Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, Anthropology 161 serves as an introduction to Anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the concept of evolution and the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human "racial" variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. Three weekly lectures and one discussion section which functions as a fourth lecture hour with occasional quizzes will be conducted as review or question and answer sessions. One midterm and final exam: essay and short answer. Texts: Brace and Montagu, Human Evolution; Brace, Nelson Korn and Brace, Atlas of Human Evolution. Closed sections will be reopened after registration. To be admitted to a closed section, students should register in section 020, which is a holding section only (not a wait list). All students registered in the holding section will be placed in existing or new sections at the first class meeting. (Brace)

361. Biology, Society, and Culture. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

The biological and cultural determinants of human behavior are the major focus of the course. Evolutionary and ecological theory, together with evidence from the human evolutionary past and from humans' closest living relatives among the primates are used to interpret the differences in behavior among human populations.

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures and readings, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecological shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology, and the changes in physical form that are the consequences of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. Class participation and discussion are emphasized. The examinations are midterm and final. (Wolpoff)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

470. Undergraduate Seminar in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This course is designed to acquaint the students with the central issues in biological anthropology. It consists of readings and discussion with various faculty members on the issues. It is designed primarily for concentrators in Anthropology-Zoology or Biological Anthropology.

471. Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Evaluation of the short- and long-term responses that enable humans to function normally under the stress of heat, cold, solar radiation, hypoxia, high altitude environment, undernutrition and overnutrition. In addition, because of their importance and influence on the well-being of humans and to show the interaction between technological adaptation and biological function, the effects of Westernization of dietary habits on the pattern of disease are thoroughly discussed.

Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental stress, the discussion of major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory studies with humans and experimental animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development. Student evaluation includes two exams and one term paper. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. (Frisancho)

568. Nonhuman Primate Behavior. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This is a problem-oriented course which reviews the social systems of selected species in depth, and places primate behavior in the context of evolutionary ecology. Lecture format; essay exam.

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology - Regional Courses, Ethnology Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although cultural anthropology is emphasized, Anthropology 101 is a survey course in which the principles unifying the four sub-disciplines of anthropology (biological anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology and linguistics) are introduced. It is the basic course for concentrators but also aims to provide other students with fresh viewpoints from which to view the social world and its relationship to nature. The topics discussed include theories of evolution, human evolution as known from the fossil and archaeological records, the concept of race, ape communication, language and culture, kinship, marriage and the economic organization of hunters, gatherers and tribal peoples, the place of religion in human life, the origins of civilization, colonialism, and social pathology. There are three weekly lectures. A text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. Two hourly examinations are given during the term, the last on the last day of class. No final. Short assignments are also made in recitation sections.

Students who wish to explore the subject matter of anthropology in greater depth than is ordinarily possible in an introductory course should register for section 014 (which will meet T 2-3 in addition to Th 2-3 as listed in the Time Schedule ) or section 023 (which will meet Th 3-4 in addition to T 3-4). Students who elect one of these sections will receive 2 additional credits for a total of 6 credits. (In order to receive this credit, students selecting either section 014 or section 023 should register for both Anthropology 101, for the regular 4 credits, and Anthropology 499, section 021, for the additional 2 credits.) The syllabus for students electing the 6-credit option will include extra reading that is not required of other students, and they will be required to submit extra written work. Those students will be encouraged to focus on those areas of anthropology in which they have a special interest. Students in the Honors Program are welcome to enroll in either section 014 or 023 if they wish to earn the extra credit, but they are not required to do so. Interested students should get an Override at the departmental office, 1054 LS&A. (Rappaport)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. Students who have credit for Anthropology 101 should elect Anthropology 223 rather than 222. (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two to three take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (O'Shea)

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction specifically to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged for graduate students. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construe "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" (including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics). There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic data; 2) how to read ethnographic reports critically; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve their writing techniques. Grades will be based on six short papers (six pp. each). (Carroll)

Ethnology Regional Courses

301. Ethnography of East Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the traditional and contemporary cultures of Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, Vietnam and some of the tribal societies which border on China proper or are included within the political boundaries of China. It is concerned both with shared traditions between these societies and with their unique configurations. The course readings will consist primarily of selections from ethnographies and community studies, supplemented by literary works and historical and philosophical writings from the various cultures. There will be a midterm and final examination, and one or two short papers. This is a lecture course, with in-class discussion. An introductory anthropology course would be helpful as a prerequisite. Students should find this course useful as preparation for upper-level courses in Asian studies. (Diamond)

315. Indians of North America. (3). (SS).

Survey of typical Native American cultures, with a special focus on religion, world view and social organization. Emphasis is placed on the indigenous (pre and early contact) cultures; however, major post-contact cultural developments, Indian-White history, and contemporary problems are also discussed. While lectures are the major method of instruction, films and ethnological collections of the Museum of Anthropology are utilized as well. (Kan)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religious organizations; race, class, and education; Caribbean migration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films on the Caribbean will be shown. Course requirements: four three to five page typewritten papers which ask students to synthesize reading and lecture materials. (Owusu)

423. Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course covers the culture area of Western Melanesia with a particular emphasis on New Guinea a large island which contains 1000 distinct cultural groups. Many of these have been brought into contact with western civilization only within the past 15 years, and the area therefore offers unique opportunities for the study of tribal society in a relatively pristine condition and has served as a focus of much of recent anthropological research. The course provides general coverage of the social, political, and economic organization of 4 major sub-areas of western Melanesia and explores a number of additional topics of current research interest, viz. male-female hostility and the definition of sex roles, witchcraft, warfare, economic networks, Big Man system of leadership, and millenarian movements. Lecture format; evaluation is based on term paper and take home exam. (Kelly)

458. Politics and Culture. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Topics in Cultural Anthropology.
Through a detailed account of the role of myth and magic in the colonial history and shamanism of southwest Colombia (including the Andes and the Upper Amazon basin), this course explores the following topics: (1) the role of images in collective memory and in the experiential appropriation of history; (2) the function of colonially produced images in sorcery and in healing ritual; (3) Walter Benjamin's theory of "dialectical images"; (4) the politics and the epistemology of magic; (5) the Latin American concept of "magical realism"; (6) the moral topography of landscape; (7) Marxism and Deconstruction; (8) the culture of terror and dictatorship; (9) Bakhtin's notions of dialogical reality and the anarchic-transformative functions of laughter. (Taussig)

Section 002 Anthropology of Death and Dying. The course explores the significance of death in various cultures, including Tlingit of Southeastern Alaska, rural Greece, Russia, and the United States, by analyzing their notions of person, eschatological beliefs, and mortuary rituals. Using these as case studies and drawing upon the work of Hertz, Van Gennep, V. Turner, and Geertz, an anthropological synthesis on death is attempted. Recommended prerequisites: 101 or equivalent or sophomore standing. The course will meet MWF at 11:00 a.m. (Kan)

504/Asian Studies 525/Rel. 525. Buddhism and Society in South and Southeast Asia. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

The course will explore the relationship between Buddhist doctrine, Buddhist practice, and social organization in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand and other Buddhist areas of South and Southeast Asia. Special attention will be given to the ways in which variations in social structure have transformed Buddhist orthodoxy, the ways in which Buddhism has articulated with various "folk" religious traditions, and the ways in which Buddhism interacts with the process of modernization in the various societies. Readings will consist mainly of case studies. Requirements: Class presentation and term paper. (S. Ortner)

Ethnology Topical Courses

347/CAAS 420. Race and Ethnicity. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 420. (Sudarkasa)

352/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

In this course we will explore the lives of women in various cultures and examine the social systems that shape gender beliefs, roles and behavior. Case studies focus on tribal, peasant and urban societies in South America, Europe, Africa, the Near East and America. We will define and identify social forms of male and female dominance, review the debate concerning matriarchies, and explore the effects of particular social systems and historical trends on gender relations. Concluding sessions present an anthropological interpretation of the contemporary American feminist movement and its opposition. There will be explicit emphasis throughout the course on the development of skills of social analysis and textual criticism. The format will be lecture and discussion, and three short papers are required. (Harding)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

A critical study and examination of the central issues in the ethnological and social anthropological approaches to and strategies for the study of social and cultural change and stability. The evaluation of the famous Brandt Report North/South. A Program for Survival in the light of anthropological theories of change. The course is intended for anthropology concentrators and is most often taken in the junior year. Students will have the opportunity to apply current anthropological theories of change to the study and analysis of particular problems of change in tribal and non-tribal societies. Course requirements: oral report on selected topic; term or research paper. (Owusu)

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second term of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first term of their senior year. Interested students should consult Prof. Carroll, the Departmental Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course sequence is divided into two parts. During the first term, students meet together once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. These sessions provide background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors adviser may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis adviser. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

432. Social Theory. (3). (SS).

This course is an exploration of the classic social theories of Marx, Durkheim, Weber and Simmel as they deal with the issue of the interconnection of society, ideology, the individual and the nature of human consciousness. The development of theory construction is analyzed as it relates to the nature of ethnographic data, and in turn, how our cultural and social theories are an expression of certain pivotal developments in western philosophy. Contemporary social thinkers such as Dumont, Levi-Strauss, Geertz and the phenomenologists are interpreted as mediating theories which attempt to bridge the gap between extreme cultural relativism and the quest for human universals in culture, thought and language. Classes consist of lectures and discussion. Requirements are either two examinations or a research paper. (Yengoyan)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3-5). (SS).

