Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

Philosophy Introductions

The Philosophy Department offers a series of 100-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 152, "Philosophy of Human Nature" and Philosophy 153, "Philosophy and the Arts" will be offered Fall Term, 1982. They will be taught by regular faculty members and will be limited to 50 students. Philosophy 202, 231, 232, 234, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences between the major kinds of social, political, and economic organization, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean? The 200-level philosophy introductions vary in their approach to the issues, in their instructional format, and in credit hours. Philosophy 202 (4 hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (3 hours) and 232 (4 hours) are more concerned with contemporary debate about these issues than with their historical development; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Philosophy 234 (4 hours) approaches issues principally through historical sources, and this results in more emphasis on different "types" of philosophical systems; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet two hours per week. Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Two such courses will be offered Fall Term, 1982: 357, "Ecology: A Philosophical Perspective"; and 365, "Problems of Religion". Courses.

152. Philosophy of Human Nature. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

This course will cover the following topics with a view to arriving at a philosophical analysis of the concept of human nature: the mind-body problem, causation, explanation of human action, rationality, intentionality and freedom and determinism. Essays and selections from Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Nietzsche, Sartre, Hare, Dennett, Davidson, and Strawson will be studied. (Bilgrami)

153. Philosophy and the Arts. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

This course is intended to introduce some of the basic problems in aesthetics. It is not a course in art appreciation, art history or literature, but is focused instead on a number of concepts and issues which arise in the criticism and theories of particular art forms and which raise interesting philosophical problems. These concepts and issues include: realism, representation, expression, the nature of narrative, the nature of photography, the objectivity of interpretation and the role of the artist's intentions. The philosophical problems include problems in the philosophy of language such as the nature of meaning and convention, problems in the philosophy of mind such as the nature of emotion and its expression and traditional problems in aesthetics such as the definition of art. Although the course presupposes no philosophical training, the literature in aesthetics is rarely written at an introductory level, and students should expect the reading to require a significant investment in time and effort. There is a strong emphasis on class discussion and the course requires very active participation. Material for the course includes a number of films and a lab fee will be charged to cover the costs. (S. White)

201. Introduction to Logic. No credit granted to those who have completed 203 or 296. (3). (N. Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 231, 232, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A. J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term, each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination. (Walton)

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. No credit granted to those who have completed 201 or 296. (3). (N. Excl).

This course is an introduction to the theory and application of modern symbolic logic. It emphasizes both a proper understanding of logical principles and systems and the applications of these principles to daily and scientific discourse. Techniques used are formal ones derived from contemporary symbolic logic. Course topics include the nature of logic and the logic of truth functions, monadic quantification theory, and identity. Required reading generally varies from between fifteen and thirty pages per week. Grading is usually based on a midterm, a final examination, quizzes, and assigned problems. Sections normally enroll about twenty-five students each. There are three weekly meetings which are generally conducted with some informality and a good deal of student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. The requirements for grading vary with the instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments and short, periodic quizzes. See also statement on introductory logic courses.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This course is open to students from all areas of the University. No previous work in philosophy is required or assumed. First semester undergraduates are welcome. The course has two principal goals. The first is to provide an introduction to fundamental philosophical problems drawn from a variety of branches of philosophy. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skills and, more generally, the critical and argumentative skills of those enrolled. The following issues will be discussed: (1) determinism, free will, and moral responsibility; (2) arguments for and against the existence of God; (3) the nature of mind and its relation to body; and (4) self-interest, altruism, and moral obligation. There will be a final examination and one (midterm) hour examination. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week, and requires two short papers while Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. Students who feel they would benefit from the additional hour of discussion or from the additional required writing, or who need the extra hour of credit are advised to enroll in 232 rather than 231. The course has a single text, an anthology: Joel Feinberg, editor, Reason and Responsibility, 5th edition, 1981, Dickenson Publishing Company. (Loeb)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Loeb)

234. Introduction to Philosophy: Types of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 202, 231, 232, or 297. (4). (HU).

This course introduces students to the study of philosophy through an examination of the perennial philosophical problems and the kinds of answers that have been offered by major philosophers through the history of western philosophy. Materialism and idealism are considered in response to questions about the nature of what exists; empiricism, pragmatism and rationalism are examined in response to questions about the origin of knowledge and test of truth; and hedonism and other ethical systems in response to questions about the good and the right. The approach is historical in that figures such as Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, and William James whose texts will be used are also significant figures in the history of philosophy. An attempt will be made to trace the development of philosophical thought through culture and society. Two short papers, a midterm, and a final are likely to be required.

