Courses in Linguistics (Division 423)

211. Introduction to Language. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the scope and methods of linguistic inquiry. It should enable students to acquire familiarity with the different branches of linguistics and to come to some appreciation of what linguists do. The course has two principal goals: to introduce many of the basic tools for studying language and to learn to use those tools to improve our understanding of language as we encounter it in our daily lives. One part of the course will examine principles for analysing sounds, words, sentences, and larger texts such as conversation and narratives. Another part of the course will explore how social factors affect language use. For example, students will look at differences between men and women, older and younger people, and ethnic groups. A study of how language changes will also be discussed. In the third part of the course the role of psychological factors in language is explored. As part of the assignments, students will study language in films, advertising, and politics. This course is not designed to meet the needs of any particular group but rather provides an opportunity for people from any discipline to find out what linguistics is all about. Undergraduates should enroll for 211. Honors students, graduates, and those undergraduates desiring to do graduate level assignments should enroll for 411. (Markey)

311. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. (3). (HU).

Basic concepts and field techniques in linguistics will be introduced and explained in the course of exploring and describing, from word to discourse, a non-Western language (in 1983, Malay). Several short papers. No prerequisites. Textbook: K. L. Pike, On Describing Languages. (Becker)

312. Introduction to Analysis of Sounds. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to two interdependent branches of the study of speech-sounds. These are: (1) phonetics, concerned chiefly with the analysis and classification of all the sounds that can be pronounced by human vocal tracts the total human sound-producing potential, and (2) phonology, concerned with the different ways in which particular languages utilize this universal human sound-potential. The approach to phonetics will be largely experimental, though non-instrumental: that is, students will discover the range of possible human sounds, and how they are produced, by systematic experimentation in their own vocal tracts. Thus, the categories used in the classification of all speech-sounds will be learned experientially as well as intellectually. The last third of the course, dealing with some basic concepts of phonology, will survey ways in which features of the universal human sound-potential are organized into the different sound-systems of particular languages. Examples will be drawn from English and a few other familiar languages. Text: a course-pack. Grading: by two tests of practical ability to analyse and describe sounds in the taxonomic categories of phonetics, and one test relating to phonology. Prerequisites: none (except an interest in language!). (Catford)

315. Introduction to Sentence Analysis. (3). (HU).

This is an introduction to what is commonly called syntax in a classical transformational framework. No prior knowledge of linguistics or of languages other than English is assumed. One of the most important facts about syntactic analysis is that it is based on argumentation: one cannot simply claim an analysis, one must argue for that analysis. Accordingly, this course concentrates on syntactic argumentation. We learn how to organize data, form logical hypotheses, argue for the best hypothesis, and test the predictions of our hypotheses. There are frequent problem sets and the students are strongly encouraged to meet in groups outside class to discuss the problem sets. There are no exams, papers, or regular readings. Near the end of the term there may be selected readings. The data we use will all come from the students' heads: sentences of natural languages. Class progresses by discussion, with student participation being crucial. This course should be of interest to language, mathematics, music, law, and philosophy "types" as well as anyone else who wants to build up skills in argumentation. (Napoli)

350. Child Language Acquisition. (3). (SS).

This is a course which explores how children learn their first language. Topics addressed in the course include: communication before the beginnings of language, effect of the environment on language learning, acquisition of rules for forming words and sentences, learning to use conversation, individual differences in language learning and language development, and the special language skills of the school-age child. Students will be introduced to some of the basic principles for conducting research on children's language. Students will have the opportunity to observe children of different ages learning language. (Keller-Cohen)

351. Second Language Acquisition. (3). (SS).

This is an introductory course in second language acquisition, dealing with how people learn foreign/second languages. We will first examine methodological issues necessary for the interpretation of second language data. The major part of the course will focus on topics of recent second language acquisition research, especially those that enable us to test proposed models of second language acquisition. Through data analysis problems students will have first-hand experience dealing with second language data. Given the introductory nature of this course, no prior coursework in second language acquisition is necessary. A course pack made up of selected readings will serve as the readings. The course is intended for all students who are interested in knowing more about how second languages are learned. (Gass)

