Biological Sciences

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

Additional descriptions for many 400 and 500 level Biological Sciences courses may be found in Room 2083 Natural Sciences Building.

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to concentrators in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students with no biology background, but high school biology is helpful. The course consists of three hours of lecture each week and a two to three-hour discussion session (twenty students). Course material emphasizes developing intellectual trends in biology, especially human biology. A firm scientific background is established in each area studied before the human implications are discussed. Topics covered in lectures include human nutrition, human genetics, resistance to infectious disease, organ transplants, race, and the population explosion. Discussion sections observe demonstration experiments and view films as well as participate in discussions of social and ethical issues raised by course material. Memorization is not emphasized; however, students are expected to apply the conceptual knowledge gained to solve various biological problems. (Allen).

101. Biology and Human Affairs. (4). (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include DNA recombinant research, genetic engineering, IQ and genetics, sociobiology, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, nutrition and health. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. An analysis of the nature of the scientific method in biology, both historically and as currently applied, is a unifying theme of the course. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. (Vandermeer)

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). Students who elect Biol. 105 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112/114 sequence, covering essentially the same material. It is open to students who have completed at least one term of introductory college chemistry and have a strong background in high school biology. Biology 105 may be substituted wherever Biology 112/114 are prerequisites, but it is closed to students who have completed Biology 112 or 114. Note: Reading, writing, and verbal skills play important roles in this course; students weak in these skills or not motivated to rapid, self-disciplined study habits are advised against taking this course. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112/114 sequence in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on student initiative to study material from assigned readings and to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations). Assigned readings, laboratory material, and a study guide are given for each unit. The entire class meets once a week for 2 hours, for a lecture/movie or examinations. The laboratory (3032 Natural Resources Building) is open about 24 hours weekly during which each student spends a 3-hour block of time on laboratory work. Students meet in small sections twice a week with instructors, before the laboratory for one hour, and after the laboratory for two hours, to discuss questions arising from the assigned readings and laboratory work. Examinations on each unit of the course are given in several levels, with each level graded separately. In addition, each student is required to submit two written laboratory reports. These examinations and laboratory reports plus staff evaluations decide the final course grade. The course textbook will be listed at bookstores. A laboratory kit must be purchased in the Chemistry Store. For further information see Ms. Pesce at 3060 Natural Resources Building. (Yocum)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 112 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity). Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be two course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Fall Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. The textbook required for Fall 1982 is Biological Science by W. T. Keeton. The laboratory manual required for Fall 1982 is From Cell to Organism, edited by M. L. Smith and D. G. Shappirio. The text and the laboratory manual are both available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course. Lecture notes and diagrams will be available when classes start. Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is required, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course must be completed prior to enrollment in Biology 112. (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). High school chemistry is not suitable as a prerequisite unless a student has obtained Advanced Placement credit for Chemistry 123, or has obtained other certification of college-level equivalency in general chemistry. Concurrent election of Chemistry 123 and Biology 112 is not advisable. Students who have completed Chemistry 123 with a grade below C- would be well-advised to repeat the course before electing Biology 112. Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. Students who elect Biology 112 after completion of Biology 100 will lose credit for the earlier course. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1570 C. C. Little Building. (Kleinsmith, Adams)

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 114 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. I and II. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C. C. Little Building. (Easter, Nussbaum, Hazlett)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for admission to medical or dental school. Students who have an interest in genetics but who do not intend to concentrate in a science area may find another course, Human Genetics 324, which emphasizes the societal aspects of genetics, more appropriate. Enrollment in Biology 305 requires some prior knowledge of basic genetics. The course is oriented toward molecular genetics and is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. In each of these segments, the emphasis is on the current state of knowledge in the field. Every year the lectures are changed to keep pace with the rapidly changing aspects of the field of genetics. There are three hours of lecture a week plus one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used primarily to expand on and review the lecture material, but new material is also presented. (Grossman, Rizki)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course is intended for students who have taken or are taking Genetics (Biology 305) and is designed to complement material covered in that course. Students will be given the opportunity to use biological materials and instruments utilized in genetic research. They will also design experiments using a variety of genetic tests and collect and analyze data. The experiments will be done with Drosophila, fungi, bacteria and bacteriophage. One three-hour laboratory session is scheduled per week, and another period is to be arranged. Some work will have to be done outside regularly scheduled lab hours. The laboratory will be open daily and evenings. In general, the experiments (about 6 or 7 in number) will be done by pairs of students, however, each student will be expected to keep his own lab notebook and to write his own summarizing report for each experiment. Student evaluation will be based on performance in laboratory, and written laboratory reports. (Gay)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 112 and 114, or 105, or the equivalent; Chem. 126 or the equivalent. Organic chemistry is helpful but not required. Not open to students who have completed Biol. 415. (3). (NS).

