the human evolutionary past and from humans' closest living relatives among the primates are used to interpret the differences in behavior among human populations. The lectures include several movies on human and primate behavior. There are two exams and several readings. (Livingstone)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures and readings, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecological shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology, and the changes in physical form that are the consequences of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. Class participation and discussion are emphasized. The examinations are midterm and final. (Wolpoff)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited lectures with class demonstrations. Individualized instruction will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. (Wolpoff)

471. Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Evaluation of the short- and long-term responses that enable humans to function normally under the stress of heat, cold, solar radiation, hypoxia, high altitude environment, undernutrition and overnutrition. In addition, because of their importance and influence on the well-being of humans and to show the interaction between technological adaptation and biological function, the effects of Westernization of dietary habits on the pattern of disease are thoroughly discussed. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental stress, the discussion of major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory studies with humans and experimental animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development. Student evaluation includes two exams and one term paper. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. (Frisancho)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles that unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American "pop" culture; counterarguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, civilized, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lectures; a text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Three hourly exams. No final. No papers. (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. Students who have credit for Anthropology 101 should elect Anthropology 223 rather than 222. (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two to three take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (Whallon)

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction specifically to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged for graduate students. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construe "reality. " Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" (including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics). There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic data; 2) how to read ethnographic reports critically; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve their writing techniques. Grades will be based on six short papers (six pp. each). (Carroll)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (3). (SS).

Survey of typical Native American cultures, with a special focus on religion, world view and social organization.

320. Anthropology of Contemporary American Culture. Anthro. 101 or 222. (4). (SS).

During the past decade, anthropologists have focused more and more on contemporary American culture. In many cases this has involved field studies in small communities, within urban neighborhoods, and among ethnic groups in cities and towns. In addition to such ethnographic studies of small groups, anthropologists have also turned to an analysis of the major themes of contemporary American culture, especially mass or "pop" culture. The intent of this course is to apply to areas of contemporary American life anthropological techniques which were originally developed to describe institutions and behavior in nonindustrial societies. The course emphasizes cultural themes and common experiences which unify Americans, but also considers the ethnic, religious, and socio-economic differences which are aspects of differentiation in our society. Course requirements include a paper based on field research on some aspect of contemporary American culture. A final examination is sometimes offered instead of one or more short papers. The course is team taught, with several anthropologists discussing their areas of special expertise on American culture. There are three weekly lectures and a discussion section. (Kottak)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (SS).

The content of the course deals with China in the 19th and 20th centuries, with an emphasis on the peasant sector. Through lectures, readings and discussion we attempt to draw a baseline for the traditional society: its social, economic, political and religious organization and the impact on these of the development of capitalism and assorted contacts with the Western powers. Discussion of peasant reactions to change leads into treatment of the agrarian and socialist revolution in China in the 20th century, and the present day organization of society in the People's Republic of China. The course is open to Juniors, Seniors and graduate students. The course readings are primarily ethnological but also include related readings in peasant economics, Chinese fiction, history and political science. There is a midterm examination and an optional final examination. An important part of one's grade is based on the writing of a research paper for which the student is expected to read a number of scholarly books and articles or translations of basic source materials in the attempt to answer a question of his/her own choosing. Desired paper length is around 15 to 20 pages. The purpose of the course is to develop understanding of present-day China including her own reactions to and interpretation of her past and of ongoing developments. We shall try to see Chinese society through Chinese eyes as well as the vision presented through western social science analysis. (Diamond)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to the contemporary peoples and cultures of the Near East and North Africa comprising the Arab states, Turkey and Iran. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between religious institutions and social and political behavior, and the conflict between traditional and modern styles of thought and behavior, in the context of the radical economic transformations affecting the area. The lectures cover the ecology of the region, the major ethno-linguistic groups, modes of subsistence, religious sects, and social organization of tribal and village populations. They conclude with a consideration of political processes and change. The course does not demand any prior knowledge of anthropology or the Near East, and is the first in a sequence leading, eventually, to advanced graduate level specialization on the ethnology of the area. Examinations consist of a midterm quiz and a final examination. No papers are required. The required reading consists of any three field studies selected from a short list of alternatives (including such titles as D. Cole Nomads of the Nomads, A. Rassam The Ait Ndhir of Morocco, and C. Makhlouf Changing Veils ). While the course is structured on a lecture basis, classroom discussion is encouraged. (Schorger)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature and development of law. Social control in societies lacking courts: cultural mechanisms coercive and persuasive (socialization, public opinion, taboo, religious sanctions, etc.). Arbitration as a judicial process. Composition and procedure of courts in pre-literate societies. Ordeals and oaths. Criminal and civil law. Responsibility and punishment. Comparison between folk and modern systems of law. Course requirements: four 3-5 page student papers. (Owusu)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

A critical analysis and examination of the major issues in the ethnological and social anthropological approaches to and strategies for the study of social and cultural change and stability: the influence of Marx, Morgan, Boas, Malinowski, Steward, among others; critical evaluation of the Brandt Report North/South in the light of anthropological theories of change. This course is intended for anthropology concentrators and is most often taken in the junior year. Course requirements: oral report; term research paper. (Owusu)

398. Honors Course in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second semester of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first semester of their senior year. Interested students should consult Prof. Carroll, the Departmental Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course sequence is divided into two parts. During the first term, students meet together once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. These sessions provide background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors adviser may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis adviser. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3-5). (SS).