360. ESL Theory, Methods, and Tests I. One introductory course in linguistics. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to provide students with a sound theoretical and practical basis for language teaching. The background of knowledge and experiences it provides is intended not only for those interested in finding out about teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESL), but is also applicable to English teaching in general, and to foreign language teaching as well. A wide variety of topics related to language learning and teaching will be studied. The complexities involved in the teaching of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills will be investigated in detail. An evaluative consumer's guide to different language learning theories, teaching methods, and testing procedures will be developed to enable students to make informed choices for their own teaching requirements. Additional topics will include a study of situational needs for language use (e.g., language for business, language for science) with special attention to the language of the classroom. Throughout the course a general background of educational issues crucial to language teaching will be provided. There are no prerequisites. All students interested in language teaching are invited. (Ard and Morley)

409./Anthro. 472. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

See Anthropology 472. (Yengoyan)

410/Anthro. 474. Nonstandard English. (3). (SS).

This course provides a description of the linguistic characteristics sometimes called "non-standard." Consideration is also given to the psychological and sociological implications of these forms of English for the individuals and the groups that speak and use them. Special attention is given to the forms of English used in the Black ghettos of America and to the educational problems raised by these forms of English. The course is intended to be useful to anyone who expects to be involved with minority groups or with people of the inner city, and it is especially recommended for those who are in education or who are working toward a teaching certificate. The course has no prerequisites. (Fodale)

411/Anthro. 475. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

Taught jointly with Linguistics 211. See above for description. (Markey)

442/Anthro. 478. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

Introduction to the use of language in its social context, and to the analysis of natural linguistics data. The course involves some field work, and covers bilingual and multilingual communities, language and politics, language and social issues, social variation in language, conversational interaction.

475/Scandinavian 450. History and Structure of the Scandinavian Languages. Reading knowledge of a Scandinavian language. (3). (HU).

See Scandinavian 450. (Markey)

485. Linguistic Typology. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

There are hundreds of languages in the world how different can they be? And how similar, and what are the reasons for these similarities? What differences are there between the surface level and the deep level of language organization? And why is it that the similarities among languages are best perceived at the deep level? To what extent can all the variety of thoughts conveyed by languages be described by several dozen elementary meanings? What are language universals? What are the rules of language change? In what ways do today's languages differ from the languages which existed 10,000 years ago? How can we understand the striking similarities between such distant languages as those of American Indians and the languages of the Caucasus? (Shevoroshkin)

492. Topics in Linguistics. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 How People Used to Talk.
How would Shakespeare have spoken Hamlet's soliloquy? How would the Canterbury Tales have sounded in the mouth of Chaucer? How would a Ciceronian oration or a Socratic dialogue have sounded to contemporaries? This course addresses questions like these in the study of paleophony, the art of reconstructing the pronunciation of ancient languages. Paleophonic reconstruction utilizes evidence drawn from numerous sources, all interpreted in the light of our knowledge of how speech-sounds are produced (general phonetics) and of how they change through time (diachronic phonetics). The course will begin with a survey of some aspects of diachronic phonetics, and will then deal with the following sources of evidence for paleophonic reconstruction: (1) contemporary ('ear-witness') accounts of the pronunciation of ancient languages (e.g., Sanskrit, Greek, Latin) and of older stages of English; (2) comparative linguistics : evidence from comparison of genetically related languages, from reconstruction of proto-language, from archaisms in modern dialects etc.; (3) orthography : continuity of orthoepic traditions, source and destination of alphabets, internal orthographic evidence, spelling of foreign names, misspellings etc.; (4) special problems of paleophonic reconstruction for languages not written alphabetically (e.g., Ancient Chinese). The text will be a course pack, and students' grades will be based on a paper or papers. Though the course has no prerequisite, some knowledge of phonetics would be an advantage. (Catford)

Section 002 Generative Grammars. How are the grammars of natural languages to be studied? This is an age-old question which has drawn and sustained the attention of scholars, from ancient to modern times. The course is directed to trying to make sense of the question and equal sense for possible responses. It is an introductory course that will investigate the field of generative linguistics for 'answers'. A number of different generative models will be examined and evaluated. Requirements: (a) enthusiasm and desire to learn, and (b) one short paper and one substantive research paper. (Fodale)

