Biological Sciences

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

Additional descriptions for many 400 and 500 level Biological Sciences courses may be found in Room 2083 Natural Sciences Building.

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to concentrators in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one-term course designed to introduce students to some current biological concepts. It is a distribution course and can be taken to satisfy distribution requirements under Patterns I, II, or III. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two or three hours per week. The content of Biology 100 has been selected to give students an insight into current intellectual directions which have been developing within the biological sciences. Course content has been chosen on the basis that the most relevant kind of biology is that which most directly affects individuals as people. Therefore, the content of this course is heavily oriented toward human biology. An attempt will be made to provide a firm scientific background for each area covered in this course, and, within the framework of this scientific background, a variety of human implications are considered. Course topics include human nutrition, human genetics, cancer, recombinant DNA, resistance to infectious diseases, race, the human population explosion, and evolution.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the sciences. Students who have had no science can survive this course, but some exposure to biology in high school is helpful. The course emphasizes concepts rather than facts, and students are not required to memorize long lists of names, biological terms and other data. However, students are expected to use conceptual knowledge learned in the course to solve various biological problems. The discussion portion of the course complements the lecture segment. Discussion sections enroll no more than 20 students and are taught by a graduate teaching assistant from the Division of Biological Sciences. In the discussion sections students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, observe demonstration experiments which reinforce lecture material, participate in group discussions of various ethical and social issues raised by course material, and view a variety of films. (J. Allen)

101. Biology and Human Affairs. (4). Vandermeer. (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include DNA recombinant research, genetic engineering, IQ and genetics, sociobiology, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, nutrition and health. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. An analysis of the nature of the scientific method in biology, both historically and as currently applied, is a unifying theme of the course. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. (Vandermeer)

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). Students who elect Biol. 105 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112/114 sequence, covering essentially the same material. It is open to students who have completed at least one term of introductory college chemistry (Chem. 123 or equivalent) and have a strong background in high school biology. Biology 105 may be substituted whenever Biology 112/114 are prerequisites, but it is closed to students who have completed Biology 112 or 114. Reading, writing, and verbal skills play important roles in this course; students who are weak in these skills or who are not motivated to rapid, self-disciplined study habits are advised against taking the course. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112/114 sequence not only in the fast pace of study, but in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on students' initiative to study material from assigned readings and to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations). Assigned readings, laboratory material, and a study guide are given for each unit. The entire class meets twice a week, once during the two-hour lecture period for lectures and examinations and once for an hour-long discussion to introduce the laboratory exercises and integrate the lab and lecture material. The laboratories (3043, 3032 NR) are open for 18 hours weekly during which each student spends approximately a 3-hour block of time. Students meet once a week for two hours in small recitation sections after their laboratory work to analyze and discuss laboratory results and the readings. Three 2-hour examinations (including the final) are given to test students' understanding of both reading and laboratory material. These examinations cover each unit of the course at several levels of complexity and each of three levels is graded on a 0-100 basis. In addition, each student is required to submit two written laboratory reports which are graded on a 0-100 basis. The final grade is based on Teaching Assistants' evaluations for a total of 1200 points. The textbook for this course is Biological Science (3rd edition, 1980) by W.T. Keeton. A Xeroxed laboratory manual must also be purchased. A laboratory kit must be purchased at the Chemistry Store. For more information see the laboratory coordinator, 3064 NR (phone 30495). (Yocum et al.)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 112 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be two course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook and laboratory manual are both available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course. Lecture notes and diagrams will be available when classes start.

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is required, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course must be completed prior to enrollment in Biology 112. (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). High school chemistry is not suitable as a prerequisite unless a student has obtained Advanced Placement credit for Chemistry 123, or has obtained other certification of college-level equivalency in general chemistry. Concurrent election of Chemistry 123 and Biology 112 is not advisable. Students who have completed Chemistry 123 with a grade below C- would be well-advised to repeat the course before electing Biology 112. Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1570 C.C. Little Building.)

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. Students who elect Biol. 114 after completing Biol. 100 lose credit for Biol. 100. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C.C. Little Building.

