Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

100. Intensive Elementary French. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (8). (FL).

This course combines 101 and 102 in a single semester. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of 101/102. The material corresponding to 101 is covered by mid-semester, and that of 102 in the rest of the semester. Classes meet twice daily, four times a week, in sections of 20-23 students. Homework is similar to that of 101/102, but the amount of weekly assignment is twice that of either 101 or 102. There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations and a speaking test. The final examination is identical to that of 102.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the middle of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (90 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Students with previous French study in high school are not permitted to enroll in sections 001-006.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 2-3 years in high school) whose proficiency is not yet sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves with a rapid pace, covering about 60 per cent of the French 101 material by mid semester, and about 60 per cent of the French 102 material by the end of the semester. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 per cent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

107. French for Voice Majors. Open only to students enrolled in the School of Music. (4). (Excl).

This course presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary mostly for passive recognition. Most of the exercises are done with open books, with emphasis on pronunciation and translation. Reading consists of expository prose, poems, songs, and libretti of operas. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 18-23 students. Homework is basically translation and work on phonetics in the language laboratory. There are weekly quizzes, midterm and final examinations, and pronunciation tests. There is no prerequisite for French 107.

121. Elementary: Alternate. Permission of department. (3). (FL).

The alternate sequence French 121/122/123 covers the same materials studied in 101/102, but in three consecutive semesters instead of two. The objectives of the regular and alternate sequences are identical: French 121 covers the first 2/3 of the 101 material, 122 the last 1/3 of 101 and first 1/3 of 102, and 123, the last 2/3 of 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes, written homework to turn in, course-wide midterm and final examinations, and speaking tests. Enrollment in the sequence 121/122/123 is by special permission only, issued to students who are/were enrolled in 101 or 102. (Hagiwara)

123. Elementary: Alternate. French 122 or equivalent and permission of department. (3). (FL).

Special elementary, continued. French 102 or 122, with special permission by the department only. French 123 may be followed by 231. The final examination is the same as for 102. See French 121.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered Fall Term, 1982.) It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track.
The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as mid-term and final examinations. In addition, French 231 has a speaking test, and 232, an outside reading test, both given toward the end of the term.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track:
see French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one semester. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the semester students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

112. Second Special Reading Course. French 111 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 231, or 232. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward mid semester students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week until mid semester, and twice per week thereafter (supplemented by individual conferences with the instructor on outside reading). There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 and 306 are minicourses for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. (Only French 305 is offered Fall Term, 1982.) They are organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 18-24 students. There are no examinations, and attendance and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purposes of this course are to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits students to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French, and to increase their understanding of French culture. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. French popular songs, magazine articles, and the like are used to stimulate conversation. Classes meet three times each week in sections varying between ten and fifteen students. The class is taught in French. Laboratory activities, simulations and weekly compositions. (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties and to the correction of common mistakes which are revealed through the weekly compositions. Course emphasis, however, is on conversation and discussion. Recordings are used in class in an effort to develop an understanding of spoken French of various levels of difficulty. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Occasional laboratory activities, outside readings, and simulations.

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of "faux amis", finding "le mot juste"); (c) development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight, sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (at least one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the semester, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Carduner)

372. Problems in Translation. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a course in ENGLISH to FRENCH translation, although for comparison's purposes some French to English texts are examined. The aim of the text is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may be occasionally devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts of different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes and a final examination. (Mermier)

408. Advanced Translation, French-English. French 372 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Texts to be translated will be drawn from literature, newspapers, technological, diplomatic and economic reports. Literature : (7 weeks). Short excerpts from Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Buffon, Stendhal, Balzac, Baudelaire Poemes en prose, Gide, Colette, Camus, Sartre, Levi-Strauss, Barthes. Journalism : (3 weeks). Le Monde, Le Figaro, Le Point, Le Nouvel Observateur, L'Express. Technology and Finance : (3 weeks). L'Expansion, technical reports from the U. N. Economic and financial forecasts from international agencies, banks, brokers, etc. Instruction: Students will prepare for each class a translation of some 20 to 30 lines with possible variants. We shall then go over this work in class calling on as many students as possible. Each student will pick a topic of his/her choice for one major translation which will count as the final exam. By the end of the term the student should: (1) Be able to translate from French into an English which is idiomatic and smooth flowing while conveying the message with clarity and accuracy; (2) Be able to discern when an expression in French, whether technical, idiomatic, a coinage, a witticism, a literary allusion or whatever lies beyond his knowledge of the French language, and be able to inform himself adequately for resolving the problem; (3) Be able to propose variant translations, all permissible, of key phrases and to choose among them according to the accuracy of the rendition and the achievement of a tone fitting to the source text. The course will be given in English. (Morton)

