Romance Languages

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

100. Intensive Elementary French. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (8). (FL).

This course combines 101 and 102 in a single term. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of 101/102. The material corresponding to 101 is covered by mid-term, and that of 102 in the rest of the term. Classes meet twice daily, four times a week, in sections of 15-20 students. Homework is similar to that of 101/102, but the amount of weekly assignment is twice that of either 101 or 102. There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations and a speaking test. The final examination is identical to that of 102 (Fall Term only).

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French may elect this course only on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department, and in the sections specified for them. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Students with previous French study in high school are not permitted to enroll in sections 001-006.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is not open to students who have begun instruction elsewhere.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 2-3 years in high school) whose proficiency is not yet sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves with a rapid pace, covering about 60 per cent of the French 101 material by midterm, and about 60 per cent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 per cent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

107. French for Voice Majors. Open only to students enrolled in the School of Music. (4). (Excl).

This course presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary mostly for passive recognition. Most of the exercises are done with open books, with emphasis on pronunciation and translation. Reading consists of expository prose, poems, songs, and libretti of operas. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 18-23 students. Homework is basically translation and work on phonetics in the language laboratory. There are weekly quizzes, midterm and final examinations, and pronunciation tests. There is no prerequisite for French 107.

121. Elementary: Alternate. Permission of department. (3). (FL).

The alternate sequence French 121/122/123 covers the same materials studied in 101/102, but in three consecutive terms instead of two. The objectives of the regular and alternate sequences are identical: French 121 covers the first 2/3 of the 101 material, 122 the last 1/3 of 101 and first 1/3 of 102, and 123, the last 2/3 of 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes, written homework to turn in, course-wide midterm and final examinations, and speaking tests. Enrollment in the sequence 121/122/123 is by special permission only.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term.) It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track.
The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of literary and journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. In addition, there will be one short speaking and listening comprehension test.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track:
see French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 and 306 are minicourses for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. (Only French 305 is offered Fall Term.) They are organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in sections varying between ten and sixteen students. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (there is a new listening comprehension program), simulations, two novels, one play. Weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. Also, one weekly lecture on some linguistic problems and cultural aspects of modern France is tentatively scheduled for all sections together, as part of the three hours per week required. (M. Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).
Section 002.
This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical and syntactic difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Course emphasis is on conversation and discussion. Classes meet three times a week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, one novel and one play, simulations. One weekly lecture is tentatively scheduled for all sections together, as part of the three hours per week required. (M. Gabrielli)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of "faux amis", finding "le mot juste"); (c) development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight, sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (at least one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Carduner)

372. Problems in Translation. French 361 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a course in ENGLISH to FRENCH translation. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may be occasionally devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts of different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes and a final examination. (Mermier)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the language of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is built around a fictitious company: EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, exports, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, etc. The activities of EUROSPORT will need constantly to be revitalized so as to serve as a point of reference in facilitating the creation of actual business situations in class through various techniques, especially simulations. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. There will also be a number of translation exercises. Students will write three medium length papers and take a final exam. Course-pack. Twenty students only. (M. Gabrielli)

453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with French phonology and morphology from a structural point of view. In phonology, English and French vowels, consonants, syllabic structures, and prosodic features are compared. Students learn to describe French sounds accurately, explain causes of pronunciation problems encountered by speakers of American English, transcribe sentences using phonetic symbols, and read phonetic transcriptions of dialogues. In morphology, the evolution of French sounds and words, and the formation of words through compounding and derivational processes constitute the main topics. The course is conducted in French. Class time is divided into lectures, discussion, and travaux pratiques. There are three one-hour tests. (Hagiwara)

456/Rom. Ling. 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course consists of four major components: phonology, morphology, syntax and psycholinguistics. In each component, discussions of theories are combined with practical problem-solving. Students are introduced to different fields of linguistics: a contrastive study of English and French phonology; a linguistic method of analyzing the French language; problems of teaching pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary at the first-year college level; and an evaluation of different teaching methods, techniques, and available materials. The course is conducted in English. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and travaux pratiques. There are midterm and final examinations and a paper. High proficiency of spoken and written French is required. No previous knowledge of linguistics or phonetics is necessary. (Hagiwara)