282. Introduction to Organic Evolution. Biol. 100, 105, 114, or equivalent. (4). Heaney. (NS).

Biology 282 is an introductory course intended for both majors and non-majors in biology. The course introduces evolution as the principal unifying concept in biology, with an emphasis on ecological aspects of natural selection. Natural selection theory, the fossil record, population genetics and evolutionary ecology will be the primary topics discussed. A substantial amount of reading is required, and several problem sets and a term paper will be assigned. A recitation section will provide time for discussion of lecture and reading topics as well as several laboratory projects. Grades will be based on three exams, problem sets, and the term paper. Offered every other year only. (Heaney)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). I: Grossman and Rizki; II: S. Allen (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used primarily to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Grossman, Rizki)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (2). Gay. (NS).

This laboratory course is intended for students who have taken or are taking Genetics (Biology 305) and is designed to complement material covered in that course. Students will be given the opportunity to use biological materials and instruments utilized in genetic research. They will also design experiments using a variety of genetic tests and collect and analyze data. The experiments will be done with Drosophila, fungi, bacteria and bacteriophage. One three-hour laboratory session is scheduled per week, and another period is to be arranged. Some work will have to be done outside regularly scheduled lab hours. The laboratory will be open daily and evenings. In general, the experiments (about 6 or 7 in number) will be done by pairs of students, however, each student will be expected to keep his own lab notebook and to write his own summarizing report for each experiment. Student evaluation will be based on performance in laboratory, and written laboratory reports. (Gay)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 112-114 or 105; Chem. 126 or the equivalent. Organic chemistry is helpful but not required. Not open to students who have completed Biol. 415. (3). Shappirio. (NS).

This lecture course is designed to provide undergraduates with (1) understanding of the basic functions of living cells, (2) appreciation for the experimental and observational methods which have established current knowledge, and (3) awareness of contributions of molecular and cellular biology to other areas of biological science and to human affairs. The interdependence of cell function and cell structure is stressed. As far as possible, an effort is made to phrase explanations in molecular terms and to provide insight into how biological molecules are integrated into higher levels of organization. Course content includes an introduction which stresses the essential unity of cell functions throughout the biosphere, the organizational basis of cell functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the basis of cell diversity. The course also includes a brief overview of selected metabolic pathways; energy transformations; flow of matter and information in biosynthesis (selected aspects); biogenesis of supramolecular structure and organelles; cell surfaces; membrane structure, permeability and transport; secretion; the cell cycle and cell division; cellular aspects of locomotion; intracellular regulatory mechanisms; and special topics. This course provides a one-term core background in cellular biology, molecular biology and related subjects. It is suitable for concentrators and for other students wishing a one-term survey of this subject matter. Students desiring more detailed treatment may elect the two-term sequence Biology 411 and 415. Lecture notes and books containing recommended readings will be on reserve at the Undergraduate Library. There will be a textbook; purchase is optional. Each of two or three examinations during the term include short-answer "factual" questions and also several questions requiring brief explanatory paragraphs providing interpretation of data or formulation or proof of a hypothesis. There will be a final exam. In the past students have had considerable input into style and frequency of examinations. For further questions contact the instructor. (Shappirio, 764-1491)

351. General Ecology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (5). (NS).

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 351 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Three field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. Two laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is Ecology, by C.J. Krebs. (Rathcke)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). Beyer. (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exams. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). Beyer. (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

414. Immunobiology. Organic chemistry and 16 credits of biology. (3). Nace. (NS).

This course provides upper level undergraduate and graduate students with an introduction to immunochemistry as applied to diverse problems in biology. The focus is on the nature of the antigen/antibody reaction, its manifestations, the reagents and cells which are involved, and applications, rather than on clinical immunobiology. On completing the course students should be able to read critically the literature concerning immunochemistry in their area of study. Nine to twelve hours of background lectures are followed by presentations of visiting immunobiologists. Exams include a take-home exam and short quizzes. A term paper is required. This combines the current literature on immunochemistry with an area of interest to the student. Evaluation is based on the interim exams, the term paper, and a final (usually oral). Texts change rapidly because of constant development in the field. (Nace)

443. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). Kilham and Lehman. (NS).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's Limnology is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 444 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

444. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 443 and permission of instructor. (3). Kilham and Lehman. (NS).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

456. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology and Math. 115 or equivalent. (3). Vandermeer. (NS).