453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with French phonology and morphology from a structural-descriptive point of view. In phonology, English and French vowels, consonants, syllabic structures, and prosodic features are compared. Students learn to describe French sounds accurately, explain causes of pronunciation problems encountered by speakers of American English, transcribe sentences using phonetic symbols, and read phonetic transcriptions of dialogues. In morphology, semantic and grammatical subcategories of nouns, use of various determiners, forms of adjectives, verb tenses, and formation of words through compounding and derivational processes constitute the main topics. The course is conducted in French. Class time is divided into lectures, discussion, and travaux pratiques. There are three one-hour tests and a final examination. (Hagiwara)

456/Rom. Ling. 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course consists of four major components: phonology, morphology, syntax, and psycholinguistics. In each component, discussions of theories are combined with practical problem-solving. Students are introduced to different fields of linguistics, a contrastive study of English and French phonology, various linguistic methods of analyzing the French language, problems of teaching pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary at the first-year college level, and an evaluation of different teaching methods, techniques, and available materials. The course is conducted in English. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and travaux pratiques. There are midterm and final examinations and a paper. Very high proficiency of spoken and written French is required. (Hagiwara)

Civilization

440. Les structures socio-culturelles de la France actuelle. French 362 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The elections of 1981 have brought important changes to France: they will provide a convenient starting point. The economic modernization of the sixties has brought considerable improvements in the life of the average French citizen: the standard of living has never been as high as it is now; at the same time the structures of the whole society have been radically modified and it is only now that the general picture is beginning to emerge. We will attempt to describe this "new France" by working on three levels: (a) description: We will study the "categories socio-professionnelles" and their evolution in the last twenty-five years; (b) analysis: we will examine how the relations between these different categories function (especially within the educational system) and how they affect the political and cultural life of the whole society; (c) interpretation: we will put these analyses into a historical framework and present a few hypotheses concerning future development of French culture and society. We will use works by sociologists and historians like Bourdieu, Boudon, Mendras, Crozier, Raynaud, Morin, Furet and Aron. The major articles will be put together into a course pack. Students will write three short papers or a long research paper. There will be a final exam. (Carduner)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. French 387, 388, and 389 are offered Fall Term, 1982. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

386. Themes in French Literature and Culture. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

This course is designed to familiarize you with the language of business transactions in France. It will tackle both spoken and written commercial French. The course-pack will feature a fictitious company, EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with such aspects of the business world as: banking, advertising, exports, claims and disputes regarding products, staff and hierarchy, orders, etc. . . It will include a guide to letter-writing that will stress the formalism of written French with regard to business. Most chapters of the course pack will contain written samples and exercises relevant to the context. The development of EUROSPORT will need to be constantly activated and used as a reference to facilitate the creation of vivid and adequate situations in class, through simulations among other techniques. Occasionally, there will be translation exercises. It is important to note that this course is by no means a course on French economy or on French commercial law. One short paper every three weeks and one final Exam. (Gabrielli)

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and the possibility of twentieth century re-readings that bestow new interpretations on these "classics. " The class will combine lecture and discussion, with the instructor providing necessary background material to facilitate student participation and interpretative activity. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, Le Cid, Molière, Le Misanthrope, Racine, Phedre, LaFontaine, Fables (xeroxed selections), Beaumarchais, Le Barbier de Seville, Prevost, Manon Lescaut, Voltaire, Candide, Micromegas. Grades will be based on four short papers and class participaton. There will be no midterm or final examination. The course will be conducted in French. (O'Meara)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of nineteenth-century French literature. We shall study the themes of ambition, avarice and solitude in novels by Stendhal, Balzac and Flaubert. We shall also read poems from Les Fleurs du Mal by Baudelaire. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages will then be discussed in class. Students will be required to write some six to seven papers in French of two to three pages in length. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades will be based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Morton)