This course approaches universal aspects of religion religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will briefly consider their places in sociocultural evolution, that is, in the adaptive structure of the species and in the specific adaptations of particular peoples. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. The course is ordinarily a three credit course. Reading is substantial. There are two take home examinations, but advanced students with specialized interests may arrange to do an essay instead. However, students will have the option, at the discretion of the instructor, to do additional work involving ethnographic observation for an additional one or two hours of credit. This additional research must be contractually arranged no later than the beginning of the course, but preferably during registration. Although there are no prerequisites, a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Junior standing is required; enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. (Rappaport)

452/Women's Studies 410. Gender Ideologies. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

"Male" and "female" are cultural symbols, not natural facts. Every culture constructs the genders differently, and the purpose of the course will be to explore the sources and consequences of these varying constructions. Two different approaches will be employed, the first relating gender symbols to other cultural symbols, and the second relating gender symbols to features of social organization marriage, status and prestige, economy, politics. Cases will be drawn from a variety of non-Western and Western cultures. Format : lectures, discussions, outside speakers. Requirements : Midterm and final exam for undergraduates, midterm and paper for graduate students. (Ortner)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Myth and Ritual Boundaries.
This course explores the manner in which adjacent tribal peoples line up their principal myths and rituals. Lining up, which is an oppositional process, has an economic aspect because an oppositional alignment contracted with neighbor A may preclude doing the same with neighbor B (analogous to how you can't have two best friends). The materials for class discussion come from the southwest portion of the American Indian Southwest where the instructor has already described one alignment, between the Pima-Papago and the Riverine Yumans ( Mojave, Yuma, Cocopa and Maricopa). Logical next places to look from that starting place would include the Diegeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Yavapai, Yaqui, and Apache, among others. Students may either write papers on a topic selected from these peoples, or may carry the notion of myth and ritual boundaries onto contiguous peoples from anywhere of their choice. (Bahr)

528. History of Anthropological Thought. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an intensive analysis of critical problems in social anthropological interpretation within both a contemporary and an historical context. The course begins with a discussion of theoretical problems. This is followed by a detailed analysis of how these problems are crucial in an analysis of the works of many pre-1945 theoreticians such as Marx, Morgan, Durkheim, Weber, Boas and Kroeber, Benedict and Mead, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown. Class format is a combination of lecture and discussion, and course requirements include the reading of critical works by the theoreticians mentioned above and a final examination which is given as a take-home examination. (Yengoyan)

531. Social Organization of Tribal Societies. Senior or graduate standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course investigates: (1) the modes of relationship that enter into the organization of pre-modern tribal societies, e.g. kinship, descent, marriage alliance, siblingship, residence, etc., (2) the nature of structural models in which these modes of relationship are combined to produce a comprehensive account of particular forms of social organization, and (3) the relationship between structural models and the social behavior they seek to account for and explain. Anthro. 531 is primarily designed for graduate students and senior concentrators with considerable background in anthropology. The format is one hour of lecture followed by a half hour of discussion. Evaluation is based on a final take-home exam. (Kelly)


472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

See Linguistics 409. (Becker)

474/Ling. 410. Non-Standard English. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Burling)

475/Ling. 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Markey)

576/Ling. 510. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course serves as an introduction to language and linguistics for anthropologists. It provides the basic tools necessary for discussing and working with linguistic systems and introduces theoretical models both as tools for working with data and as models of human behavior. Diverse linguistic and cognitive patterns, the use of language in its cultural context, and the diffusion of linguistic innovation are explored.


387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).

The course will trace the development of North American Indian cultures north of Mexico from the first entry of big game hunters into the New World 10,000 to 15,000 years ago through the origins of agriculture and the appearance of the first sedentary farming villages to the emergence shortly before European contact of complex socially stratified political systems. The course will focus especially on the Eastern U.S. and the American Southwest. Emphasis will be given to the importance of the prehistoric record for understanding Native American cultures at the time of contact, and to the value of historic and ethnographic descriptions for understanding the past. 3 hourly exams and final; lecture with discussion. (Speth)

483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course surveys the archeology of Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran from the Lower Paleolithic to the beginnings of Sumerian civilization. It emphasizes the most salient cultural developments within this region and demonstrates how civilization evolved from hunting and gathering economies, through plant and animal domestication, the first permanent settlements, and finally urbanization. (Flannery)

581. Archaeology I. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Roughly half of this course is devoted to developing models of the operation and evolution of hunter-gatherer cultural systems and to discussing the ways in which these systems may be studied from the archaeological record. The second half of the course consists of a review of the archaeological evidence for the evolution of these cultural systems from their earliest appearance until the beginnings of sedentary, agricultural communities. Most emphasis is given to materials from Africa and Europe with brief attention paid to Asia and the New World. Lecture course. Evaluation based on papers and examinations. (Whallon)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term, 497 in the Winter Term. Content of both courses is the same unless a student has already had either course. If so, then the student works on exhibitions with anthropological themes. These courses are intended to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with this introduction, individual instruction is offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of collections of material culture. There will be one hour of lecture per week, with the remaining time being devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants working in the museum laboratories. For each credit elected, three hours of participation are required. Thus for one credit there will be one hour of lecture and two of applied museum work; for two credits, one hour of lecture and four of work; for three credits, two hours of lecture and six of work. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on lectures, requirements, and directed work. Emphasis is on the nature of museum work as a career within a research framework as well as on a general understanding of how anthropological museums are organized and exhibits originate. (Ford)

499. Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor; for undergraduates only. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

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