An analysis of ecological principles as they apply to agricultural ecosystems, emphasizing theoretical aspects but also covering empirical results of critical experiments. While the emphasis is on principles, practical applicability is also explored where appropriate. Physical, biological, and social forces will be integrated as necessary. Designed as preparation for active research in agroecosystem ecology. (Vandermeer)

470. Patterns in Evolutionary Ecology. Two laboratory courses in biology. (3). Grant. (NS).

This course will present modern theories of the evolution of ecological characteristics of animals and plants, chiefly at the population level. We will study the influence of natural selection upon birth rates, brood size, parental care, feeding strategies, competitive relations, polymorphism, mimicry, dispersal, habitat selection, etc. The evidence for these theories from laboratory and field studies will be critically examined. There will be two hours of lectures and one hour of discussion each week. A previous ecology course is strongly recommended. Evaluation will be based on two term papers, discussions and a short final exam. (Grant)

473. Mathematical Analogies in Evolutionary Biology. Two courses in biology; and Math. 114 or 116, or the equivalent. (4). Estabrook. (NS).

This course is intended primarily for juniors, seniors, and graduate students who desire a better understanding of mathematics applied to evolutionary biology, and who wish to read and criticize published papers in this field with more confidence. In lectures on Tuesdays and Thursdays, mathematical ideas are made understandable mostly by examples and intuitive arguments. On Mondays following a short quiz, applications of mathematical ideas are examined through student presentations and discussions of published articles. Central to the course are the role of theory in scientific method, and the formulation and testing of quantitative theory in evolutionary biology. The term project provides each student, whether weak or strong in quantitative background, the opportunity to invent a mathematical analogy that will challenge his or her creativity. Grading is based on class participation, weekly quizzes, and term project. (Estabrook)

475. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (3). Alexander. (NS).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior may be appropriately viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution by natural selection, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary biology are outlined, with special reference to topics like sexuality, senescence, parental care, nepotism, and social reciprocity. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed in relation to evolutionary arguments, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and the results of experimental psychology to the human background of evolution by natural selection. The significance of evolutionary considerations for concepts of ethics, morality, and justice are explored. This course alternates with Zoology 475. A special discussion section will be arranged for students interested in animal behavior. (Alexander)

511. Current Topics in Molecular Biology. Biol. 411; a course in cellular and molecular biology or microbiology strongly recommended. (2). Jones.

The course requires seminar presentations by students enrolled and readings from the original biological literature. A course in biochemistry is required. Courses in cellular and molecular biology or microbiology are recommended but not required. (Jones)

518. Bioenergetics. A course in biochemistry and permission of instructor. (3). Charles Yocum.

Bioenergetics deals with the mechanisms by which mitochondrial and chloroplast electron transport reactions generate ATP. The course will include comprehensive coverage of the following topics: (1) elementary thermodynamics; (2) the biochemistry of metalloenzymes, flavocoenzymes, and quinones; (3) mechanisms of electron transport in mitochondria and chloroplasts; (4) structure and function of coupling enzymes; and (5) chemiosmotic and conformational coupling hypotheses. The course consists of lectures by the instructor and in-class discussion of outside reading assignments. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Students should have access to an up-to-date biochemistry text such as Lehninger (2nd edition). In addition, three paperback books will be used: I.M. Klotz, Energy Changes in Biochemical Reactions (Academic Press); Lehninger, Bioenergetics (Benjamin); and Krogmann, Biochemistry of Green Plants (Prentice-Hall). (Charles Yocum)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4). Baic.

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and dark-room techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). I: Kaufman; II: Steiner. (NS).

This course is a basic course in learning how to grow and to use plants. The main topics in lecture and laboratory include landscaping principles and design; propagation of plants by cuttings, bulbs, tubers and corms and by grafting and budding; edible wild plants; seed germination; plant breeding; growing house plants, crop plants, vegetables, and flowers; methods of making compost; soils and their improvement; uses of fertilizers; hydroponics; pests and their control; plant pruning, including bonsai; and wine making. There are field trips which emphasize ecology, wild edible plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as a visit to a local commercial orchid grower's greenhouses. One of the highlights of the course is a natural food and edible wild plants dinner. There is one lecture plus two discussion periods and six hours of laboratory at the Botanical Gardens each week. (Kaufman)

230/Nat. Res. 230. Woody Plants I: Biology and Recognition. (4). Barnes and Wagner. (NS).