Section 003 Poetry: Metrical Analysis. This course will examine questions that arise in the metrical analysis of poetry in many traditions and languages, as well as offer the student the opportunity to explore poetry writing for himself. There will be a course pack with articles from linguistics journals. No background in linguistics is assumed. However, the course will begin with a rudimentary introduction to phonology so that the student can follow the readings. Class will be a mixture of lecture and discussion, with student participation strongly encouraged. No language other than English will be assumed, although we will read about many languages (Old English, Slavic, Latvian, Sanskrit, Old Norse, and modern Romance Languages). Written assignments will consist of critiques of the articles, analyses of poems, or original poetry by the students themselves, on a weekly basis. There will also be one short paper and one longer paper for graduate students. There is no exam. This course is for people interested in the sounds of poetry, whether that interest be from an analytical or creative viewpoint. The instructor will consider each student's particular needs and decide with that student what kind of written work is appropriate for him. (Napoli)

Section 005 Microcomputer Linguistics. Participants in this course will read, analyze, and critique both popular and technical material on microcomputer hardware and software (articles, manuals, specifications, reviews, advertising, etc.) using techniques of linguistic analysis (lexical semantics, text analysis, pragmatics, etc.). The goals of the course are: (1) to acquire a basic understanding of the nature and variety of microcomputers and their applications; (2) to acquire a reading knowledge of computer jargon; (3) to learn to apply linguistic research techniques to non-academic situations, with a view both to making intelligent decisions about computers, and to finding ways to improve the intelligibility of computers in general. Lectures will deal with: hardware and its capabilities (memory, storage, display, entry, printing, and processing hardware); software (operating systems, programming languages, compilers and interpreters, and communications); typical applications (word processing, spreadsheets, database managers, multiprocessing, graphics, etc.), as well as recent trends in computer design and marketing. There will be several quizzes, a series of reports constituting a research project, and frequent homework. No computing background is required. The prerequisite is Linguistics 411 or equivalent. (Lawler)

510/Anthro. 576. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Anthropology 576.

Language Courses

170. English as a Foreign Language. Students will be placed in 170 based on the English Language Proficiency Examination. (4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for graduate students who do not pass the special English Language Skills Test. Instruction will be given by a team of specialists from the Department of Linguistics and the English Language Institute. Instruction will be given weekly in one or two two-hour sessions and in additional small group/tutorial sessions. Small group/tutorial work will concentrate on the individual student's problems. Course work will include (a) writing for academic purposes: paragraph writing; basic rhetorical strategies; research paper; library resources and research techniques; essay-examination writing; (b) listening for academic purposes: lecture comprehension; live and video-tape lecture experiences; note-taking techniques; (c) reading for academic purposes: techniques for rapid reading and comprehension; note-taking techniques; (d) speaking for academic purposes: techniques for giving oral presentations; text organization; techniques for participation in class discussion; pronunciation workshop; (e) classroom interaction strategies; University customs, procedures, policies, and resources. Students will be tested on pronunciation early in the course and special audio and video pronunciation work will be arranged to meet each student's needs. Extensive video recording and analysis will be used in pronunciation workshops. Students will be re-tested with the special English Language Skills Test at the end of the course, and occasionally, by special permission, during the course. Note that this course is designed to meet the needs of non-native speakers of English.

180. English for Foreign GSTA's. Teaching assistants will be placed in 180 on the basis of pre-session testing. (3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for students who do not pass the special English Language Skills Test for Teaching Assistants. Instruction will be given twice a week in two hour sessions and in additional small group work. The course will focus on oral presentations in the student's own field of study. Extensive use of video-taping and critiquing will be included. Topics to be covered will include: (1) methods of organization for oral presentation; (2) public speaking skills; (3) classroom interactional skills; (4) intensive audio and video pronunciation workshop instruction. Students will be tested on pronunciation early in the course, and when necessary assigned to special self-study pronunciation work in the language laboratory in addition to the pronunciation workshops. Note that this course is designed to meet the needs of non-native speakers of English.