432. French Literature in Translation. A knowledge of French is not required. Not open to French concentrators or students who are candidates for a teaching certificate minor in French. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Francophone Literature in Translation.
Introduction to the Francophone literature of Africa and the West Indies since the early part of this century. We shall read representative works by such authors as Cesaire, Depestre, Maran, Beti, Kourouma and Senghor with a view to shedding some light on the significance and the implications of movements or trends like Indigenism, Negritude and Authenticite. Class discussions will be encouraged and the final grade based on student reports, general class participation and two papers. (Ngate)

442. Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The French "New Novel".
In the Fall of 1982, French 442 will explore, in lectures and discussions conducted in French, the literary phenomenon of the nouveau roman. Answers will be sought (and frequently provided) to these questions among others: What happened to the "old" novel? Who or what became suspect in the so-called "age of suspicion"? Is the new novel a subversion or a re-creation of the novel form? In what ways does the new novel redefine the notions of plot, character, narration, and description? On what levels do new novels relate to the real world and real readers? Reading and analysis of works (in French) by Nathalie Sarraute, Michel Butor, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Claude Ollier, Marguerite Duras, and Claude Simon. Term paper and final examination (French concentrators write these in French; others may elect to write them in English). (Nelson)

Section 002: Comic Theory and Practice. Focusing on the comic theories of Charles Baudelaire, Sigmund Freud, and Henri Bergson, we will attempt to capture the essence of the comic spirit. These theoretical works will be supplemented with readings of comic novels and stories, including works by Moliere, Voltaire, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Baudelaire, and others. Students will be expected to write either three short papers or one long term paper. One special requirement is a sense of humor. (Siebers)

451, 452. Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

Le cours traite de la generation nee vers 1870: Andre Gide ( L'Immoraliste), Paul Valery (Album de vers anciens et Charmes), Marcel Proust (Un amour de Swann ) et Paul Claudel (L'Announce faite a Marie), ainsi que sur l'oeuvre de Guillaume Apollinaire et Andre Breton (respectivement: Alcools et Calligrammes, et Le manifeste du surrealisme ). Le cours pourrait porter comme titre: <<les heritiers du symbolisme et la tentative de depassement operee par le Surrealisme>>. (Muller)

487, 488. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

This course, conducted in French, will focus on the pre-classical period, on those writers who react against the baroque incursion and who begin to define the direction that 17th century literature will finally take. To this end, attention will be paid to the transitional poets at the beginning of the century (namely, Malherbe, Regnier, Saint-Amant), and, more especially, to the tragedies of Corneille and the comedies of Moliere. Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write two papers in French of three or four pages (if undergrad) and to participate in discussion. The final grade will be based on the results of written work and on student participation. There is no final exam. (Gray)

491, 492. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3 each). (Excl).

In the Fall Term of 1982, the course will consider the notion of intellectual history: how to write it and document it, its relationship to political history and to literature. Specific readings will depend upon the needs and interests of the students. Students will begin preparations for the Honors oral examination and define the topics of their senior theses, and they will write a term paper. Lecture and discussion. Conducted in French. The course is a part of the departmental Honors sequence. Students who elect French 491 are expected to elect French 492 in the following term. (Nelson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

110. Special Reading Course. (6). (Excl).

The course covers all basic grammatical constructions and usage, with emphasis on the development of reading skill in several areas of expository prose, poetry and fiction. The format of the course will follow that of the Italian 111-112 sequence, including tutorial sessions in the latter part of the semester. Regular quizzes and examinations. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The course is given for credit or no-credit based solely on attendance and participation. Various topics for discussion are supplemented by slides, music, and current readings. There is no homework. All students interested in developing or maintaining spoken proficiency in Italian are welcome. No credit for the Italian major.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History. (3). (HU).