296. Honors Introduction to Logic. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 201 or 203. (3). (N. Excl).

Logic is valuable, first, as a tool for theoretical clarification. That makes it indispensable for many of the purposes of philosophy, particularly for the purpose of analyzing the structures of sciences, mathematics, and other systems of thought. Logic is valuable in the second place because it provides methods for the evaluation of reasoning, regardless of the subject matter with which the reasoning is concerned. This course is designed to introduce the student to the concepts and methods of modern deductive logic. It will deal with such key logical ideas as validity and invalidity of arguments, entailment between propositions, and logical truth. It will examine such properties of logical systems as consistency and completeness, and ask which branches of logic can be formulated as complete, consistent systems. Examples of the use of formal logic as a tool of clarification will be discussed. Students, it is hoped, will acquire considerable skill in applying various logical techniques for evaluating reasoning and for analyzing the logical status of propositions. There will be two or three exams, and satisfactory completion of homework will be required. (Fine)

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course will examine problems that continue to vex both philosophers and non-philosophers. Philosophical problems likely to be discussed include the following: The Mind-Body Problem : What does it mean to say I have a soul? Do I have one? Am I a purely physical entity, or is there some immaterial substance within me that makes me different from, say, an animal? Personal Identity : Who am I? What makes me who I am? Am I the same person now I will be in ten years, or was ten years ago? Knowledge : When do I know something? How can I know what I know? What are the limits of knowledge? The Good : Can we know what is the morally right thing to do? What does it mean to say an act is morally right? When am I morally responsible for an act? Can I be blamed for something I could not help doing? We will not hope to find answers to all these questions but to understand the issues and the arguments for different opinions. Readings will be from historical and contemporary sources. Two or three short papers and a final exam.

Section 002. This course will examine problems that continue to vex both philosophers and non-philosophers. We will consider how philosophical argumentation can enable us to approach better some of the following questions: The Mind-Body Problem : What does it mean to say I have a soul? Do I have one? Am I a purely physical entity, or is there some immaterial substance within me that makes me different from, say, an animal? Personal Identity : Who am I? What makes me who I am? Am I the same person now I will be in ten years, or was ten years ago? Knowledge : When do I know something. How can I know what I know? What are the limits of knowledge? The Good : Can we know what is the morally right thing to do? What does it mean to say an act is morally right? When am I morally responsible for an act? Can I be blamed for something I could not help doing? We will not hope to find answers to all these questions, but to understand the issues and the arguments for different opinions. Readings will be from historical and contemporary sources. Three short papers and a final exam. (S. Conly)

335/Buddhist Studies 320/Asian Studies 320/Rel. 320. Introduction to Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 220 or the equivalent. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (3). (HU).

See Far Eastern Languages and Literatures: Buddhist Studies 320. (Schopen)

345. Language and Mind. One philosophy course. (3). (HU).

Orthodox theories of mind explain mental states by reference to their causal roles. These theories conflict with the assumption that we have a unique and private form of access to our own mental states. The assumption of the privacy of the mental also poses problems for the idea that we succeed in communicating our thoughts to others. In Philosophy 345 we will explore some of the traditional problems in the philosophy of mind and some of the connections between these problems and problems in the philosophy of language. Topics in philosophy of mind include privileged access, causal theories of the mental, mental representations, and mind-body identity. Topics in the philosophy of language include meaning, causal and descriptive theories of reference, reference and autonomous psychology, the private language argument, language understanding and artificial intelligence, and metaphor. Although this course is an introduction to the specific problems under consideration, it is not intended as an introduction to philosophy. The course is primarily designed for philosophy majors and those who intend to do a significant amount of course work in the field. There will be two papers and a final examination. (S. White)

357/Env. St. 408. Ecology: A Philosophical Perspective. (3). (HU).

In this course I hope to discuss a number of ways in which philosophical distinctions and religious considerations can enter into and (perhaps) benefit our thinking about ecology. The course is just being developed, and my plans for it are still rather fluid. I hope to discuss some distinctions relevant to ethics, such as that between teleological and deontological principles, and corporate vs. private duties. I will also discuss the ethics of risk, the ethics in situations in which all choices are bad. I hope also to consider various religious views of man's relations to nature, including Christian views of mastery and stewardship, a Buddhist approach, perhaps American Indian, etc. There will be 2 or 3 one-hour exams, and perhaps a term paper. Texts have not yet been selected. (Mavrodes)

361. Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

In this course we will examine fundamental questions of moral philosophy. We will discuss whether it is possible that there is a universal, objective moral law, or whether morality is in some sense relative to culture or to the individual. We will discuss how, if possible, to resolve conflicts between self-interest and duty to others. We will examine the nature of happiness and human welfare and see whether there is a "best life" at which it makes sense to aim. Finally we will look at a few selected practical problems of morality e.g. abortion and see how what we have learned bears on these. Three short papers (five to eight pages) and a final exam. (Conly)

365/Rel. 365. Problems of Religion. (4). (HU).

