Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of politics through the close reading of selected great philosophical works. The theme of the course is democratic government, which will be studied through the arguments made for and against it by various political philosophers. The course will focus on a comparison between Athenian democracy (as analyzed by Aristotle) and American democracy (as analyzed by Tocqueville). Other readings will be drawn from Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, The Federalist, Rousseau, and Marx. There are two lectures and two hours of section meeting per week. Two papers will be assigned by the section leaders, and two course-wide examinations (one midterm and one final) will be administered. This course can serve as one of the prerequisites for taking upper division courses in Political Science. (Schwartz)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a wide-ranging survey of government and politics throughout the United States. Most of the course centers upon national government and politics. Among the main topics to be explored are the constitutional base, elections, political parties and interest groups, the presidency, Congress, the courts, and policy formulation in designated areas. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? Why is it that public policy emerges as it does in the United States? What is the level of trust in government? And how does that level change? These and others are the kinds of issues confronted in the course. There are two lectures and two discussion sessions each week. The basis for grading includes a midterm and a final examination for all students; and written work as well as other forms of participation in each of the sections, under the guidance of individual instructors. (Grassmuck)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems outside the United States operate and to familiarize them with concepts that can be used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected for special attention will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will be able to draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts used in analyzing politics will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence political life; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; personalities in politics; the role of political institutions; and the analysis of contemporary political conflicts. The course will offer two lectures per week, plus two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of communication. (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this beginning course is to expose the student to the core questions that should be asked at any beginning of the study of international politics. Who are the major actors in international affairs? What kind of order exists in relations among nations? What mechanisms exist for change? What regularities exist in the behavior of actors toward one another that give shape and direction to the system? We shall try to get at some of the questions raised by using three of the major approaches students in the field utilize to select the behaviors they wish to study. One approach is to study the process of decision-making in foreign policy. Another approach is to study the effects that differences in national growth have on the politics among nations. A third way is to study the way the international system constrains the actions of individuals and groups. The major elements of the course are contained in four sets of lectures. (1) The decision-making approach; (2) effects of national growth on international politics; (3) problems and consequences of different types of international systems; (4) global trends in contemporary world politics including such topics as imperialism, neocolonialism, international economics and interdependence, developed-developing world relations, international organizations, and the limits to growth. There will be one, possibly two, exams during the term, plus a final. Other requirements may include a 12-15 page essay and such additional assignments as may be made by individual section leaders. (Organski)

210/Amer. Inst. 240. Introduction to the Political Economy of American Institutions. (4). (SS).

See Program in American Institutions 240. (Walker)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.
This course will center on the investigation and discussion of the various frameworks of analysis used to examine the roles of women in politics.

320. Chicano Politics and the Chicano Community. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended to be a critical examination into the study of Chicano Politics.

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on the relationship between domestic politics and foreign policies in the Middle East. An integral part of it involves a simulation game in which students act out the roles of the major participants in the Arab-Israeli conflict over an entire weekend. Central themes of the course include the historical roots of the conflict, inter-Arab politics, superpower objectives in the Middle East, and the competing nationalisms of Israel and the Palestinians. Course requirements, of which game preparation is a key element, include several brief, team oriented and individual written assignments, a short term paper, a midterm and final examinations. (Green)

361. Current Issues in World Politics. (2). (SS).

This course will examine a range of World political issues including the East-West and North-South conflicts, the role of international organizations and multi-national corporations, the population-food equation, energy, trends in military capabilities, war and serious disputes, and arms control and disarmament. We will bring scholarly research findings to bear on our discussion of each issue area. Final exam only. (Singer)

395/Econ. 395/REES 395/Slavic 395/Hist. 332/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395.

400. Introduction to Political Analysis. Upperclass standing; for concentrators who do not have two courses in political science at the 100-level or their equivalent. (4). (SS).

