Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about areas of psychology that emphasize a study of the brain and of behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human senses and nervous system. The course meets four hours per week. Sections 002 through 006: Each section is taught independently by a graduate teaching assistant who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Discussion sections are emphasized with the common lecture hour (Section 00l) reserved for coordinated events like movies. Large sections 006 (linked with discussion sections 007, 008, 009) and 0l0 (linked with 011, 012, 013) contain a more even mix of lecture and discussion. A pair of TA's will share the duties in each lecture-discussion package with one person primarily responsible for lecturing and course supervision. (Weintraub)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. The text for the course is Smith, Sarason, and Sarason Psychology (Second Edition). The discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 002.
This section of Psychology 192 is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who falls to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell)

Section 003. This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology, from "soft" to "hard" (psychoanalytic personality theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology: What do we know; what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, no papers). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

Section 006. The focus of this section will be coverage of various topics in psychology that have a history of research using experimental methodology. Some of these topics are: neural mechanisms underlying behavior, the biological basis of motivation, sensory mechanisms, perception, memory, and language functions. There will be only scant coverage of other topics such as psychopathology, development, and social interactions. Course requirements are extensive, and are designed to promote thorough understanding of the material. There will probably be frequent quizzes, two examinations, two research projects, and in-class experiments and demonstrations. Each class session will be devoted to lectures, extensive discussions and projects. (Jonides)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do fieldwork in local community settings. Students of all backgrounds are invited to apply. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Project Outreach includes approximately 30 different settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, adults, and the aged: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with the rights of consumers, battered women, foreign residents, and others. Two credit projects require 6 hours of work per week including four hours of fieldwork, log writing, one hour lecture and one hour seminar/discussion per week. Three credit projects require 7 hours of fieldwork plus discussion and lecture time. Psychology major selecting two settings of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option of waiving their second advanced lab requirement. Students can now PRE-REGISTER for Psych 201. MEETING TIMES, FIELDWORK TIMES, AND LECTURE DAY/TIMES ARE AVAILABLE AT 554 THOMPSON ST. beginning: March 21, 1983 for Fall Term, 1983. INTERESTED STUDENTS SHOULD STOP BY THE OFFICE FOR ALL PRE-REGISTRATION AND COURSE INFORMATION, AND FOR OVERRIDES.

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300 309. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300 309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300 309.

Psychology 308 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Community Psychology area. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Community Psychology Office (L-4l4, West Quadrangle). Interested students should contact the Community Psychology Area or the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course.

Psychology 308: Working with Children in the U-M Children's Center. Directed experience with children aged l8 month-5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psych. 170. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis, and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include organizational design; motivation; work-related attitudes; leadership; decision-making; group behavior; organizational change; work and non-work; work and health; the quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be two general lectures and one small group discussion section. The discussion sections will review the materials of the texts and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the texts and lectures. (A. Tannenbaum)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes interpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be frequent small papers and one final long, integrative essay. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures, optional workshops and small discussion groups, and there will be opportunity to elect a coherent program of independent study for a portion of the course. (R. Mann)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

Psychology 382 introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering basic theoretical concepts such as knowledge and social inference; the self and the growth of identity; conformity and the effects of power; justice and helping; collective action and social change; and efficacy, coping, and happiness. In addition, material from each unit is applied to a variety of social and psychological problems, such as marriage and the family, crowding, aging, guilt and jealousy, poverty, masculinity and femininity, creativity, ethnicity, prejudice, shyness and loneliness, and television. The particular topics covered vary from term to term. The course employs a mixture of lectures, films, exercise and demonstrations, and small group discussions. All activities, however, require a high degree of student participation, and the course should be selected only by students who enjoy such participation. Grading is based on a combination of reading logs, papers, and examinations.

