University Courses (Division 495)

101. Methods of Thinking. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

This course has two aims: (1) to improve the student's ability to read with understanding, to think critically, and to write well; (2) to help the student to achieve a better understanding of the nature of intellectual activity and of education. College work is, and should be, different from high school work, requiring different and more sophisticated intellectual skills and techniques. But almost all courses in college concentrate exclusively on their own special subject-matter. A sociology course concentrates on teaching you sociology, a chemistry course on teaching chemistry, and so on. College instructors rarely teach in an explicit and direct manner the intellectual techniques and frameworks necessary for successful college work. They assume that you have these skills already or can somehow pick them up along the way, while they go ahead and teach their own special subjects. University Course 101 attempts to teach these skills directly and explicitly, to make your college career more successful and to sharpen abilities which will be invaluable in later life whatever field you may work in. This is a course for the person who is seriously interested in intellectual activity. It is not a remedial course and it is not an orientation course. Some of the materials which we will discuss will be complex and profound, and a number of the topics lie on the intellectual frontiers of our time. The topics for discussion will include the following: the nature of argumentation, evaluation of arguments and positions, methods of reading, types of critical thinking; special intellectual problems in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences problems such as the relation between theory and reality, bias and subjectivity in the social sciences, the nature and justification of the humanities; questions about education, including morality in education, diverse ideals of the educated person, open admissions, reverse discrimination, academic freedom, and the unionization of the faculty. This course will be taught in small sections of no more than fifteen students each, so that students can receive individual attention. Readings will be assigned covering the above topics. We will proceed by class discussion supplemented by some lectures. There will be a number of writing assignments throughout the term. (J. Meiland)

150. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Creativity, Media and Society.
Following a brief exploration of the nature of creativity in the arts and the media, the seminar will focus on the presence or absence of creative effort in radio, television, and film today, with special emphasis on their effect on society. Outstanding examples of creative work in all three media will be examined in class as springboards for discussion. A few short field trips to studios to watch work in progress may be planned at hours convenient to the group. No previous contact with radio, television, or film production is required. (Stasheff)

Section 002 Metaphors We Live By. Metaphor is for most people a device of the poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish - a matter of extraordinary rather than ordinary language. Moreover, metaphor is typically viewed as characteristic of language alone, a matter of words rather than thought or action. For this reason, most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the intellect. They also govern our everyday functioning, down to the most mundane details. Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. If we are right in suggesting that our conceptual system is largely metaphorical, then the way we think, what we experience, and what we do every day is very much a matter of metaphor. But our conceptual system is not something we are normally aware of. In most of the little things we do every day we simply think and act more or less automatically along certain lines. Just what these lines are is by no means obvious. One way to find out is by looking at language. Since communication is based on the same conceptual system that we use in thinking and acting, language is an important source of evidence for what the system is like from Lakoff & Johnson, Metaphors We Live By. Other principal texts include: G. Bateson, Mind and Nature, D. Antin, Talking at the Boundaries, T. Robbins, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, L. Thomas, Lives of a Cell and The Medusa and the Snail, and B.L. Whorf (Carroll, Ed.), Language, Thought and Reality. (Lawler)

Section 003 The Lost Generation and After. The seminar will examine the relationship between the form of the short story and social change during the early part of the twentieth century. Alienation, disillusionment, expatriation, abandonment of the traditional plot structure, are a few of the ideas to be studied. Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, Joyce, Chekhov are a few of the authors to be discussed. Creative writing germane to the course will be encouraged, and a term paper will be required. (Haugh)

Section 004 Introduction to Japan. This seminar will explore the many facets of Japanese civilization from its rich literary and artistic traditions to its phenomenal economic success, from its remote classical origins to the disaster of World War II. It will also look at Japanese society today and will examine the interrelation of the many threads in the tapestry of Japanese culture: religion, philosophy, politics, art, music, taste, values, concepts of self and society. It will go beyond the usual myths about Japan foremost of which is the cliché that Japan is essentially a nation of borrowers and will explore what is surely one of the most dynamic, extraordinary, and colorful of civilizations. Readings will be drawn from a wide spectrum of sources in both the humanities and social sciences, but there will be special emphasis on literature, including portions of The Tale of Genji (the eleventh-century amatory tale that is also the world's first psychological novel) and the work of Japan's Nobel laureate Kawaba Yasunari. (Danly)

Section 005 How to Read Poems. Fairly close reading of a wide variety of poems in English from Chaucer to the present. The kinds will include dramatic monologues, lyrics, narratives, satires, ballads, philosophical and religious poems. There will be possibilities for detailed study of medieval and Renaissance poetry for those interested in that period, while others may concentrate on more modern works. Discussion, even argument, among members of the seminar and between students and teacher will be encouraged. For the first half of the semester weekly one-page explications of a poem will be required in writing; at the end, each student will hand in a term-project in lieu of a final examination. The text will be The Norton Anthology of Poetry: Revised Shorter Edition. (Huntley)

Section 007 Introduction to China. This seminar will investigate Chinese views on nature, society, and the self illustrated in the lives of various character types: the official, the recluse, the emperor, the consort, and doctor, and so forth. We will discuss representative periods and people, spanning the earliest "divination" culture (from 1000 B. C.) to the contemporary Marxist one, looking for major roles and trends of thinking that weave through 3000 years of history. Our readings will be selected from the great works of literature, history, and thought. We will begin by exploring the traditional Chinese understanding of the world and of man and Chinese ways of thinking that are the background for individuals' lives. After an overview of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist ideas and characters, we will study and discuss a selection of major characters in literature and history, into the modern era, focusing on their perceptions of themselves, the meaning of their lives, and the choices they make to shape their futures. (DeWoskin)

151. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 From Artifact to History in the Ancient Near East.
This seminar offers an approach to history that proceeds from the tangible to the intangible (from the ground up literally), using archaeological objects as a starting point for an inductive investigation of ancient activities and institutions. We shall take about fifteen artifacts during the term and concentrate on each one as a symbol of a particular complex of behaviors and thought in a selected society of the "Fertile Crescent" (e.g., a study based on the Egyptian mummy should lead to an awareness of the entire funerary complex in ancient Egypt and ultimately to insight into the ideas of death held by the Egyptians). Class sessions will follow a "partnership" type of format ("History, Inc. "), the class becoming an investigative team. Each member will contribute in a common effort, and each student's contribution becomes significant to the work of his or her colleagues. To this end research and writing assignments will be made. Our text will be an anthology of essays compiled by the instructor, to be available in the fall. Background readings: John Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt; Sabatino Moscati, The Face of the Ancient Orient; O. R. Gurney, The Hittites; and W. W. Hallo & W. K. Simpson, The Ancient Near East: A History. (Early registrants for the course should plan to read at least two of these before September). (Orlin)

Section 002 Masters of Sociological Thought. Masters of sociological thought, it might seem, must be dead by now. In a certain sense, however, they are very much alive: their influence has not ceased, and their work is relevant to problems of the present age. Of course, they did not write about the nineteen eighties, but their ideas like all good concepts and theories - throw light on more facts than were known to the thinkers themselves. Among the thinkers to be included, perhaps the best known are Marx, Durkheim, and Weber. Class discussions will be based on readings and will examine the ideas of different thinkers in their social and political context. Selections from their own writings will provide additional material for discussion. (Landecker)

Section 003 The Year Two Thousand. We will consider what can be called the Age of Turbulence rapid, headlong change and the forces which have created and influenced the vast transformations which are taking place. This has been called the Age of Multiple Revolutions and we shall refer to the following dramatic developments - the research revolution, technological change, the skills revolutions, civil rights, the women's movement, the revolution in energy, communications, ecology, the population explosion, and the revolution in attitudes. We shall also explore the impact which these developments have had upon the economy, the educational system, leisure, and labor-management relations. Students will be required to become acquainted with the current literature in these areas and to prepare several short papers. (Haber)

Section 004 Chance, Risk, and Life. Chance and cause, commonly regarded as alternatives, are here viewed as in constant interplay. The joint roles of chance and necessity are studied and discussed briefly in diverse aspects of life: games and sports; probability, statistics and surveys; genetics and evolution; social affairs and crime; choice and risk; economic and weather forecasting; insurance and gambling; competing risks from diseases and violence; nuclear nightmares; etc. Prominent professors are guest lecturers. Readings are diverse, brief and often profound. Discussions and three selected essays are most important. (Kish)

Section 005 The Press and World Affairs. A study of the mass media newspapers, magazines, radio and television - from their impact on our lives. The seminar will look at the press essentially from a contemporary point of view, within the framework of an historical, political, economic and social context. The class will examine such problems as censorship, privacy and the role of government, monopoly, and the American press and its role, the new technology. An attempt will be made to set up guidelines to measure the performance of the press. Each student will undertake the study of an important publication or broadcasting program for class and written reports. (Yablonky)

152. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (NS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Lives of Scientists.
We will consider a variety of scientists, some eminent and some less well known, but no less interesting. They will be presented in historical perspective with attention to what their careers reveal about the relationship between science and society. Order of presentation: Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778). Swedish botanist. The first great classifier of plants. Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882). British biologist. Theory of the origin of species by natural selection. Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884). Austrian botanist. Discoverer of fundamental principles of inheritance. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). French chemist and microbiologist. Germ theory of disease. Marie (Skoldowska) Curie (1867-1934). Polish physical chemist; and her husband, Pierre Curie (1859-1906), French chemist and physicist. Co-discoverers of radium. Mark Walrod Harrington (1848-1926). U.S. meteorologist who held appointments in six departments at the University of Michigan and was director of its Astronomical Observatory, first civilian chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau and President of the University of Washington, Seattle. Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1958). British medical researcher. Discoverer of penicillin. Harley Harris Bartlett (1886-1960). U.S. botanist, anthropologist, and U.S. government attaché to Central and South America and the Philippines. (Jones)

Section 002 Black Holes, Quasars and the Universe. This seminar is a study of the evolution of the Universe from an astronomer's point of view. We will first study the formation of stars and their eventual collapse into compact objects. This leads to a discussion of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, and the observational evidence for all three. We then turn to the study of galaxies and quasars, their place in the Universe and sources of energy. The expansion of the Universe will then be considered. This will be followed by a discussion of cosmological models and the future fate of the Universe. (Hiltner)

153. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (N. Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Topics in Mathematics.
An elementary introduction to significant mathematical ideas. Topics are selected both for their aesthetic appeal and for their importance in mathematics. The basic goal of the course is to provide opportunities for logical reasoning and creative thinking that will give students insight into the beauty of mathematics. A good working knowledge of high school algebra and geometry is a suitable formal background. However, a student who elects this course should be one who is intrigued by puzzles, enjoyed word problems in earlier courses, and found geometry an interesting challenge. Topics will include: 1) Elementary Number Theory. Primes and Pythagorean Triples. 2) Mathematical Induction. 3) Geometry. Applications of Euler's formula. Constructions. Locus Problems. 4) Topology. A bit of graph theory. 5) Mathematical games and puzzles. Text: Selected Topics in Mathematics, Edward Spitznagel (Holt, Rinehart, And Winston, Inc., 1971). (Brumfiel)

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