Political Science 400 introduces students to data analysis, quantitative techniques, and empirical research. The major objectives of the course are: 1) to provide the students with hands-on experience with computer analysis, 2) to familiarize the students with approaches to political analysis, and 3) to introduce the students to some of the basic substantive issues in political science. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. The students will be expected to do a research paper on some data analysis they have done. Open to students in CEW. (Farah)

402. Development of Political Thought: To Modern Period. Junior standing or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is two-fold: (1) to give the student a sense of the history of political philosophy from the ancient Greek period to the beginning of the early modern period at the end of the sixteenth century, and (2) to help the student become aware of the complexities and assumptions entailed in the articulation of a coherent political theory. We will be reading the works of such major political philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Machiavelli. We will be concerned with such issues as the basis for obligation, the sources of legitimacy, the role of the individual in the political community and the value and purpose of political life. Readings will be from primary sources. Class meetings will include both lectures and discussions. Course requirements will include a midterm, a final, and brief papers. (Saxonhouse)

405. American Political Thought. Junior standing. (4). (SS).

The ambiguities of liberalism and the challenges it has faced: federalism, constitutionalism, slavery, war, social Darwinism. Emphasis on founders and the period up to the Civil War. Readings will include Franklin, Paine, Jefferson, The Federalist, the Anti-Federalist Papers, Calhoun, Emerson, Thoreau, Spooner, the Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Sumner. (Herzog)

408. Communist Political Thought: From Marx to the Present. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to Marxism and its development from Hegel to contemporary schools. Emphasis is placed on a thorough exploration of the basic ideas and concepts presented in the writings of Engels and Marx as well as on unresolved questions and contradictions in the Marxist heritage. Readings include extensive assignments from the writings of Marx, Engels, and Bolshevism. Each student is expected to write a major paper on a pertinent topic of the student's choice. The class format is a lecture/discussion combination. (Meyer)

409/CAAS 456. Comparative Black Political Thought. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a comparative analysis of Black political thought with the following themes: Africa and the Black Diaspora; A Vortex of Ideas; Pan-African and Pan-Black Movements; African Thought and the Legacy of Slavery; The Warrior Tradition in Black Political Cultures. Other topics include: Negritude, Nostalgia and Sacred Origins; Religion and Black Political Thought; Language, Literature, and Black Political Thought. Select Black thinkers, chosen from African, Caribbean and Black American writers and ideological leaders will be studied. (Mazrui)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This is a course about American public policies what they are, how they develop, and what difference they make. The purposes of the course are, first, to help students understand the enormous scope and variety of actions taken by the 80,000 or so American governments, and second,

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).
Section 001.
The primary purpose of this course is to provide an understanding of the processes by which citizen demands are translated into decision making at the elite political level. The course objectives are to: (1) develop an understanding of how the electoral system actually works with particular emphasis on the behavior of the individual voter; (2) examine the electoral behavior theory and current disputes concerning this theory; (3) explore the causes and consequences of recent increases in political alienation; (4) consider the political impact of contemporary social group conflicts; (5) analyze the implications of electoral behavior research on normative political theory; (6) explore the roles of elections and nonsystematic behavior in affecting governmental policy; and (7) present the methods used for social science research, particularly survey research, table reading, and simple data analysis. Course requirements include a midterm examination (in class), a term paper, and an optional final examination. The term paper involves an analysis of national survey data from the 1982 congressional election. These data permit students to explain and understand the outcome of elections. (A. Miller)

Section 002. A critical survey of work about individual political behavior. Topics covered include voting, ideology and belief systems, economic conditions and political activity, and public opinion. Reading will be drawn from contemporary work, mostly in political science. Students will be expected to write one or two short papers and to take a final examination. (Mebane)

412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will explore the relationships between law and society, using judicial and other materials pertaining to subjects like criminal justice and the social impact of civil litigation. Some attention will also be devoted to the structure of the legal system, with an analysis of the connections between organizations in this system. Concepts like "law and social control" and the political implications of legal institutions will be elaborated.