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course was designed primarily for persons interested in pursuing programs that would involve direct work with families. Its thrust is decidedly "clinical" as opposed to "social survey" or "cross-culturally comparative". These latter topics will be touched on only insofar as they enlighten what is happening (or not happening) to the family in contemporary American society. Thus, the course will deal with the history of socio-clinical concern with the "plight" of the American family in the last 20 years. The conceptual orientations in the course will be distinctively those of "general systems theory" and "symbolic interactionism". The sociology of deviance within the family system will receive major emphasis psychopathologies will be reconstrued within a family systems context. The organization of the course will, in fact, be developmental. That is it will trace the life cycle of families from mate-selection through developmental crisis to dissolution, single parenthood, remarriage, family reconstruction, and do so with a continual awareness of social context. Contrasts and parallels with other "clinical" theories and therapies (i.e., psychoanalytic) will serve as constant counterpoint, and be used to highlight implicit and/or explicit assumptions about family dynamics, as well as ethical concerns about how, why and when one intervenes in family systems. Concomitantly, social modes of "researching" families in today's society will be considered on ethical, heuristic, political and presumptive grounds. Dilemmas for the "researcher" and the "researched", the "treated" and the "treater" will be considered. Required texts are Skolnik and Skolnick (eds.) Family Therapy: An Overview, Bermann, Scapegoat: The Impact of Death Fear on an American Family and a course pack. Grading in the course is based on class presentation and discussion (l5%), a midterm exam (20%), a final exam (30%) and a term paper. (Bermann)

Section 002. The course will review family theories and their clinical application. In addition, assessment models and research on current issues in family will be presented. Both lecture and discussion formats will be used. Two examinations and a paper will be used to evaluate student performance. (Barbarin)

406/Hist. of Art 510./Art 510. Perception and Expression in Visual Form. (3). (HU).

See History of Art 510. (Arnheim)

414. Advanced Laboratory in Behavior Modification. Prior enrollment in Psych. 474. (3). (NS).

Students in Psychology 414 will learn more about the techniques of behavior modification and will have the opportunity to apply these techniques in one of a wide variety of settings. Current placements include Ypsilanti Regional Psychiatric Hospital and the Milan Federal Correction Institute. Campus sections will focus on performance anxiety and type A behavior.

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Permission to enroll may be obtained beginning March 28 from Doris Strite in the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle). Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward of the Neuropsychiatric Institute at University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

Section 002. The focus of this course will be on research strategies and methods which are brought to bear on understanding the nature and treatment of psychopathology. Special attention will be given to the integration of clinical and research data. As part of this course, students will serve as part-time research assistants (approximately two hours/week) to faculty members in order to gain "hands on" clinical research experience. This may include interviewing subjects, coding fantasy material or results of psychological tests, participating in the design of questionnaires etc. In no case will students be asked to do drone-like work. The aim is to become an active member of a functioning research team. In addition to this experiential component, the course will cover readings drawn from the areas of general epistemology, research methods, and theories of psychopathology. Two papers (each approximately 2-3 pages long) and a final paper (5-7 pages long) focused on evaluation of published clinical research round out the formal requirements. The course is intended for students planning graduate work in either the social sciences (e.g., clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology) or in areas in which such sophistication in understanding reports or clinical research is helpful (e.g., medicine, certain areas of law, education). Permission to enroll may be obtained beginning March 28 from Doris Strite in the Undergraduate Psychology office (K-106, West Quadrangle). (Kalter)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 170 or equivalent; or Biol. 100, 105, 112, or 114; or Physiol. 101. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 170 and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology or Physiology. (3). (NS).

This lecture course surveys the field of psychobiology. This is an area of study concerned with biological explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. The organ responsible for these functions is the brain, and therefore most of the course deals with brain-behavior relations. Introductory lectures on neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology are followed by a discussion of the neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), sleep and waking states, regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning and memory and hormones and behavior. IMPORTANT NOTE : Students may take 43l without registering for the lab course in physiological psychology (511), however, all students in 43l must be able to attend one of the Psych. 511 lab sections for the first 4 weeks of class. (Robinson).

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170 or equivalent in addition to an introductory course in biology, physiology, or physiological psychology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (vision, hearing, smell, etc.). Our sensory acuity, as revealed by our behavior in the detection and discrimination of different environmental events (visual, auditory, olfactory, etc.), and the manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system and brain form the subject matter for this course. The anatomical, chemical, physical and physiological basis of sensation will be stressed. Sample topics include color vision, depth perception, sound localization, and sensory disabilities such as color blindness and hearing loss brought about by exposure to loud noise. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Green and Pollack)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes scientific study of motivation. It considers principles of motivation in depth. It aims to encourage further development of an understanding of science in the context of studying some intrinsically interesting problems: the methods employed to measure individual differences in personality that influence motivation, and the details of the motivational process that underlies behavior. The analysis of personality-motivation-action focuses mainly but not exclusively on the inevitable conflict between the hope of success and the fear of failure arising in efforts to achieve and what has been learned in extensive studies of motivation to achieve. Much of the lecture/discussion concerns algebraic models of motivation, evaluation of experimental findings, even computer simulation of motivational problems. Generally some background in several psychology courses and statistics is recommended but not required. Students having only introductory psychology are not advised to take this course unless they feel competent and comfortable with algebra and have a strong interest in scientific psychology. Assignments involve a combination of text and reserve or course pack readings. Final grade is based on several hour exams and written work (problems or essays) submitted during the term. (Atkinson)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