This course approaches universal aspects of religion religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will briefly consider their places in sociocultural evolution, that is, in the adaptive structure of the species and in the specific adaptations of particular peoples. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. Reading is moderate to heavy. There are two take home examinations, but advanced students with specialized interests may arrange to do an essay instead. Although there are no prerequisites, a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Junior standing is required; enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. (Rappaport)

452/Women's Studies 410. Gender Ideologies. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

"Male" and "female" are cultural symbols, not natural facts. Every culture constructs the genders differently, and the purpose of the course will be to explore the sources and consequences of these varying constructions. Two different approaches will be employed, the first relating gender symbols to other cultural symbols, and the second relating gender symbols to features of social organization marriage, status and prestige, economy, politics. Cases will be drawn from a variety of non-Western and Western cultures. Format : lectures, discussions, outside speakers. Requirements : Midterm and final exam for undergraduates, midterm and paper for graduate students. (Ortner)

528. History of Anthropological Thought. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an intensive analysis of critical problems in social anthropological interpretation within both a contemporary and an historical context. The course begins with a discussion of theoretical problems. This is followed by a detailed analysis of how these problems are crucial in an analysis of the works of many pre-1945 theoreticians such as Marx, Morgan, Durkheim, Weber, Boas and Kroeber, Benedict and Mead, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown. Class format is a combination of lecture and discussion, and course requirements include the reading of critical works by the theoreticians mentioned above and a final examination which is given as a take-home examination. (Yengoyan)

554. Structuralist Approaches to the Analysis of Praxis. Concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

We will begin by understanding concepts central to the structuralist method and by examining the method as it is demonstrated in the earlier works of Levi-Strauss. However, stress this term will be on the works of "post-structuralist" writers such as Foucault, Derrida, Lacan, and Barthes. Our purpose will be twofold: first, to understand the ways in which post-structuralism can be the basis for critical inquiry into the relations between knowledge and power. Then, to explore the means by which the same method can be used to articulate that knowledge which derives from the essentially politicized perspective of the "Other." Evaluation will be based on seminar participation and a term paper whose topic will be developed by the student in consultation with me. (Roberts)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

This course explores the relationship between language and culture as a set of mutually reinforcing constraints which form different types of coherence systems. Language is dealt with both as a set of grammatical forces as well as semantic imperatives which must be related to culture as a system of social principles, as webs of meaning, and as a framework of knowledge and philosophy. The realm of thought is analyzed as a human condition which produces creative and constrictive conditions on language and culture. A few short paperback volumes are required in addition to articles placed on undergraduate reserves. Course requirements are a midterm and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

474/Ling. 410. Non-Standard English. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Fodale)

475/Ling. 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Markey)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Anthro. 475 or the equivalent. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 442.

576/Ling. 510. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course serves as an introduction to language and linguistics for anthropologists. It provides the basic tools necessary for discussing and working with linguistic systems and introduces theoretical models both as tools for working with data and as models of human behavior. Diverse linguistic and cognitive patterns, the use of language in its cultural context, and the diffusion of linguistic innovation are explored.

Archaeology

394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The seminar examines the major intellectual and methodological problems American anthropological archaeologists have addressed throughout the history of professional archaeology. Students are expected to have completed at least one archaeology course prior to enrolling. This course satisfies the undergraduate major seminar requirement. Students will prepare an oral presentation, write a paper, and participate in class discussions. The texts include Willey and Sabloff, A History of American Archaeology and Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory Selections in addition to reserve readings. This seminar is excellent preparation for graduate school in anthropology and a career as a professional archaeologist. (Ford)

480. Eastern Asian Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

The course will survey our present state of knowledge concerning the development of man and his culture in the Far East. The geographical area covered includes China, Japan, Korea, mainland and island Southeast Asia. The time period under consideration stretches from the first appearance of modern man's ancestors in this area (some two million years ago) to the development of complex state societies and the period of European discoveries. As far as possible. The survey will proceed chronologically, covering major time periods synoptically for the whole area. Current theoretical issues in anthropology relevant to the material surveyed will be discussed. The course will be conducted as a lecture course with liberal use of slides. There will be two examinations (midterm and final) and one paper. Students with special interests may be able to undertake small research projects on collections in the Museum of Anthropology. Papers resulting from such projects may be used in lieu of the term paper. (Hutterer)

581. Archaeology I. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The first part of this course is devoted to developing models of the operation and evolution of hunter-gatherer cultural systems and to discussing the ways in which these systems may be studied from the archaeological record. The second half of the course consists of a review of the archaeological evidence for the evolution of these cultural systems from their earliest appearance until the beginnings of sedentary, agricultural communities. Most emphasis is given to materials from Africa and Europe with brief attention paid to Asia and the New World. Lecture course. Evaluation based on paper and examinations. (Speth)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term, 497 in the Winter Term. Content of both courses is the same unless a student has already had either course. If so, then the student works on exhibitions with anthropological themes. These courses are intended to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with this introduction, individual instruction is offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of collections of material culture. There will be one hour of lecture per week, with the remaining time being devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants working in the museum laboratories. For each credit elected, three hours of participation are required. Thus for one credit there will be one hour of lecture and two of applied museum work; for two credits, one hour of lecture and four of work; for three credits, two hours of lecture and six of work. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on lectures, requirements, and directed work. Emphasis is on the nature of museum work as a career within a research framework as well as on a general understanding of how anthropological museums are organized and exhibits originate. (Ford)

499. Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor; for undergraduates only. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.


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