413. American Constitutional Politics. Pol. Sci. 111, 410, or 411; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a course in political science and political theory that uses law as its material; it is not a course in law offered by a department of political science. The focus of the course is one of the most vital aspects of politics: interpreting and applying the nation's most fundamental rules. Specifically, the emphasis is on three questions: (a) What is the Constitution (what is its nature and what does it include)? (b) Who may authoritatively interpret it? (c) And how should it be interpreted? Requirements : one short paper, a paper of medium length (as part of a moot court), and a final examination. Grading is tough. Texts : One casebook (Supreme Court opinions and other writings on the Constitution) and one or two paperbacks. Instructional method : mixture of lecture and discussion (student participation is expected). (Harris)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course describes the behavior of legislators and seeks to explain their actions. There is some emphasis on the U.S. Congress. Topics include decision-making in committees and on the floor, the informal legislative folkways, the place of political parties and leadership, and the relationships between legislators and constituents, interest groups, the executive branch, and the press.

423. Politics of the Metropolis. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a lecture/discussion course which provides an overview of metropolitan politics. The major problems of the metropolis are looked at in terms of how the political system responds or fails to respond to them. Emphasis will be placed on the key actors, structures of power, formal governmental arrangements, and other political institutions which shape metropolitan development. While no special background is required, this is a good course for urban studies majors or people interested in local government. Midterm and final exam required. Paper is optional. (Dluhy)

431. Public Administration. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The focus of this course will be public bureaucracies and various ways of talking about them. The course will begin with an examination of what we mean by bureaucracy. Then, metaphors of bureaucracies (as systems based on expertise, as systems oriented to internal functioning, as systems oriented to external interest groups) will be explored. The readings will focus primarily at the national level, but the course itself will cover aspects of bureaucracies common to all levels. One or more papers, a midterm and final examination will be required. (Feldman)

434. Government and Public Policy. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the relationship between the state and public policy. The first part of the course will consider various theories about the role of the state in American society, and the relationship between state processes and public policy. The second half of the course will look at four areas of public policy: welfare, immigration, racial, and family policy. We will focus on recent policies which have been enacted in these four areas through analysis of legal statutes and judicial decisions. Four questions will undergird our analysis: (1) Is there a conflict between the three branches of the national government with respect to the policy? (2) Is there a conflict between the national government and the states? (3) What are the consequences of the particular policy decision? Requirements : There will be three in-class, open book examinations covering the readings and lectures. Each will contribute 20% of the final grade. There will be no final examination. This is a good course for students who are interested in the legal analysis of public policy. (Terrelonge)

438/Amer. Inst. 450. Ethics and Public Policy. (4). (SS).

See Program in American Institutions 450. (Chamberlin)

439/Econ. 425/Amer. Inst. 439. Inequality in the United States. Econ.. 201 or Poli. Sci. 111. (3). (SS).

See Program in American Institutions 439. (Corcoran, Courant)

440. Comparative Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course provides an analysis of politics in contemporary western democracies, communist systems, and developing countries. The emphasis is on common patterns of governing, political behavior, emerging trends in different political systems.

442. Governments and Politics in Western Europe. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on politics in Great Britain, France, West Germany, and Italy, the four largest nations of Western Europe. It is appropriate for political science concentrators; history concentrators who are interested in Western Europe; students concentrating in French, Italian, or German who would like to know more about the society whose language they are studying; or students who are simply curious about how the political systems of these countries work. Primary emphasis is given to the bases of political conflict: what the main points of conflict are, how they originated, how they are expressed politically, and how they are reflected in institutions. Course topics include the influences of the past on contemporary politics, the relationship between the social structure and political cleavage, the forces and groups that affect government policy, protest movements (including the revolt of May, 1968, in France), the contrasting programs and policies of the contending parties, and the forces making for political change. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a term paper of approximately 3000 words on some aspect of politics in one or more of the countries studied. An optional feature is the opportunity to learn how to analyze data using the computer. Instruction in how to use the computer is provided for students who are interested, and survey data for all four countries emphasized in the course are made available. Computer work is not required; it is purely voluntary. (Pierce)

444. Government and Politics of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is an intensive survey of Soviet politics and society, designed to provide students with a knowledge of the structure and dynamics of government and politics in the USSR, and an understanding of the major successes and problems of the USSR.