Civilization

384. Civilisation française. French 361. (3). (HU).

This course attempts to give the student a sense of the complexity of French history. It focuses on a few key periods: The Gallo-roman period, the Medieval times, the Renaissance, the age of Louis XIV, the enlightenment and the industrial revolution. It is less the sequence of events that interest us than the evolutions of institutions and "mentalites", the daily life: work habits and leisure activities, and the transformations of the society. The course pack contains a great variety of documents. The reading concentrates on "souvenirs" and "memoirs"; a few highly representative novels with a strong documentary value are also read (Stendahl, Balzac, Zola). Three classes per week. The course is conducted in French. Three papers and a final exam. (Carduner)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. French 387, 388, and 389 are offered Fall Term, 1983. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and to introduce them to the methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Active student participation will be encouraged. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, Le Cid, Molière , Le Tartuffe, Racine, Phedre, Voltaire, Candide, Rousseau, Les Reveries du promeneur solitaire. Grades will be based on a short paper on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French. (Gray)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of nineteenth-century French literature. We shall study the themes of ambition, avarice and solitude in novels by Stendhal, Balzac and Flaubert. We shall also read poems from Les Fleurs du Mal by Baudelaire. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages will then be discussed in class. Students will be required to write some six to seven papers in French of two to three pages in length. Each paper will be corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades will be based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Morton)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

French literature in the twentieth century has mirrored the rapid evolution of some very fundamental notions: What is true? What is good? What is human? As the course traces the evolution of French reflection on these ideas, in works of Gide, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, and one or two others, some more recent questions should arise concerning the worth and the role of human language and of literature. Readings and class discussions in French, with an eye to improving student skills in both. Approximately four short, creatively critical papers and a final examination are required. (Nelson)

433/Afroamerican Studies 433. African/Caribbean Francophone Literature in Translation. A literature course or any course dealing with the Black experience in Africa or the Americas. (3). (HU).

As a general introduction to francophone West Indian and African literatures, this course will focus on a few representative texts and will also provide a critical and historical overview of cultural and literary theories or movements that have been of some importance in these two parts of the francophone Black world. Starting with Negritude (a necessary point of reference), we will move to a consideration of its antecedents in Haiti (Indigenism) and the USA (the Harlem Renaissance) before turning to various attempts at going beyond Negritude in the West Indies Antillanite and Black Africa (Authenticity, Negrism etc..). Readings will include Maran's Batouala, Roumain's Masters of the Dew, Kane's, Ambiguous Adventure, Depestre's Rainbow for the Christian West, Cesaire's Season in the Congo and Laye's Dark Child. General class participation, oral class participation, oral reports and three fairly short papers will account for the final grade. (Ngate)

438/MARC 444. Introduction to the Reading of Old French Texts. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course is devised to give students the ability to read a variety of Old French texts (some including Occitan texts) from the year l000 to the end of the Fifteenth century. Texts will be available in course pack form. Students will be given class assignments, basically to prepare a translation into French or English of the text and to have an understanding of the basic philological principles of the words and of the sentence structure. In the course of the discussion of the language, which is the focus of the course, points of literature will be introduced. Students will be evaluated on their performance in class and on a final examination or equivalent. Knowledge of some Latin helpful, but not essential. No previous work in Medieval literature or language required. (Mermier)

451, 452. Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3 each). (HU).

Le cours traite de la generation nee vers 1870: Andre Gide ( L'Immoraliste), Paul Valery (Album de vers anciens et Charmes), Marcel Proust (Un amour de Swann ) et Paul Claudel (L'Announce faite a Marie), ainsi que sur l'oeuvre de Guillaume Apollinaire et Andre Breton (respectivement: Alcools et Calligrammes, et Le manifeste du surrealisme ). Le cours pourrait porter comme titre: <<les heritiers du symbolisme et la tentative de depassement operee par le Surrealisme>>. (Muller)