This course is a general introduction to the philosophy of religion. It deals with philosophical topics which are especially relevant to Christianity and religions which are similar to Christianity. These will include attempts to prove the existence of God, and criticisms of the proofs, the problem of evil and proposed solutions, the ethics of belief, and the concepts of religious experience and revelation. There may also be some discussion of other topics such as miracles or immortality. There will be readings from an anthology representing many different views, lectures in which I will mostly try to develop my own analysis, and discussions of both lectures and readings. Grades will be determined mostly by two or three multiple-choice exams and discussion participation. (Mavrodes)

366. Introduction to Political Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

Political philosophy is concerned not merely with the question of what sort of government (if any) we should have, but also with the most general questions about how people can and should live in society. We will undertake a systematic examination of the moral, philosophical, and empirical foundations of three of the dominant political philosophies of our times: social contract theory, utilitarianism, and socialism. Our goal will be to understand the conceptions of human nature, of value, of society and the individual's relation to it, and of freedom that underlie these political philosophies. Readings will include significant figures in the history of political philosophy (such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, and Marx) as well as controversial contemporary political philosophers (such as Rawls and Nozick). Lectures and discussion sections. A midterm and a final examination. A term paper. (Railton)

371. Existentialism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to existentialism, focusing on the philosophy of Sartre. Other philosophers who may be discussed include Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger. Two papers and at least one exam will be required.

388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (HU).

This course is a survey of Greek philosophical thought from its beginnings through Hellenistic times. The figures covered in detail are certain Presocratic thinkers, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, and the Sceptics. Stress is laid not only on the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. Attention is also given to the non-philosophical background against which these thinkers worked, particularly in the case of their ethical views. There will be three papers, ranging from four to seven pages in length, two 30-minute quizzes, and a final. One of the chief aims of the course is to teach students to write a clear, well-organized philosophy paper. (N. White)

401. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy. Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration adviser. (3). (HU).

This seminar will focus on one or more major philosophical topics in some central area of philosophy. Students will study important historical and contemporary texts relating to the topics under discussion, and each student will make at least one seminar presentation. One or two papers will be required. For updated information on topics and course instructor, consult the Philosophy Department.

409. Philosophy of Language. One Philosophy Introduction or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The underlying aim of the course is to address the question of linguistic meaning, i.e., the question, how is it possible that sounds (or inscriptions) which may be described purely physically can also be the objects of understanding. This will lead us into questions about the relation between thought and language, reference and truth. In the course of the discussion, we will try and cover standard topics in the philosophy of language; analyticity, proper names; mood, force and speech acts; indeterminacy of translation, realism versus anti-realism, ontological commitment; identity and necessity. Essays by or selections from Plato, Locke, Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Austin, Strawson, Grice, Quine, Davidson, Dummett, and Kripke will be studied. Students will be asked to write one long term paper or two shorter papers in the middle and at the end of the term. (Bilgrami)

414. Mathematical Logic. (3). (N. Excl).

A study of the syntax, semantics, applications, and limitations of elementary logic. Among the topics included are: (A) Truth-functions and sentential logic; symbolization of truth-functional arguments; completeness of sentential logic. (B) Syntax and semantics of quantification theory; symbolization of quantification arguments; completeness of quantification theory; limitations of quantification theory. (C) Formalization of number theory; Godel's first incompleteness theorem (in outline). The text is Formal Logic by R. Jeffrey. (Sklar)

415. Advanced Mathematical Logic. Phil. 414 or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 417. (3). (N. Excl).

A survey of topics in logic. The course will be divided into four segments. (1) Basic model theory, including semantical concepts, Godel's completeness theorem, the compactness theorem, the Lowenheim-Skolem theorems, elementary equivalence and chains. Topics from generalized model theory, as time permits. (2) Elementary concepts of recursive function theory, including Turing machines, primitive recursive computability, elementary properties of recursive and recursively enumerable sets of natural numbers. (3) Metamathematics of elementary number theory, including Godel's incompleteness theorems (in outline) and their significance for the philosophy of mathematics. (4) An overview of axiomatic set theory, including Zermelo-Frankel axioms, the cumulative hierarchy ordinal and cardinal numbers, and an outline of independence results in set theory. Philosophical problems about interpreting set theory will also be considered. (McCarthy)

420. Philosophy of Science. A course in logic or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

A systematic study of contemporary philosophy of science. We will discuss the following topics, among others. (1) The aims and methods of philosophy of science. What is philosophy of science and what is its relation to science itself? (2) The nature of scientific theories. What is the structure of a scientific theory? How are a theory's terms and assertions related to experience? (3) Theory change and confirmation. Can competing scientific theories be tested objectively against one another? Is there such a thing as "the scientific method", and can it be justified? Can we speak meaningfully about scientific progress? (4) Explanation, causation, laws, and probability. How do scientific theories explain? Must explanations involve laws or causal mechanisms? What kinds of probability are there? Can probabilistic phenomena be explained? (5) Physics and metaphysics. What, if any, are the metaphysical assumptions of contemporary science? What role do metaphysical issues (such as the nature of laws or causation) play in the philosophy of science? (6) Philosophy of social science. Are the social sciences fundamentally different from the natural sciences, and, if so, in what ways? Midterm and final examinations. A term paper. (Railton)