445. Eastern Europe: Revolution, Reaction, and Reform. (4). (SS).

This is a survey of the politics of Eastern Europe (excluding the USSR). It begins with an overview of the region's political culture and pre-Communist political history, traces the rise of the Communist regimes, analyzes the totalitarian period, and proceeds to examine several aspects of contemporary East European politics: institutions, public opinion, the roles of the Communist party, the nature of elites, economic and political reform. Theories of political development and elite-mass relations are used to analyze the specific phenomena of the countries covered. The focus is on domestic politics, but some attention is paid to comparison with the USSR and to Soviet-East European relations. A final exam and a choice of midterm or paper constitute the requirements. (Gitelman)

448. Governments and Politics of Latin America. Pol. Sci. 140 or 440; or a course on Latin America elected through another department. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of social and political change in contemporary Latin America through a broad review of major issues and trends combined with in-depth analysis of their expression in selected cases and areas. General issues considered include political aspects and implications of economic dependency, the expanding and changing role of the state and the military, cultural changes and the implications of current conflicts and transformations in Catholicism, agrarian problems, urbanization, and the general phenomenon of violence. Case studies for Fall 1981 will be drawn from among the following: Mexico, Central America, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Venezuela, Cuba. Evaluations will be based on short papers and examinations. Films and outside speakers will be incorporated into the course. Class format combines lecture with discussion. (Levine)

453. Government and Politics of the Middle East. Two courses in Poli. Sci. or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will provide an introduction to the politics and societies of the Middle East with particular attention paid to Egypt, the Persian Gulf, the Fertile Crescent, and Iran. A primary concern will be with the relationship between systematic processes of sociopolitical change and Islam. Looking at Islam in some depth, an understanding of its role in Middle Eastern societies will be sought, with emphasis on those instances in which religious values have led to dramatic redefinitions of national goals. Other themes of the course include political development, the military, bureaucracy, education, political elites, and issues of legitimacy. At the same time, the manner in which Westerners tend to perceive the Middle East, as well as resultant misconceptions will be explored. For the first time, Near East and North African Politics will be taught as a writing course. All students will be expected to complete several short writing assignments as well as a final examination. Class size permitting, students will present a portion of their written work in class. (Green)

455. Government and Politics of China. (4). (SS).

The Chinese government is guiding nearly one-quarter of mankind through the industrial revolution. This historically unprecedented effort is being directed by a revolutionary party that gained power through a massive rural insurgency in a country that had over the centuries made world renowned achievements in culture and statecraft. Government and Politics of China uses these three broad dimensions China's traditions, the revolutionary history of the Chinese Communist Party, and the strains of the transition to industrial society to analyze the politics of the People's Republic of China since 1949. In addition to providing a detailed political history of the PRC, this course focuses on two efforts: (1) Explaining key decisions in terms of both the political forces at play and the decision making processes themselves; and (2) Understanding in depth the substantive issues on the current Chinese political agenda. There will be some treatment of foreign affairs, but the major effort centers on domestic politics. There are no prerequisites, but students who have taken Political Science 428 are welcome. Grades are based on a final examination and two written assignments. Reading lists will be sculpted to meet the interests of individual students. (Lieberthal)

456. Government and Politics of Japan. Pol. Sci. 140, 440, or 450; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an overview of Japanese politics, mainly contemporary, with rather little technical political science. Special attention is given to the changes of the Occupation period, social patterns, political behavior, the decision-making process, and patterns of domestic and foreign public policy. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination and a paper (about ten pages for undergraduates). Enrollment is usually low enough to hold rather informal meetings and to respond to individual interests. Many students who elect the course have no background either in Japanese studies or political science and seem at no great disadvantage. (Campbell)