475. Symbolism. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

"To say that literature has its own language, one which does not coincide with its natural language but it is superimposed on that language, is merely another way of saying that the literature possesses an exclusive, inherent system of signs and rules governing their combination which serve to transmit special messages, nontransmittable by other means." (Jurij Lotman). The course will attempt to uncover the "signs" and "rules" of the more-than-denotative language of symbolism. The majority of the exploration will take place in poetry; after brief reference to the pre-symbolist Baudelaire, we will undertake analysis of poems by Verlaine, Rimbaud, Laforgue, Mallarme, and the post-symbolist Paul Valery. The course includes a rapid introduction to the function of symbolism in non-poetic texts (short passages from Huysmans, Claudel, Proust. Four or five short papers (original analyses of poems) and a final examination. Readings, lectures and discussions in French. (Nelson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination.

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History. (3). (HU).

Through lectures, slides, and films supplemented by readings, this course presents a survey of Italy's cultural achievements in their historical context from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to the present. Students with diverse interests and backgrounds - art history, literature, Italian relatives, music, etc. will be able to pursue specialized topics within the general historical outline. Topics include Renaissance art and literature, music and the rise of opera, the unification and industrialization of modern Italy, with some attention to contemporary cinema and Italian-American history. Required are a ten-page paper, a midterm, and a final examination. The course is taught in English, but students with a background in Italian will have the opportunity of reading some texts in the original. (Marsh)

363. Advanced Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Intended to polish the skill students have acquired through the 101-232 language sequence. The organization of the class is flexible in order to accommodate the varying needs and interests of students in each term. Generally, the material presented will concentrate on the culture and the literature of modern Italy; occasional lessons on grammar review.

387. Italian Renaissance Literature. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Readings include selections from Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Castiglione, Ariosto, and Tasso. The class is usually taught in Italian although the instructor is always amenable to discussion in English. Grading is based on brief paper, class discussion, a midterm and a final examination (to be written in English). This course along with Italian 388 is a survey of Italian literature from the Middle Ages to the present. The class welcomes concentrators from other Romance languages as well as students who have traveled in Italy and who wish to learn more about Italian culture. Readings are selected with the aim of providing a very broad picture of the literature of Italy rather than with the aim of studying any single author at length. Since the class enrollment is seldom more than eight, the needs and interests of each student can be given attention. Furthermore, such small enrollment usually contributes to a cordial atmosphere. (Marsh)

475, 476. Dante. Italian 232 or equivalent is prerequisite for 475; Italian 475 is prerequisite for 476. (3 each). (HU).

Study of the Divina Commedia and its diverse figural and allegorical implications. Students will be required to write two short papers each of five pages on a specific aspect of a canto, Dante's position with regard to classical mythology, or biblical sources. The written work as well as class participation will form the basis for the final grade. The course is conducted in Italian. Papers and class participation may be in English. (Budel)

481. Boccaccio, Bandello, and the Novella. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course, conducted in Italian, will discuss early short fiction such as the Novellino, and will focus on Boccaccio's new narrative concept of the novella as realistic portraiture vs. medieval typology, including woman's station in contemporary society. Comparison of Bandello's approach to the same problem from a Renaissance vantage point. Students will be required to write two short papers of five pages each. The final grade is based on the written work as well as on class participation which may be in English. (Budel)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101, 102. Elementary Portuguese. Portuguese 101 is a prerequisite for 102. (4 each). (FL).

Only Portuguese 101 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

Portuguese 101 is an introductory course in the Portuguese language as spoken in Brazil and is designed for beginning language students. The approach is audio-lingual and cognitive with oral and written exercises, weekly examinations. Required text: Ellison et. al., Modern Portuguese.

231, 232. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent is prerequisite to 231; Portuguese 231 or the equivalent is prerequisite to 232. (4 each). (FL).