423. Problems of Space and Time. One Logic Introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of spacetime, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can best be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in the course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without an extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar, Space, Time and Spacetime. There are additional readings from authors such as Reichenbach, Poincare, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others. (Sklar)

431. Normative Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

An examination of competing ethical theories, chiefly utilitarianism and Kantianism, and of recent criticisms of such theories that emphasize the place of the emotions and human relationships in ethics. In addition to examining these views in their own right we shall also inquire into their basis in views about the role of sympathy, practical reason (and autonomy), and ideals of the person in ethics. Readings will include classical sources but will focus on recent work. Three relatively short papers and a final examination will be required. (Darwall)

433. History of Ethics. Phil. 361 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course will concentrate on major figures in moral philosophy in some major historical period, e.g. the Greek period, the British moralists, Kant. For up-to-date information consult the Philosophy Department.

435. Philosophy of Logic. One Logic Introduction. (3). (HU).

A survey of philosophical problems about the nature of logic. Topics to be considered, according to interests of instructor and students, include: philosophical significance of formal interpretations of the notions of truth, validity, and consequence; interpretations of modal logic and intuitionistic logic; the relation of mathematics and logic; philosophical problems about the interpretation of set theory; logic and ontology. (McCarthy)

436. Computers, Thought, and Action. One course in philosophy or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course deals with traditional philosophical problems about human thought and action, with reference to modern developments in computers and related developments in biological science. These developments will be outlined in class. Basic questions to be discussed include: In what ways are humans machines? How do recent developments in artificial intelligence and the biological sciences bear on the previous questions? How might a robot use language, solve problems, reason mathematically, and acquire knowledge about its environment? How is evolution related to learning, problem-solving, design, and computer programming? Two problems about action will occupy a substantial part of the course. The first is the nature of morality, its relation to altruism, the role of reasoning in morality, the evolution of morality, and the relation of morality to other social institutions. In this connection we will study some claims of sociobiology and evaluate them. The second problem about action concerns human freedom, its nature, its relation to morality, and its relation to determinism and fatalism. Students will read some science fiction, a popular paperback on sociobiology, and materials in philosophy. The instructor will lecture, and there will be discussions as needed. (Burks)

461. Continental Rationalism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course will investigate the philosophical systems of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, based upon a careful reading of selections from their major philosophical works. The principal goal will be to come to grips with the philosophical systems of each of these philosophers in its own right. We will focus on the metaphysics and epistemology in these systems. The minor Continental figure Malebranche will probably receive some attention as well. Depending upon the interests and backgrounds of those enrolled, we might also discuss Locke and Berkeley, with a view to determining the extent to which their philosophical systems have affinities with those of the Continental figures. The formal prerequisite is any previous course in philosophy. However, a one semester course in the history of modern philosophy (Descartes through Kant), or the equivalent, would provide a much more suitable background. Students will write a number of papers (perhaps three papers, or perhaps six very short papers). There will be a final examination, but no mid-term. The bulk of the required reading will be in the following: Margaret Wilson, ed., The Essential Descartes, Mentor: John Wild, ed., Spinoza Selections, Scribner's; and Leibniz, Discourse on Metaphysics/Correspondence with Arnauld/Monadology, George Montgomery, translator, Open Court. (Loeb)

465. Contemporary Continental Philosophy. Phil. 412 and two other courses in philosophy; or graduate standing. (3). (HU).

The main concentration in this course will be on Nietzsche, Heidegger and Sartre but some time will also be spent on Habermas, Foucault and Derrida. We will attempt to clarify and to really understand some of the main ideas of these philosophers. Among the texts read will be On the Genealogy of Morals, Beyond Good and Evil and Zarathustra, selections from Being and Time as well as from Heidegger's late essays; and also from the Theory of Emotions and Being and Nothingness. Two approximately eight page long papers will be required. (Bergmann)

477. Theory of Knowledge. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

Can we have knowledge about the world? Does the mind have access to the physical world? To the past? To the future? If so, what is the nature of this access? How do perception, memory, and reasoning function in giving us such access? What is required for a belief to be justified, or rational? Do we have any genuinely justified beliefs? Can science help us in getting a more rational and justified view of the world? These are among the topics to be discovered in this course. The readings will be taken from classical and contemporary philosophers. Students should have at least one philosophy course as background; two or more previous courses, including logic, would be helpful. The course format will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Two papers and one or two exams will be required. (Kim)

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