459/CAAS 449. Africa: Development and Dependence. Prior or concurrent study of the Third World; Pol. Sci. 465 is recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course is intended as a multidisciplinary survey of African politics. Its primary purposes are to examine alternative explanations for the underdevelopment of Africa and to explore alternative strategies for development. Students are expected to develop both a theoretical approach to and a working knowledge of the politics of contemporary Africa. (Wilson)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course will be devoted to the study of the military dimension in international politics and to various problems of arms control and disarmament. We will deal, in some detail, with the topics of the strategic arms race, the trade in conventional arms and nuclear proliferation; we will place these topics in their political as well as economic contexts and discuss past attempts and future possibilities for dealing with them. Some time will also be devoted to matters of nuclear doctrine.

463. International Organization and Integration. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

For any student concerned with world politics and American foreign policy, this course will offer an introduction to a set of increasingly significant theoretical and policy issues associated with (1) the increasing number of international governmental and non-governmental organizations in world politics; (2) the growing interdependence among nations; (3) the increasing salience of nonmilitary issues in world politics; and (4) the continuing need for global and regional mechanisms to deal with international conflict and promote international cooperation. The primary objectives of the course are to acquaint students with different approaches to the study of international organizations and the global political system. The course will give some attention to the historical development of international organizations, but emphasis will be on their current roles in: regulating conflict among states, facilitating stable economic growth, providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries, facilitating the greater realization of human rights, and dealing with new problems generated by the growing economic and technological interdependence among nations. European regional integration and the potential for regional integration in less developed regions will also be discussed. The final sessions will be devoted to a consideration of the prospects for international organization in the coming decades. (Jacobson)

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to review major theories of political development. The course is divided into five parts: (1) Major Approaches to Political Development; (2) Agrarian Movements; (3) Revolutions Left and Right; (4) Varieties of Authoritarianism; and (5) International Dependence. The work for the course involves writing three papers each of about l0 to 15 pages. They are due at regular intervals during the term. (McDonough)

469. Politics of International Economic Relations. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with the interplay of political and economic considerations in international relations. Although the two are usually dealt with separately, there is an obvious interdependence of politics and economics in the international movements of goods (trade), capital (investments) and aid. Apparently political phenomena such as wars and arms races also have a strong economic foundation. The purpose of the course will be to provide students with the conceptual tools and substantive knowledge needed to analyze such instances of political economic interplay. (Nincic)

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to provide the advanced undergraduate student with: (a) an understanding of the global and domestic context within which US foreign policy is formulated, executed, evaluated, and modified; (b) alternative interpretations of the policy process and context; (c) methods by which these interpretations can be compared and tested against the empirical evidence; and (d) the ability to evaluate past policy decisions and propose future ones. In pursuit of these objectives, we will examine and discuss some case histories (World War I and II, formation of the UN, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, SALT negotiations, GATT agreements, etc.), along with memoirs of participants and scholarly analyses of the cases. Equally important will be the efforts of scholars to generalize from such cases, using methods that range from the impressionistic to the highly quantitative. We will meet twice per week for lectures and discussions combined, and there will be assigned as well as suggested readings each week. Evaluation will rest on take-home final exam, several brief memos during the term, intelligent participation in discussion, and additional work of an optional nature. Prior work in scientific method is desirable but not essential. Texts not yet selected. (Singer)

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course covers defense, deterrence, and arms control in the contemporary context. Special emphasis is given to the policies, perspectives, and capabilities of the United States and the Soviet Union, but consideration is also given to Western Europe and China. Illustrative issues are alternative strategic nuclear doctrines, prospects for arms control, conscription, organization of the Executive Branch for foreign and military policy formation, and interalliance politics. (Tanter)

479/CAAS 479. International Relations of Africa. (4). (SS).

Africa as an international subsystem; the foreign policies of African states; aid and trade in African international relations; race and culture in African diplomacy; alliances and alignments in world policies; the political economy of dependency, liberation, and development. (Mazrui)

481, 482. Junior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with junior standing. (4 each). (SS).