Through lectures, slides, and films supplemented by readings, this course presents a survey of Italy's cultural achievements in their historical context from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to the present. Students with diverse interests and backgrounds - art history, literature, Italian relatives, music, etc. will be able to pursue specialized topics within the general historical outline. Topics include Renaissance art and literature, music and the rise of opera, the unification and industrialization of modern Italy, with some attention to contemporary cinema and Italian-American history. Required are a ten-page paper, a midterm, and a final examination. The course is taught in English, but students with a background in Italian will have the opportunity of reading some texts in the original. (Marsh)

421. Castiglione: The Courtier. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

Discussion of the Cortegiano as source of the great Renaissance books on courtesy. Potential analyses of the work as a mere picture of 15th century society, a normative book of education, a work with moralist overtones or one that essentially idealizes its subject matter. The discussion will focus on Renaissance views and ideas put forth in The Courtier, such as its concept of "sprezzatura" and artistic creation, its theory of wit, and its views on the function of humor, its theory of love, its concept of nobility, its evaluation of "arms and letters," and the position it takes in the "disputa delle arti" with respect to statuary and painting. (Budel)

422. Machiavelli: The Prince. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

Investigation of Machiavelli's main work in the light of the political situation and the political theory of the time. The Prince, a passionless assessment and objective study of 16th century Italian politics by an objective analyst of his own time, or a satire of the Medici: classical and recent critical positions from Frederick the Great's Antimachiavel, Herder, Fichte, Hegel, Cassirer, Crose, to Garrett Mattingly will be put to discussion. (Budel)

431/MARC 412. World of the Medici. One course in literature (in any field); a knowledge of Italian is not required. (3). (HU).

This course will study the fortune and cultural impact of the Medici from their obscure beginnings in the Mugnone Valley to the heights of unofficial power in Quattrocento Florence, their eventual downfall and their final restoration as dukes of Tuscany. Particular emphasis will be put on such key figures as Giovanni di Bicci, Cosimo il Vecchio, Lorenzo il Magnifico, Leo X, and Clement VII, as well as on the second line from Cosimo I to Gian Gastone. Cultural phenomena closely linked to Medici incentive from the Platonic Academy to San Marco and the Orti Oricellari will be explored as well as the ongoing discussions on the dignity of man (Ficino, Pico). Attention will be given to literary endeavors of the Medici circle (Poliziano, Lorenzo il Magnifico, Pulci) and the musical and theatrical accomplishments of Medici Florence (Squarcialupi, Heinrich Isaac). Firsthand readings from Florentine artists in the realm of contemporary "disputa delle arti" (Alberti, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo), and the writings of revolutionaries and reactionaries such as Savonarola and Machiavelli will contribute to round the picture of Medici impact on the culture of the Renaissance. (Budel)

432. Italian Literature in Translation. A knowledge of Italian is not required. Not open to Italian concentrators. (3). (HU).

An introduction to modern Italy through its literary masterworks of the 19th and 20th centuries. Fiction, drama and poetry, including Manzoni, Verga, Pirandello and the Neo-Realists. Influences of scientific and psychological theories; political tendencies and major social conflicts. Lectures and discussion. (Olken)

433/MARC 439. Dante in Translation. A knowledge of Italian is not required. Not open to Italian concentrators. (3). (HU).

Through lectures and slide talks, this course provides an introduction to the world of Dante and to his masterpiece, the Divine Comedy, read in the contemporary American translation by John Ciardi. After a survey of the culture and history of the later Middle Ages, the course will develop as a critical reading of Dante's poetic allegory. Slides of Italy will be shown to illustrate the art and civilization of Dante's world as an essential means to understanding this highly visual poet. Some attention will be given to Dante's literary influence in English poetry, and students with some knowledge of Italian will have the opportunity to read excerpts in the original. Course requirements consist of a series of short papers (four-five pp.) and of a comprehensive final examination. (Marsh)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics, and to attract students to a specialization program. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages: A Linguistic Introduction, and it is supplemented by handouts. (Dworkin)

456/French 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See French 456. (Hagiwara)

504/Latin 504. History of the Latin Language II: 1-600 A. D. Latin 221 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

See Latin 504. (Pulgram)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

100. Intensive Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (8). (FL).

This course covers in one term what is ordinarily covered in a two-term sequence (Spanish 101 and Spanish 102). Students receive eight credit hours, and the class meets two hours per day, four days each week. Arrangements are frequently made for interested class members to meet during the noon hour for informal conversation in Spanish. This course necessarily requires a greater commitment of time and effort than that required in a non-intensive course and is designed especially for students whose interest in Spanish goes beyond the level of merely satisfying the foreign language requirement. It is recommended that students have either previous language background or show an aptitude or facility for language acquisition.

101. Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

For students with no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students who completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 at another university, or whose previous study of Spanish did not occur within the preceding two years. Students cover the equivalent of two semesters in one; see the descriptions of Spanish 101 and 102 for an indication of general course content and format.

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100, 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to provide conversation practice in the language structures learned during the first year; to improve the reading ability of students; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, culture, and outlook of Spanish-speaking peoples. Class readings include cultural selections and short stories. Course grade based on three evening exams, other written work (including compositions) and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. The course centers around discussion in Spanish of selected Spanish and Spanish-American works of literature. Course grade is based on three evening exams, other written work (including compositions) and oral participation in class.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. The course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

Literature

375. Civilizaciòn de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

This course traces the development of Spanish culture with emphasis on its social and historical evolution, its cultural values, and its artistic expression. Lectures, readings, group discussions, and multi-media assignments are all included. The class is conducted in Spanish. Requirements include: one oral report; two book reviews of outside readings, preferably books written in English; and a midterm and final examination. Texts are: Diego Marin's La civilizaciòn de Espa a; and Readings in Spanish Civilization (an anthology). (Ilie)

381, 382. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

Spanish 381 is offered Fall Term, 1982.

Section 001 Historical Survey of Latin American Literature (19th Century). Study of the main Spanish American authors of the century in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Andres Bello, Jose Marti, Ruben Dario; Jose Hernandez's Martin Fierro; D. F. Sarmiento, E. Echeverria, M. A. Segura, Florencio Sanchez). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. First course in the sequence 381-382-463. Conducted in Spanish. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) final exam. Reading list: Andres Bello, A la agricultura; Jose Marti, Versos sencillos; Ruben Dario, Azul y Prosas profanas; Jose Hernandez, Martin Fierro; Domingo F. Sarmiento, Facundo; Esteban Echeverria, El matadero; Alberto Blest Gana, Martin Rivas. (Goic)

391, 392. Junior Honors Course. Permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3 each). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Open to very well-prepared Honors students who already command a wide knowledge of the readings already offered in regular departmental courses. Special arrangements for Junior Honors may be made with the Honors counselor.

420. Literary Movements in Twentieth-Century Spain. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

This course studies in depth the major literary currents of the 20th century: the modernist ideology; avant-garde poetics, surrealism, religious aestheticism, and neo-realism. Readings are based on the great figures of Spanish peninsular literature: Machado, Jimenez, Garcia Lorca, Miro, Jarnes, Ortega, Cela, and/or others. Class is conducted in Spanish, with frequent informal student reports, class discussion, lectures by the instructor, and written papers.

450. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Special projects in Hispanic studies may be arranged to supplement existing departmental courses, provided the student can obtain permission from an interested professor. Students are discouraged from seeking independent study in semesters when fundamental courses in fields not yet studied are already available during regular class hours.

469. Spanish Theater of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

This course will deal with Spanish theater of the last 50 years. It will concentrate heavily on the theater as a means of resistance and social criticism. Essentially, it will be divided into three periods: pre-Civil War (Lorca, Valle-Inclan); the Franco years (Buero Vallejo, Lauro Olmo, Alfonso Sastre); the theater of the after-Franco period (Martin Recuerda). Students are expected to read other playwrights, give class presentations, and write a term paper. (Casa)

485. Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The objective of the course is to succeed in making an intelligent and cultured student of the 80's aware of the multiplicity of connotations and denotations that the Quijote of 1605 and 1615 had for the contemporary reader. The professor's explanations, following the order of the text (according to a printed program, available at 4130 MLB), will be oriented towards the final goal of making the student derive intellectual and esthetic pleasure from the reading of a great classic. (Lopez-Grigera)

491, 492. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3 each). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Students must demonstrate knowledge of established sub-fields of Hispanic studies as taught in regular departmental courses. If a special plan of study interests a student, it may be implemented in consultation with the Honors counselor.


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