The focus of this course is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years. (Jonides)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This section will emphasize psychodynamic and case-oriented theories and methods in the study of personality psychology. Major approaches to the understanding of personality will be reviewed and critically evaluated. Several prominent lines of research, their empirical base, heuristic relevance, and applications will be discussed; and related theorizing about personality dynamics, development, and change throughout the life history will be surveyed. Lectures, readings from texts, and group discussions, will be the principal teaching methods. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in clinical psychology, and in theoretical and case-oriented personality research (e.g., Psychology 501-Life Historical Approaches to the Study of Personality). (Barratt)

Section 002. This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on three exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and research articles. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 5l9 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the a child becomes a social being. Attention is given to cultural variation in socialization and social development, and contrasting theoretical perspectives on each content issue. Topics include (a) moral development, (b) affiliation and attachment, (c) early peer relations, (d) social play, (e) role-taking, empathy, and social cognition, (f) sex role development, and (g) social-structural influences including poverty, unemployment and school-related factors. (McLoyd)

454. Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 002.
The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of interpersonal relations as they develop in an unstructured group setting. As members of the group, students observe and attempt to understand the processes of their own group. What caused the group to take the turn it did? Why is its mood different today? What norms are emerging? Who are its leaders formal and informal? What myths, fantasies, or assumptions seem to underlie group moods or behaviors? What role does each of us play in the group? These are some of the questions we try to answer. In brief planned sessions students analyze the previous session, and apply concepts and insights from the literature on groups in the effort to understand this group's history and development. In longer unstructured sessions students interact and reflect on the process. Three papers during the term each include: (1) an analysis of a third of the sessions' key events, meanings, myths, mood shifts, norms, leaders, etc.; (2) further analysis of these sessions in terms of theories and concepts from readings; (3) an analysis of one's own part in the group. Psych 454 provides in depth, experiential learning about groups through participation in a self-analytic group limited to twenty people. (J. Mann)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
A basic undergraduate course in child psychology which covers the period from infancy to (but not including) adolescence. Cognitive development, socialization, and physical growth are examined. Discussion sections will meet but not every week. There are 3 exams and a chance of a term paper or nursery school participation and a brief report of that experience. (L. Hoffman)

Section 002. This course describes physical, cognitive, and social growth of children from birth to adolescence. In this section, there is an emphasis on children's intellectual development (i.e., thinking, memory, school-learning, language) and students who want to learn about only social development should investigate Psychology 453. The course will emphasize experimental research and theory more than clinical approaches to children. Introductory psychology, education, and experimental psychology courses would be useful backgrounds for students (but not all necessary). The format of the course will be mostly lectures with weekly discussion groups. Exams and short papers will be the basis for student evaluation. (Paris)