Political Science 481 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

This is the first seminar in the Political Science Honors program. It has two aims. First, it will alert students to the scope and method of the study of politics through a critical discussion of key concepts and their function in some of the classics of political theory. Second, it will introduce students to the range of specialized interests and methodological skills of the University's Political Science faculty. The purpose of this is not only to help students see what forms the age-old questions about politics take in contemporary research, but also to help them find faculty supervisors for their Honors theses. Open to Honors concentrators in Political Science. There is no prerequisite; but Political Science 101 or 400 might be useful preparations. (Meyer)

483. American Political Parties and Electoral Problems. Political Science 111, 140, 410, or 411; or permission of instructor. instructor. (4). (SS).

This course examines American political parties within a comparative context. After a brief discussion of the historical development of the American party system the following topics are considered: party organization, party leadership, campaigns and party finance, leadership recruitment, nominations and the national presidential convention and primary systems, elections and voting behavior, and party leadership in the policy process and in government. Much time is spent analyzing the system from the standpoint of (1) where is it going is realignment taking place? (2) how "democratic" and responsive is it? and (3) what is the impact of the party system and its activities on the public and on society? The distinctive features of the American system in contrast to other systems are discussed as well as the factors responsible for producing the American system. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the system, to discuss its defects as well as its strong points, and to suggest types of reforms that might be introduced. A research paper from ten to fifteen pages in length is required as well as one or two one-hour examinations and a final. There are also required readings, a text, and recommended readings. Students are asked at the end of the course to write a four or five-page essay in which they express their ideas concerning the adequacy of the American party system. (Eldersveld)

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on (1) the formation and nature of public opinion and mass political participation and (2) the links between public opinion and participation and public policy. It will familiarize students with survey and other methods for generating opinion and participation data. Particular attention will be given to the effects of socio-economic structure, religion, gender, personality, life cycle, family, peer group, school, work environment, groups, and political institutions on public opinion and participation. Course requirements include a final exam (60%), midterm (20% or 40% depending on if a research paper is written), and an optional research paper (30%). (Langton)

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is not required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. (Kinder)

489. Advanced Topics in Contemporary Political Science. Two 400-level courses in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

This course examines the ways oil importing and exporting governments adjusted policies to the dramatically changed structure and performance of the international energy markets in the 1970's and 1980's. Governments were forced by international events to make significant domestic changes in the way that they formulated and implemented energy policies, as well as changes in their content. In all countries of the world this adjustment process became heavily politicized. Using country case studies, and studies of particular types of policies, we will analyse this politicization and explain how and why some governments resisted these international changes, adapted to them, or indeed, tried to hasten them. (Wilson)

493, 494. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4 each). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course.

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Legitimacy, Obligation and Disobedience.
Historical and contemporary materials will be used to illustrate questions of legitimacy, obligation and disobedience. (Herzog)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Political Leadership on the U.S. Supreme Court.
The secrecy and fundamental importance of the justices' work make the Supreme Court a unique national institution from the perspective of political science. This seminar will treat the possible approaches to conducting intellectual analysis of the Court as an institution. The focus is on political leadership at two levels: (a) the work of the justices in leading their own colleagues (molding the products of the Court's deliberations) and (b) publicly leading the nation through the Court's work in defining the nature of the polity, at the constitutional level. Preference will be given to students who have taken Political Science 413 and/or 414 during 1982-83. Requirements : One seminar paper (20-25 pp.), seminar participation, written critiques (2-3 pp.) of two other students' papers, and an oral presentation based on the seminar paper. Texts : Seven or eight books dealing with historical, biographical, journalistic, and fictional accounts of the Supreme Court. (W. Harris)

Section 002 Organizational Decision Making. This course will examine decision making as part of the behavior in which organizational members engage. Thus, we will begin by exploring briefly some common ways of thinking about decision making (as rational behavior, as routine-following behavior, as political behavior, as symbolic behavior). Participation in class discussions will be an important basis for evaluation. One or more papers will be required. (Feldman)