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification is taught during one afternoon field trip per week. Woody plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities oak-hickory forests, beech-maple forests, river floodplain community, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, fruit types, life history, forest ecology, variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., of Europe, and the Tropics. Laboratories (field trips) are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 p.m. once a week. No single text is available for the entire course. For identification, the student should supplement field notes with readings from a standard dendrology book. Lecture material based in part on Spurr and Barnes, Forest Ecology. Grading based 60% on field quizzes and exams (8) and indoor identification exams (2); 40% on lecture (2 hour exams). (Wagner and Barnes)

281. Introductory Plant Physiology. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (4). Conrad Yocum. (NS).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in botany or related sciences. The objectives of the course are to provide a selection of biological facts and basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out normal vital functions and to introduce students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The lectures, and laboratory work in particular, are expected to afford experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiological research. The contents of the lectures and the laboratory experiments fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, plant water relations, transpiration, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant development, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. Students who need graduate credit should elect the course as Botany 481. This course is offered only in Fall Terms. (Conrad Yocum)

403. Economic Botany. An introductory botany or biology course. (2). Steiner. (NS).

Botany 403 is open to students who have had an introductory course in botany or biology and/or have an understanding of the basic concepts of plant classification, structure, physiology and reproduction. The general course objectives are to develop a knowledge of the botany, culture, origin, and improvement of cultivated plants and an understanding of the impact of the cultivated plants on the political, economic, and social aspects of our civilization. Topics include the major food crops, the origin of agriculture, agricultural systems throughout the world, beverage, medicinal, and fiber plants, plant breeding, the origin and evolution of the cultivated plants and agricultural resources and the population problem. The course meets one evening per week for two hours. Lectures are supplemented with slides and films. Two projects are required: an herbarium collection of common edible wild plants or weeds and a term paper dealing with a topic appropriate to the study of economic botany. A text is recommended for background reading, supplementation of the lectures, and reference. The final examination is given at the last scheduled class meeting of the term. (Steiner)

439. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or Botany.207; or permission of instructor. (4). Wynne. (NS).

This course studies the very diverse group of plants collectively known as "the algae", which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative genera from the various algal groups mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved material. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and their interrelationships. An evolutionary perspective is strived for, and a comparative approach is used. The use of algae as research tools is stressed where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled as well as two field trips during the term. The text is Bold and Wynne's Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction, 1978, Prentice-Hall. (Wynne)

445. Morphology and Evolution of Bryophytes. An introductory laboratory course in botany and permission of instructor. (4). Crum. (NS).

In order to understand evolutionary potential of bryophytes, one must have some detailed familiarity with the organism. For this reason, course material includes the basic tools for identifying the local species and understanding their environmental adaptations. Lectures emphasize origin and evolution and provide information on morphology, cytology, taxonomy, ecology, and phytogeography, as well as other topics of current biological interest. There are two examinations; both include a practical exercise in identification. Textbooks for the course are Watson, The Structure and Life of Bryophytes; Steere, Liverworts of Southern Michigan; and Crum, Mosses of the Great Lakes Forest. Half-day field trips are planned for the first 10 Saturday mornings. (Crum)

468. Introduction to Mycology. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or (preferably) Botany 207; or permission of instructor. (4). Shaffer. (NS).

The principal themes of Botany 468 are the comparative and functional morphology and the taxonomic-evolutionary relationships of the major groups of fungi. These include the slime molds (Myxomycetes), chytrids (Chytridiomycetes), water molds and downy mildews (Oomycetes), and bread molds (Zygomycetes) as well as the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The two latter groups contain such organisms as the yeasts, many important animal and plant parasites, and the mushrooms. The lectures also include topics in fungal physiology, genetics, and ecology, and on the relation of fungi to man (plant pathology, edible and poisonous mushrooms). The course does not deal with medical aspects of mycology or with any specific fungi pathogenic to humans; however, the groups to which many such organisms belong are studied. Laboratory work involves the macroscopic and microscopic study of representatives of the various fungal groups and is based on living material as far as possible. It also provides experience in mycological techniques such as the preparation of nutrient media and of fungal material for microscopic examination. Each student does a project involving the isolation of a variety of fungi from their natural substrates, growing them in pure culture, and identifying them to genus. A kit containing minor items of equipment and supplies for laboratory is available from the Chemistry Service Unit. No laboratory notebook is required. Three field trips are scheduled in early fall to study mushrooms and other fungi in their natural habitats; interested students may also attend optional Saturday trips to further increase their knowledge of mushrooms. Several quizzes and three examinations are held during the term. The examinations are two to two and one-half hours long and include both written and practical parts. Final grades for the course are based on the quiz and examination scores and on the results of the laboratory project. A textbook and several other sources are utilized for assigned readings. (Shaffer)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

325. Principles of Animal Physiology: Lecture. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent) and a year of chemistry. (3). I: Guthe; II: Doneen. (NS).