474. Introduction to Behavior Modification. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This lecture course emphasizes the basic principles, techniques, and applications of behavior modification through a general survey of the field. In addition, comparisons will be made with other approaches to human behavior and the strengths and weaknesses of behavior modification on theoretical, practical, and ethical grounds will be discussed. Quizzes will be scheduled every Friday and all 10 must be passed by the last day of lectures. A self-modification project is also required and completion of this self-change project plus the quizzes will issue a grade of C. The optional multiple-choice midterm and final will be based on quiz questions and lectures. (Papsdorf)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines a wide spectrum of deviant behavior, including normal variants of functioning, neurotic difficulties, character pathology, and the psychoses. Selected additional topics vary somewhat, but can include childhood psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, multiple personality, manic-depressive disorder, and the issue of the criminal insanity defense. The possible causes of the various forms of psychopathology are examined, with emphasis on psychological causation; attention is also given to recent advances in psychophysiological correlates of mental illness. Treatment modalities are addressed, including forms of psychotherapy, behavioral methods, and psychopharmacology. Finally, there will be discussion of social and legal issues relevant to the deviant individual. This is a lecture course, with a recommended discussion section. Students will be evaluated primarily on the basis of examinations. (Ludolph)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 is an exciting course to teach because it attracts students with different backgrounds from a variety of fields. There are students from geography, landscape architecture, urban and regional planning, recreation, architecture, and numerous fields. Although they have in common a concern for the environment and an interest in humans, they often are unfamiliar with each other's fields and find they have a lot to learn from each other. Another exciting aspect of the course is the seriousness of the students. Many students are professionals in environmental design and related fields and are eager to become knowledgeable about ideas and issues which they will use in the very near future. The course usually enrolls fifty to sixty students. The course format consists of a few free-form lectures and many rambling discussions. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and several small projects carried out by cross-disciplinary student groups. This course is not intended as a survey course. Rather, it attempts to take a consistent point of view that is cogent, intuitive, and useful. People care to make sense out of their environments. In the modern world this has become increasingly difficult. The human concern for information probably emerged to meet the requirements of the challenging environment in which the species evolved. Humans can thus be viewed as highly capable, but they can also be difficult and unruly if the environment is ill-structured in terms of their capacities and preferences. The course focuses on information processing and its evolutionary background, on human needs in terms of informational requirements, and on the way the environment supports or hinders the processing of information. Such topics as trust and community, territory and privacy, and the role of identity are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Admittance to Psych. 476 is by application only. Forms are available in the Undergraduate Psychology Office, 580 Union Drive, K-106. (S. Kaplan)

481. Psychology of International Relations. Introductory psychology, Soc. 100, or Pol. Sci. 460. (3). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to increase understanding of peace and war, world development, and international relations, particularly emphasizing a psychological and social science perspective. The methods for doing this are unique. The course focuses on the world role of the People's Republic of China in order to break into the narrow and biased "American" point of view that we all start with. Group and individual student projects deal with domestic or international topics about China. There are occasional lectures (by the instructor, students, and guests), movies, and other class projects; but the major portion of class time is spent on discussions and reports about projects planning, critiquing, reporting results, etc. Students have options to work on topics of interest to them, and in the choice of type of project library research, survey, action program, etc. There are no examinations. Evaluation is in terms of the project, class participation, and a "service project" of use to fellow class members. Because of the lack of assigned readings or papers, students need to be capable of initiating and completing projects on their own with minimal supervision. Satisfactory completion of all the requirements will result in a "B" grade. Superior work will raise a student's grade, while failure to complete requirements will lower it. (Hefner)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The journal is the sole basis of grading. The journal also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, two sociological books of participant observation, and novels by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about 10 actual hours/week, every week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the lazy. NOT for the uncurious. (Ezekiel)

Section 004. The course provides a survey of research on attitude and belief formation and change, with special emphasis on the role of inference processes in producing beliefs and on the role of social influence in altering beliefs. The question of people's awareness of their beliefs and inference processes is discussed at length, as are questions of the degree to which, and the manner in which, beliefs influence behavior. Psychology 280 and a statistics course would be helpful, but not essential, background. Lecture is the format; evaluation is based on a midterm and a final. (Nisbett)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

This advanced laboratory is designed to teach students organizational research skills and is focused on the study of the organization of working life. Students will develop field research skills including interviewing, observation, and the use of questionnaires. We will meet in weekly lecture/discussion sessions and will collect data in field settings as well. Topics covered will include work role assessment, work stress, job design, and quality of work life. Evaluation will be based on student participation in research projects and a written final report on the research. This course fulfills the psychology concentration requirement for one of two advanced laboratory courses. (Price)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. Psychology 504 can now be used to meet the second lab requirement in Psychology. Two credit hours of Psychology 504 taken in conjunction with a regular concentration course and approved by the appropriate professor will be considered as an alternative.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. May not be elected without concurrent enrollment in Psychology 431. (3). (NS).