Section 003. This seminar will investigate alternate ways of trying to understand the political behavior of ordinary people. In addition to examining selected work in political science, we will consider whether formal models of rational choice, psychological theories of decision making, phenomenological investigations of intentionality, psychoanalytic psychology or theories of roles can provide us with any leads. Reading will cover work in a number of disciplines, with the emphasis being more on getting a sense of the style and typical arguments of various approaches than on achieving mastery of specific techniques. Students will be expected to write three short papers and to participate with a fresh and lively, yet critical, attitude in class discussion. (Mebane)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001.
Historically, revolutions instances of violent, rapid, and massive change of elites and institutions have had strikingly different outcomes. Other than the generality that each revolution dramatically strengthened the bureaucracy's grip on society, the English, French, Mexican, Russian, Nazi German, Spanish, Chinese, Cuban, and Vietnamese revolutions produced rather different post-revolutionary regimes. This seminar will seek to explain the outcomes of revolution. That is, our goal is to illuminate the relationship between the process of revolution and its outcome, drawing upon the nine cases listed above. Among the key factors we will examine are the social basis of the revolution, the nature of the revolutionary party, the beliefs and personalities of the revolutionary leaders, the nature of the domestic opposition, the external environment and involvement, and the pattern of the seizure of power. We will first acquaint ourselves with the classical interpretations (especially Marx and Mosca) and read several recent theoretical treatments of revolution and its outcomes, such as by Brinton, Huntington, Johnson, Moore, Tilly, Skocpol, and Dahrendorf. We will then turn to our cases, reading broad histories and case studies of each revolution. Students will be expected to write a major, 20-30 page paper critically applying one or two of the theoretical works to one of our specific cases. Admission is only with permission of the instructor. Students must already have read widely on one of the revolutions we will be studying. (Oksenberg)

Section 002 Political Problems of Advanced Industrial Democracies. This seminar focuses on the emerging political problems common to the democracies of Western Europe and the United States. Special attention will be devoted to the crisis of the welfare state, the expansion of participation, including unconventional as well as conventional forms, and changing belief systems. Within this framework, special interests of participants will be accommodated. A term paper is required. (Barnes)

Section 003 Comparative Authoritarian Societies. The purpose of this seminar is to examine the variations in types of authoritarian governments, particularly, the similarities and differences between Latin American and Asian regimes. Two courses in political science are the prerequisites. The requirements for the course are three papers, between 10 and 15 pages in length, on topics to be worked out between students and the instructor. (McDonough)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Ronald Reagan and the Middle East.
The seminar considers the evolution of Ronald Reagan's ideas about the Middle East from the Presidential campaign of 1980 until the present. One overall theme concerns how the shift from domestic political concerns to bureaucratic and diplomatic goals affects U.S. policy toward the Middle East. Examples are drawn from the President's Spring 1981 decisions regarding AWAC's and related equipment for Saudi Arabia and the President's Middle East peace initiative of September, 1982. In the context of rising tensions, undesirable trade-offs have to be faced among competing national interests. The widespread belief in the bureaucracy that only in the context of a movement towards peace and security are America's conflicting goals in the Middle East reconcilable will be assessed in relation to the war in Lebanon June through September, 1982. There is a great emphasis on consensus-building and coalition-building and on the isolation of dissenting views in the national security decision process. With respect to the Middle East, even Presidents have great difficulty imposing their personal views if they are outside the main stream. Bureaucratic politics can be seen as a dynamic search for agreement among principals who constantly move from coalition to coalition depending upon their perception of the personal and national stakes involved. In connection with a controversial area such as the Middle East, there is an even greater effort to gain consensus before embarking on policy changes. (Tanter)

514. The Use of Social Science Computer Programs. Pol. Sci. 499 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to the computer and to campus software systems. Topics considered include how the computer can be used to analyze social science data. Instruction will be provided in the use of a decwriter terminal and a display (CRT) terminal. The primary software system covered by this course is MIDAS, but students will also be introduced to OSIRIS and to basic MTS commands.

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