This course is an introduction to the physiological view of animals and emphasizes zoological rather than human aspects. The course uses evidence from different groups of organisms to identify the general principles of functional mechanisms. It also considers variations in these mechanisms as related to the requirements of the animals but does not attempt a phylogenetic survey. The course is intended for concentrators and pre-medical students in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Prospective animal physiologists should consider electing Zoology 421, 422, or 428 these courses cover more limited areas in greater depth. Zoology concentrators must take Zoology 326 concurrently. Non-Zoology concentrators may take Zoology 325 alone. The subject matter includes metabolism and temperature regulation, water and ion balance and excretion, digestion, respiration and circulation, and the nervous system and integration. There are three one-hour lectures a week, three one-hour examinations, and a final exam. Supplementary reading in the undergraduate library is recommended. (Guthe)

326. Animal Physiology Laboratory. Concurrent enrollment in Zool. 325. (1). I: Guthe; II: Doneen. (NS).

The exercises in laboratory deal (usually concurrently) with topics covered in the lecture. The laboratory meets for one four-hour session a week. A report on every exercise is required. Most reports are short (two to three pages) and attempt to answer specific questions. Two full-length reports are also required. Students choose which exercises to write up in full. Zoology 326 must be taken concurrently with Zoology 325. Students who have taken or intend at a later date to take Zoology 325 will not be admitted to Zoology 326.

341. Parasitology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course concentrates on the biology of animal-animal interactions including parasitism, commensalism and mutualism. The focus is primarily evolutionary and ecological, with emphasis on the origins and development of such associations. The organismal approach will be stressed in studies of Protozoa, various helminth groups and arthropods, with examples including parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Discussions of host-parasite interactions will include co-evolutionary perspectives as well as traditional approaches. No specific background other than introductory biology is required, although courses in ecology and evolutionary biology will be helpful. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two hour-exams, a lecture final, laboratory quizzes and a practical examination. This course consists of three lectures and one laboratory weekly. (O'Connor)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114; or the equivalent. (6). Gans and Northcutt. (NS).

Lectures focusing on the origin, evolution, and biology of the chordates, with particular emphasis on vertebrates. The evolution of the structure in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates is examined in the laboratory, primarily through dissection of a series of selected vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a museum field trip. (Gans and Northcutt)

421. Comparative Physiology: Regulation of Internal Environment. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. Students who have completed Zool. 325 must obtain permission of the instructor. (5). Dawson. (NS).

The course is designed to acquaint students with the aims and methods of comparative physiology through consideration of the nature and significance of physiological regulation. Students are introduced to original literature in physiology, to standards of experimental design, and to preparation of scientific papers. Topics covered from a comparative standpoint include: energy metabolism, respiration and gas transport, circulation, nitrogen excretion, ionic and osmotic regulation, and temperature regulation. Physiological adaptation to the environment is a prominent theme in the course and a number of examples of it are discussed. The laboratory sessions permit work with a number of species of invertebrates and vertebrates. Three lectures a week are given to the entire class. The laboratory consists of two three-hour periods weekly, each section limited to twenty students. A textbook and specially written laboratory instructions are used. Students prepare laboratory reports consulting relevant original literature. There are three one-hour examinations (100 points each) and a final examination (125 points). Students are also to take a laboratory practicum which emphasizes experimental design and analysis of data. The last two weeks of the laboratory are devoted to independent research projects designed by the students in consultation with the laboratory staff. (W.R. Dawson)

428. Endocrinology. Biol. 105 or 112 and 114; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). Doneen. (NS).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates but will also consider those of invertebrates. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Other courses, including Zoology 581-582, treat mammalian reproductive endocrinology in detail. Instruction in Zoology 428 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in Chemistry through Organic is essential and a course in Biochemistry would be helpful. (Doneen)

430. Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 428; and permission of instructor. (2). Doneen. (NS).

This laboratory course must be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Zoology 428. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation, and mechanisms of action of hormones. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled each week; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. (Doneen)

435. Functional Morphology. Zool. 351 and permission of instructor. (4). Gans. (NS).

This is a course intended to teach students how one performs experiments in functional morphology. The lectures consist of brief reviews of the theory of various technical components used in the laboratory. Following this, there is a sequence (1) reviewing research results obtained with the use of these techniques in diverse areas and (2) posing questions that may be answerable in the future. The laboratory is "hands on" and uses professional equipment. It allows students to become familiar with various methods for recording movements, pressures, and electromyograms. Students are then expected to carry out and report on one small project combining various techniques. (Gans)

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). Tompa. (NS).