This laboratory course in Physiological Psychology is intended to provide experience with the basic research paradigms and techniques used in the study of brain-behavior relations. The laboratory sessions are integrated with lectures given in Psychology 43l. Thus, you must be registered for Psych. 43l to take 511 (total of 6 credits). Presently the lab (511) is offered only during the Fall Term. Psych. 43l is offered with no accompanying lab during the Winter Term. Laboratory exercises will include sessions on functional neuroanatomy (dissection of sheep brain), the behavioral effects of manipulating brain neurotransmitters with drugs, the hormonal control of reproductive behavior, animal models of psychiatric and movement disorders, electrical stimulation and recording from brain structures, and methods of analyzing behavior, etc. Grades will be based on written lab reports. (Robinson)

512. Advanced Laboratory in Motivation and Behavior. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 442. (3). (SS).

This advanced lab emphasizes computer simulation of motivation and the role of the computer in planning empirical investigations and in spelling out the behavioral implications of the theory of motivation. Students become familiar with motivational principles and are introduced to how to plan projects and to conduct simulations at the computer terminal. In the latter part of the course, each student has an opportunity to explore problems of his/her own choosing. The work culminates in written reports. Informal workshop atmosphere. No previous background is needed in use of the computer or programming. Students with strong academic records and scientific interest may take the course by permission. (Atkinson)

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (SS).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. Finally, each student critically reviews a published test or inventory, evaluating its psychometric characteristics and applicability. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).

Purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. During the first half of the term students do an already designed survey, field study, and experiment. In the second half of the term, students design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work three-four hours each week outside of class to complete projects. Grade based on final examination (25%) and individual research reports (75%). (Burnstein)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects, in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects). Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. Application blanks are on the bulletin board near 3406A Mason Hall. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to use and compare various research methods in personality. Weekly assignments permit students to use observational studies, personal interviews, and questionnaires to study behavior. The second part of the term is focused on a small group research project where students investigate their own hypothesis with whichever methods they consider most appropriate. This research project is written as a formal research paper, presenting the hypothesis, methods, results and conclusions. Grades are based on the series of class projects. (K. Miller)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (SS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What information do we take into account when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? What are the rules we use to reconcile multiple and conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how decision problems are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is subject to serious errors which can have dire practical consequences. The course considers when such errors should occur. It also discusses ways these errors can be prevented. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures and discussions. The course also contains many demonstrations in which class members participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group I requirement. Grades are based on two assignments, a midterm, and a final examination. Course grades typically average "B" or slightly better. (Yates)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (SS).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

531. Advanced Physiological Psychology. Psych. 431. (3). (NS).

In-depth discussions of selected topics in physiological psychology including: hormones and behavior, evolution and ontogeny of hemispheric specialization, sex differences, mechanisms underlying physical and emotional pain, physiology of motivation, biological approaches to psychiatric disorders, memory and learning, etc. Selected articles will be assigned. Midterm and final exam. (Valenstein)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

Students in this course are assigned to various institutions where they work with a group of children, adolescents, or young adults for about three to four hours a week. There are also weekly class meetings to provide for the discussion of relevant material and for group supervision opportunities. Assignments include readings about development and the effects of institutionalization, weekly logs, and a final paper. Lab fee. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The years from twelve to twenty, as currently understood by social science. Seminar format, and small-group meetings with instructor. Examination and term paper. (Adelson)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

579. Modern Viewpoints in Psychology. For juniors, seniors, or graduate students with several courses in psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed 390. (3). (Excl).

This course is totally redesigned. The biggest strides forward in modern psychology seem to be in developmental, physiological and cognitive psychology. These will be the major topics and we will examine what recent theory contributes to the old questions about mind, brain (and associated systems) and behavior. We will range broadly rather than deeply over these areas and issues. The purpose of the course is integration of viewpoints rather than isolated descriptions. We will also continually remind ourselves of implications and applications of theories to keep topics from being too abstract. You should have had some courses in psychology but which ones does not matter very much. Readings will be assigned since no textbook exists. I will lecture but we will also stage some dialogues (not debates) so that questions, objections and understandings can surface. There will be two exams on conflicting or integrative issues (brief essays not memory quizzes). A paper will also be required. Student evaluations will be based on the paper, exams and the dialogues. Comments and suggestions on the course will be welcomed. (Withey)

590, 591. Honors III and IV. Psych. 390 and permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3 each). (Excl).

Psychology 590 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

Section 001. The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Burnstein)

Section 002. See Section 001. (Zajonc)

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