This lecture course is designed to provide undergraduates with (1) understanding of the basic functions of living cells, (2) appreciation for the experimental and observational methods which have established current knowledge, and (3) awareness of contributions of molecular and cellular biology to other areas of biological science and to human affairs. The interdependence of cell function and cell structure is stressed. As far as possible, an effort is made to phrase explanations in molecular terms and to provide insight into how biological molecules are integrated into higher levels of organization. Course content includes an introduction which stresses the essential unity of cell functions throughout the biosphere, the organizational basis of cell functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the basis of cell diversity. The course also includes a brief overview of selected metabolic pathways; energy transformations; flow of matter and information in biosynthesis (selected aspects); biogenesis of supramolecular structure and organelles; cell surfaces; membrane structure, permeability and transport; secretion; the cell cycle and cell division; cellular aspects of locomotion; intracellular regulatory mechanisms; and special topics. This course provides a one-term core background in cellular biology, molecular biology and related subjects. It is suitable for concentrators and for other students wishing a one-term survey of this subject matter. Students desiring more detailed treatment may elect the two-term sequence Biology 411 and 415. Lecture notes and books containing recommended readings will be on reserve at the Undergraduate Library. There will be a textbook; purchase is optional. Each of two or three examinations during the term include short-answer "factual" questions and also several questions requiring brief explanatory paragraphs providing interpretation of data or formulation or proof of a hypothesis. There will be a final exam. In the past students have had considerable input into style and frequency of examinations. For further questions contact the instructor. (Shappirio, 764-1491)

351. General Ecology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (4). (NS).

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 351 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Three field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. Two laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is Ecology, by C.J. Krebs.

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exam. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. " Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

414. Immunobiology. Organic chemistry and 16 credits of biology. (3). (NS).

This course provides upper level undergraduate and graduate students with an introduction to immunochemistry as applied to diverse problems in biology. The focus is on the nature of the antigen/antibody reaction, its manifestations, and the nature of the reagents and cells which are involved and applications, rather than on clinical immunobiology. On completing the course students should be able to critically read literature concerning immunochemistry in their area of study. Nine to twelve hours of background lectures are followed by presentations of visiting immunobiologists. Exams include a take-home exam and short quizzes. A term paper is required. This combines the current literature on immunochemistry with an area of interest to the student. Evaluation is based on the interim exams, the term paper, and a final (usually oral). Texts change rapidly because of constant development in the field. (Nace)

443. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (NS).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's Limnology is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 444 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

444. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 443 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

456. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. (3). (NS).

An analysis of ecological principles as they apply to agricultural ecosystems, emphasizing theoretical aspects but also covering empirical results of critical experiments. While the emphasis is on principles, practical applicability is also explored where appropriate. Physical, biological, and social forces will be integrated as necessary. Designed as preparation for active research in agroecosystem ecology. (Vandermeer)

473. Mathematical Analogies in Evolutionary Biology. Two courses in biology; and Math. 114 or 116, or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

This course is intended primarily for juniors, seniors, and graduate students who desire a better understanding of mathematics applied to evolutionary biology, and who wish to read and criticize published papers in this field with more confidence. In lectures on Tuesdays and Thursdays, mathematical ideas are made understandable mostly by examples and intuitive arguments. On Mondays following a short quiz, applications of mathematical ideas are examined through student presentations and discussions of published articles. Central to the course are the role of theory in scientific method, and the formulation and testing of quantitative theory in evolutionary biology. The term project provides each student, whether weak or strong in quantitative background, the opportunity to invent a mathematical analogy that will challenge his or her creativity. Grading is based on class participation, weekly quizzes, and term project. (Estabrook)

505/Micro. 505. Pathogenic Microorganisms. A course in general microbiology and biological chemistry. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. (3). (NS).

See Microbiology 505.