The invertebrate phyla represent about 90% of the species of animals alive today. Zoology 437 surveys the biology of these groups with special emphasis on particularities of morphology, cytology, physiology and ecology which account for the fact that major discoveries in these fields have utilized advantages offered by various invertebrates' systems. An example is the use of giant squid axons in nerve physiology. In the laboratory, live specimens are provided for as many groups as possible; standard dissections are made, and the theory and use of the microscope are considered. Evaluation is by laboratory practicals and lecture exams. (Tompa)

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (4). T.E. Moore. (NS).

This is a general course which covers information concerning four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom and is intended to give some perspective on invertebrate systems as opposed to the more usual emphasis on vertebrate animals. The emphasis is on the whole animal what it is, what it does, how it does it how it got there. In lectures the wealth of information and generalizations gathered from insects concerning all major aspects of biology are discussed. In the laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. This course is an introduction to specialization in all aspects of biology in which insects are appropriate experimental organisms and an introduction to the appreciation and enjoyment of living animals. The following topics are discussed, with special emphasis on aspects recently treated in research publications: synopsis of orders; general functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity and nervous organization; regulation of development and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration in insects; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization in insects; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships of insects; insect flight. The laboratory work encompasses a more unified scope. The only requisites for this course are an introductory college course in biology or zoology and an interest in understanding living organisms. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week. Only one text, Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to the Study of Insects, is required for both lecture and laboratory. Except for preparing an insect collection and some collecting, outside work is at a minimum. There is at least one essay hour exam, and a final essay exam, in lecture, which are comprehensive in nature; and a minimum of four one-hour practical examinations in laboratory. (Moore)

451. Biology of Mammals. Zool. 252 or 351 and permission of instructor. (4). Myers. (NS).

The course introduces students to the ecology, behavior, anatomy, physiology, and systematics of mammals and to unresolved problems in need of further research. The instructors use a phylogenetic approach and provide a sound starting point for various kinds of studies involving mammals. Course material covered includes ancestry of the Mammalia; cursorial, arboreal, fossorial and aquatic adaptations; integumentary structures and their functions; thermoregulation; communication; population dynamics; behavior; ecology; zoogeography; and systematics and classification. The two lectures each week focus on various aspects of the biology of mammals. In laboratory sessions (two three-hour periods each week) students survey the orders and families of mammals with special attention to species of the midwestern United States. Three weekend field trips focus on biology of local faunas. A text supplements the lectures, and a published manual is necessary for the laboratory. Two midterm examinations and a final examination cover lectures, laboratory, and assigned reading. (Myers)

481. Vertebrate Developmental Biology. Eight credits in biology; Zool. 252 or 351 is recommended. (3). Kemp. (NS).

Development is progressive change from the time of conception until death. Lectures will survey the anatomy of the developing individual (descriptive development) and also the mechanisms of development (experimental analysis of development). The course seeks to answer such questions as: How do cells, tissues and organs interact to form an organism? What regulates form, size and longevity? The first third of the course covers the progress of development from the time of fertilization until birth. Topics during the middle third include growth, differentiation, genetic control, cell interactions, induction, transplantation immunity, regeneration, metamorphosis, cancer, teratology, aging and death. The last third surveys the development of organ systems in the human. The laboratory course, Zoology 482, may be taken concurrently. Grading is based on performance in two midterm examinations, a final examination, and a submitted abstract and review on a topic chosen by the student. Lecture outlines with references are distributed as guides to library sources of information. (Kemp)

482. Laboratory in Developmental Biology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 481. (2). Kemp. (NS).

The laboratory in developmental biology provides practical experience in studying developmental anatomy and physiology. Early stages of development, including gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and neurulation, are studied from a variety of embryos. Organogenesis is studied in frog, chick and mouse embryos both from living embryos and from serial microscopic sections. Experiments illustrating microsurgery, tissue culture, transplantation, teratology and metamorphosis supplement the microscopic analysis. The course is designed to accompany Zoology 481. Grading is based on quizzes, which may be given at any period, and on three principal examinations covering major segments of the work. The laboratory sessions are three-hour periods twice weekly. (Kemp)

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