222, 223. Elementary Ojibwa. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 222 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

Class is designed to give the conversational and cultural skills necessary to enable students to use Ojibwa in real life situations. The teaching methods are entirely inductive, and the role of writing is downplayed. There is considerable emphasis on teaching culturally appropriate behavior, and the simple conversational patterns of greetings, leave takings, introductions, table talk, etc. There is no prerequisite for this course. (Rhodes)

301, 302. Thai. (4 each). (FL).

Linguistics 301 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is the first half of the sequential Elementary Thai courses. The emphases are on practicing pronunciation and simple conversation, reading and writing simple Thai, and expanding students' vocabulary. Four hours of language lab are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

307, 308. Elementary Tagalog. Ling. 307 is prerequisite to 308. (4 each). (FL).

Linguistics 307 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is designed for those students who wish to learn Tagalog and to acquire a reading and speaking knowledge of it and for those students who wish to learn about Tagalog structure from a linguistic viewpoint. The first kind of student is a specialist who wishes to learn Tagalog as a tool for conducting research in Philippine history, anthropology, political science, or linguistics or in Austronesian linguistics or education in Southeast Asia. The second type of student is the linguist who wishes to gain or add comparative knowledge of a different linguistic system. Linguistics 313 is part of a two-term sequence which emphasizes against a background of Philippine culture Tagalog pronunciation, word formation processes, and basic sentence structure. By the end of the first year, students should have acquired a competence in spoken Tagalog and should be ready for intermediate level reading. Language laboratory tapes are assigned, and there are question and answer sessions in class. Once a week a class session is devoted to a lecture/discussion of Tagalog structure. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination, part of which is oral. For those students whose primary interest is linguistics, a paper takes the place of the final examination. Tentative course texts and materials include J. Donald Bowen, editor, Beginning Tagalog; Schachter and Otanes, Tagalog Reference Grammar; language laboratory tapes prepared by U.C.L.A. and/or the instructor; and a Tagalog-English dictionary. A list of supplementary reading is given at the beginning of the term. (Naylor)

322, 323. Intermediate Ojibwa. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 322 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is designed to improve the basic conversational skills of the student who knows some Ojibwa. The emphasis in class is on increasing the range of situations in which the student can use Ojibwa in real life. Some emphasis is placed on teaching the students to be able to learn more Ojibwa outside of the classroom, by talking and using the language with native speakers. Prerequisite: Linguistics 222 and 223, or some speaking knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

401, 402. Intermediate Thai. Ling. 302 is prerequisite to 401; Ling. 401 is prerequisite to 402. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 401 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is the first half of the two sequential Intermediate Thai courses. It is designed to increase students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing abilities, as well as vocabulary expansion. Students practice pronunciation and conversation as well as read and write short paragraphs. Four hours of language lab are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

422, 423. Advanced Ojibwa. Ling. 322 and 323, or permission of instructor. (3 each). (Excl).

Linguistics 422 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is aimed at giving students with conversational ability in Ojibwa the opportunity to both improve their speaking and listening skills and to introduce them to Ojibwa literature, and the various dialects represented in the literature. Students will work with the original, unedited texts, as well as with edited, retranscribed materials, and thus learn about the problems of working in a language without a standard writing system that is widely accepted. Prerequisite: Linguistics 322 and 323, or a conversational knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

433, 434. Intermediate Tagalog. Ling. 314 or permission of instructor is prerequisite to 433; Ling. 433 or permission of instructor is prerequisite to 434. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 433 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is part of a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Elementary Tagalog (Linguistics 313/314) may take this course if they pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format will be as follows: readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points and question and answer sessions in Tagalog on the content. There will be written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination part of which will be oral. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write brief letters, read certain plays, newspapers, magazines, etc. Course texts are: Intermediate Readings in Tagalog, ed. by Bowen; Tagalog Reference Grammar by Schacter and Otanes; and a Tagalog-English Dictionary. Supplementary readings will be assigned during the term. (Note: Graduate students may take this course for graduate credit by electing Linguistics 587.) (Naylor)

501, 502. Advanced Thai. Ling. 402 is prerequisite to 501; Ling. 501 is prerequisite to 502. (3 each). (FL).

Linguistics 501 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This course is the first half of the two course sequence of Advanced Thai. The course is designed to improve students' proficiency in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension of the Thai language. The course is flexible and tailored to suit students' needs and interests.

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