506/Micro. 506. Laboratory in Pathogenic Microorganisms. A laboratory course in microbiology; biological chemistry; and permission of instructor. (1). (NS).

See Microbiology 506.

541. Population and Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3).

This upper-level ecology course provides an opportunity for an in-depth examination of recent research and current ecological concepts. Patterns and processes in populations and assemblages of animals and plants will be discussed. Examples will be drawn from specific field studies and a variety of organisms. Emphasis will be placed upon the biological interactions among species and the approaches used in field research, experimentation, data analysis and the testing of ecological theory. Two lectures and one discussion are held per week. Essays and a term paper are assigned. Reading is from the current literature. A background in ecology (Biology 351 or equivalent) is required. (Rathcke)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4).

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and dark-room techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

This course is a basic course in learning how to grow and to use plants. The main topics in lecture and laboratory include landscaping principles and design; propagation of plants by cuttings, bulbs, tubers and corms and by grafting and budding; edible wild plants; seed germination; plant breeding; growing house plants, vegetables, and flowers; methods of making composts; modifying soils to meet particular plant needs; uses of fertilizers; pests and their control; plant pruning, including bonsai; and wine making. There are field trips which emphasize ecology, wild edible plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants as well as a visit to a local greenhouse. One of the highlights of the course is a natural food and edible wild plants dinner. There is one lecture plus two discussion periods and six hours of laboratory at the Botanical Gardens each week. (Kaufman)

207. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. Introductory biology or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The biology of plants as organisms, emphasizing individuals, populations, and communities. The course treats the evolution and adaptations of the groups of plants, introducing principles of plant morphology, systematics, ecology, geography, and ethnobotany. The laboratory includes a study of plant diversity (bacteria through flowering plants), culture work and field trips. A total of 3 lecture tests and 3 laboratory tests will be scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. The course is a prerequisite for the Professional Concentration Program in Botany. (Wynne)

230/Nat. Res. 230. Woody Plants I: Biology and Recognition. (4). (NS).

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification is taught during one afternoon field trip per week. Woody plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities oak-hickory forests, beech-maple forests, river floodplain community, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, fruit types, life history, forest ecology, variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., of Europe, and the Tropics. Laboratories (field trips) are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 p. m. once a week. No single text is available for the entire course. For identification, the student should supplement field notes with readings from a standard dendrology book. Lecture material based in part on Spurr and Barnes, Forest Ecology. Grading based 60% on field quizzes and exams (8) and indoor identification exams (2); 40% on lecture (2 hour exams). (Wagner and Barnes)

281. Introductory Plant Physiology. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (4). (NS).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in botany or related sciences. The objectives of the course are to provide a selection of biological facts and basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out normal vital functions and to introduce students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The lectures, and laboratory work in particular, are expected to afford experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiological research. The contents of the lectures and the laboratory experiments fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, plant water relations, transpiration, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant development, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. Two mid-term examinations and a final examination will be given in the course. The final course grade is based on students' performance in both examinations and lab work, each contributing one half of the course grade. Grading of lab work is based on the quality of lab work, lab reports, lab notebook, and participation in discussion. Students who need graduate credit should elect the course as Botany 481. 481 students must complete one additional, independent project. Starting in the academic year 1982-83, this course is offered only in fall terms. (Ikuma)

333/Nat. Res. 333. Soil Environment. Introductory chemistry and biology. (Lectures: 2 credits; lectures and laboratory: 3 credits.) (NS).

"Soil Environment" entails development of detailed understanding of important characteristics of soil as basic natural resources. We consider soils as complex components of complex ecosystems and discuss physical, chemical and biological properties and processes in soils. Soils are viewed in context as natural entities, as bases for plant communities, as components of watersheds, and as basic resources manipulated and used by humans. Laboratory sections require field examination, sampling and descriptions of soil, lab techniques to evaluate soil properties and integrative applications for solution of practical problems.

442. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. Biol. 112 or Botany 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

A modern course in the morphology and evolution of vascular plants, including an emphasis on the biology of the life cycle and comparative organography. The evolution of the stem, leaf, and root, together with the reproductive structures of high land plants will be a recurrent theme. Present-day controversies will be examined, and cladistic thinking applied to resolving them. Weekend field trips will stress the study of the life cycles in the natural habitats. Course is aimed at upper division and graduate students in ecology, botany, anatomy, paleobotany, and systematics especially. Text: A. S. Foster and E.M. Gifford, Jr., 1974, Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants. Second Edition. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. (Wagner)

467. Ecology of Forest Fungi. Biol. 351 or Nat. Res. 435. (4). (NS).

An ecosystem approach to fungal ecology is stressed, with emphasis on nutrient cycling and the interactions among fungi, other organisms, and the environment. A course in ecology, e.g., Bio 351 or NR 435, is a necessary prerequisite. Assigned and optional readings will be used instead of a text to explore this relatively new area of research. Lecture topics include: soil structure and environment, fungal nutrition, decomposition, antagonistic symbioses with plants and animals, mutualistic symbioses with plants and animals, the role of mycorrhizae in plant nutrition, fungi as food, applied fungal ecology, and the role of fungi in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements. Laboratories and associated field trips will stress methods used in isolating fungi and in quantifying the role of fungi and mycorrhizae in ecosystem processes. Student progress will be evaluated by lecture and laboratory exams. This course is intended for students in biology or natural resources who desire to learn more about the functioning of forest ecosystems. (Fogel)

488. Plant Constituents and their Functions. Biol. 105 or 114 and one term of organic chemistry. (2). (NS).

This course will be offered only Fall Term, 1982; it will not be offered again until 1985. A different kind of study of plants for students interested in the special functional and economic aspects of plant chemical constituents and plant-plant or plant-animal interactions. This course will survey the major secondary compounds in plants, their functions in plants and their effects on animals. These compounds will be grouped primarily on a functional rather than a structural basis. Pigments, fragrances, hormones, allelopathic agents, toxins (including mycotoxins and carcinogens), medicinal compounds, hallucinogens, plant defenses against pathogens, and others will be considered in terms of their value to plants, their mode of action, and their evolution or potential use as phyletic markers. (Noodén)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and premedical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Zoology 421, 422, or 428 these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. Zoology concentrators must take Zoology 326 concurrently. Non-Zoology concentrators may take Zoology 325 alone. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Guthe)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Zool. 325. (1). (NS).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. A report on every exercise is required. Most reports are short (two to three pages) and attempt to answer specific questions. Two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Zoology 326 must be taken concurrently with Zoology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Zoology 325 will not be admitted to Zoology 326. (Guthe)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114; or the equivalent. (6). (NS).

Lectures focusing on the origin, evolution, and biology of the chordates, with particular emphasis on vertebrates. The evolution of the structure in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates is examined in the laboratory, primarily through dissection of a series of selected vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a museum field trip. (Gans and Northcutt)

421. Comparative Physiology: Regulation of Internal Environment. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. Students who have completed Zool. 325 must obtain permission of the instructor. (5). (NS).

The course is designed to acquaint students with the aims and methods of comparative physiology through consideration of the nature and significance of physiological regulation. Students are introduced to original literature in physiology, to standards of experimental design, and to preparation of scientific papers. Topics covered from a comparative standpoint include: energy metabolism, respiration and gas transport, circulation, nitrogen excretion, ionic and osmotic regulation, and temperature regulation. Physiological adaptation to the environment is a prominent theme in the course and a number of examples of it are discussed. The laboratory sessions permit work with a number of species of invertebrates and vertebrates. Three lectures a week are given to the entire class. The laboratory consists of two three-hour periods weekly, each section limited to twenty students. A textbook and specially written laboratory instructions are used. Students prepare laboratory reports consulting relevant original literature. There are three one-hour examinations (100 points each) and a final examination (125 points). Students are also to take a laboratory practicum which emphasizes experimental design and analysis of data. The last two weeks of the laboratory are devoted to independent research projects designed by the students in consultation with the laboratory staff. (W. R. Dawson)

428. Endocrinology. Biol. 105 or 112 and 114; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates but will also consider those of invertebrates. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Other courses, including Zoology 581-582, treat mammalian reproductive endocrinology in detail. Instruction in Zoology 428 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in Chemistry through Organic is essential and a course in Biochemistry would be helpful. (Doneen)

430. Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 428; and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course must be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Zoology 428. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation, and mechanisms of action of hormones. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled each week; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. (Doneen)

434. Advanced Morphology. Zool. 351 and permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

Lectures focus on the origin and evolution of the various vertebrate classes, with particular emphasis on non-mammals. The structure of the major body systems is examined in the laboratory, primarily through dissection of a large series of different vertebrate species. Students are evaluated on the basis of exams and/or term paper. (Gans, Northcutt)

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (NS).

The invertebrate phyla represent about 90% of the species of animals alive today. Zoology 437 surveys the biology of these groups with special emphasis on particularities of morphology, cytology, physiology and ecology which account for the fact that major discoveries in these fields have utilized advantages offered by various invertebrates' systems. An example is the use of giant squid axons in nerve physiology. In the laboratory, live specimens are provided for as many groups as possible; standard dissections are made, and the theory and use of the microscope are considered. Evaluation is by laboratory practicals and lecture exams. (Tompa)

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (4). (NS).

This is a general course which covers information concerning four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom and is intended to give some perspective on invertebrate systems as opposed to the more usual emphasis on vertebrate animals. The emphasis is on the whole animal - what it is, what it does, how it does it how it got there. In lectures the wealth of information and generalizations gathered from insects concerning all major aspects of biology are discussed. In the laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. This course is an introduction to specialization in all aspects of biology in which insects are appropriate experimental organisms and an introduction to the appreciation and enjoyment of living animals. The following topics are discussed, with special emphasis on aspects recently treated in research publications: synopsis of orders; general functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity and nervous organization; regulation of development and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration in insects; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization in insects; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships of insects; insect flight. The laboratory work encompasses a more unified scope. The only requisites for this course are an introductory college course in biology or zoology and an interest in understanding living organisms. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week. Only one text, Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to the Study of Insects, is required for both lecture and laboratory. Except for preparing an insect collection and some collecting, outside work is at a minimum. There is at least one essay hour exam, and a final essay exam, in lecture, which are comprehensive in nature; and a minimum of four one-hour practical examinations in laboratory. (Moore)

481. Vertebrate Developmental Biology. Eight credits in biology; Zool. 252 or 351 is recommended. (3). (NS).

Development is progressive change from the time of conception until death. Lectures will survey the anatomy of the developing individual (descriptive development) and also the mechanisms of development (experimental analysis of development). The course seeks to answer such questions as: How do cells, tissues and organs interact to form an organism? What regulates form, size and longevity? The first third of the course covers the progress of development from the time of fertilization until birth. Topics during the middle third include growth, differentiation, genetic control, cell interactions, induction, transplantation immunity, regeneration, metamorphosis, cancer, teratology, aging and death. The last third surveys the development of organ systems in the human. The laboratory course, Zoology 482, may be taken concurrently. Grading is based on performance in two midterm examinations, a final examination, and a submitted abstract and review on a topic chosen by the student. Lecture outlines with references are distributed as guides to library sources of information. (Kemp)

482. Laboratory in Developmental Biology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 481. (2). (NS).

The laboratory in developmental biology provides practical experience in studying developmental anatomy and physiology. Early stages of development, including gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and neurulation, are studied from a variety of embryos. Organogenesis is studied in frog, chick and mouse embryos both from living embryos and from serial microscopic sections. Experiments illustrating microsurgery, tissue culture, transplantation, teratology and metamorphosis supplement the microscopic analysis. The course is designed to accompany Zoology 481. Grading is based on quizzes, which may be given at any period, and on three principal examinations covering major segments of the work. The laboratory sessions are three-hour periods twice weekly. (Kemp)

581/Pathology 581/Physiol. 581. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology I. Permission of instructor. (3).

The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the hormonal regulation of male and female reproductive systems. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.

The control of the reproductive process is considered at the systemic, cellular and molecular levels. Topics to be included are the properties and mechanisms of action of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones and gonadal sex-steroids, the neural control of reproduction, the anatomy and endocrine regulation of the testis and ovary and of the male and female reproductive tracts, the endocrine control of the menstrual and estrous cycle, mechanisms of fertilization and implantation, and the endocrine basis of pregnancy and fertility regulation. A lecture/discussion format will be followed in which the topic is introduced by the instructor, followed by discussion and critical evaluation of current literature and research. Students will be expected to contribute actively to class discussions. Occasional laboratory demonstrations may also be used. Students are evaluated by exam and by participation in class. The course is not part of a departmental sequence. Recommended background courses are chemistry, zoology and physiology. (Keyes, Karsch)


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