Only Portuguese 231 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

Portuguese 231 is designed to enhance and develop students' speaking, reading, writing, and understanding of modern Portuguese. It is the sequel to Portuguese 102 and assumes exposure to the grammatical system of the language. Students will read selected short stories and novels by Brazilian authors, do grammatical exercises, write guided essays and converse in Portuguese. There will be bi-weekly examinations. Texts: Magro and De Paula, Leituras Brasileiras Contemporaneas; Jose Mauro de Vasconcelos, O Meu Pe de Laranja Lima. (Brakel)

473. Introduction to Brazilian Literature. A reading knowledge of Portuguese. (3). (HU).

This course surveys major works of Brazilian poets, novelists, and dramatists from the Romantic period to the present day. A student is expected to have reading knowledge of Portuguese; the classes will be conducted in that language. Grades will be given according to student performance in class. Required text: William Irmscher, The Nature of Literature. (Brakel)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics, and to attract students to a specialization program. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages: A Linguistic Introduction, and it is supplemented by handouts. (Leonard)

456/French 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See French 456. (Hagiwara)

503/Latin 503. History of the Latin Language I: 600 - 1 B.C. Latin 221 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

See Classical Linguistics 503. (Pulgram)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

100. Intensive Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (8). (FL).

This course covers in one term what is ordinarily covered in a two-term sequence (Spanish 101 and Spanish 102). Students receive eight credit hours, and the class meets two hours per day, four days each week. Arrangements are frequently made for interested class members to meet during the noon hour for informal conversation in Spanish. This course necessarily requires a greater commitment of time and effort than that required in a nonintensive course and is designed especially for students whose interest in Spanish goes beyond the level of merely satisfying the foreign language requirement. It is recommended that students have either previous language background or show an aptitude or facility for language acquisition.

101. Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

For students with no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and l02 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 23l. Transfer students should elect Spanish l02 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. (Wolfe)

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100, 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to provide conversation practice in the language structures learned during the first year; to improve the reading ability of students; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, culture, and outlook of Spanish-speaking peoples. Class readings include cultural selections and short stories. Course grade based on three evening exams, other written work (including compositions) and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. The course centers around discussion in Spanish of selected Spanish and Spanish-American works of literature. Course grade is based on three evening exams, other written work (including compositions) and oral participation in class.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. The course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

361, 362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent is prerequisite to Spanish 361; Spanish 361 is prerequisite to 362. No credit granted for 361 or 362 to those who have completed 360. (3 each). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is offered Fall Term, 1983.

Section 003. This course will emphasize the strengthening of skills in oral expression in Spanish, listening comprehension and the development of vocabulary. Students will be expected to do some individual review of grammar and vocabulary at home, along with preparation of selected texts. Classwork will include conversation based on the readings, oral presentations, debates, group and individual oral projects; listening practice based on radio broadcasts and other taped materials. Students will be evaluated on the basis of their performance in class and also through oral exams with the instructor. (Gomez)

453. Advanced Syntax. Spanish 361 and 362. (3). (Excl).

This course is a detailed analysis of specific syntactic problems such as theory of the tenses of the verb, the subjunctive mood, structure of simple and compound sentences. Three classes per week. (Dvorak)

Literature

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

La Civilizaciòn de Espa a es una muestra interesante de la historia humana: desde las pinturas paleoliticas de Altamira hasta la obra de Picaso, pasando por la presencia de finicios, griegos, romanos y visigodos en la Antiguedad, por la convivencia de cristianos, musulmanes y judios en la Edad Media, por la expansion imperial en la Edad Moderna, y por la reduccion a sus limites actuales en el siglo XIX. Las clases se dictan en espanol y se ilustran con lecturas de textos fundamentales y con proyecccion de transparencias. Los estudiantes realizaran un trabajo de investigacion sobre un tema especifico y examenes parciales a lo largo del curso. (Lopez-Grigera)

482. The Spanish Picaresque Novel. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

La llamada "novela picaresca" es uno de los generos mas peculiares y ricos de la literatura espanola. Con Lazarillo de Tormes (l554) comienzan dos fenomenos fundamentales de la novela moderna: los "cambios de fortuna" de los personajes dejan de estar impulsados por causas extra humanas para empezar a depender de la mutua interaccion de los propios personajes, y todo en ella, acciones y personajes, es verosimil.. Se leeran y comentaran en clase las tres grandes cumbres del genero: Lazarillo, Guzman de Alfarache (Mateo Aleman) y El Buscon (Francisco de Quevedo). A traves de otras varias obras del siglo XVII, del XVIII y del XX se llegara a una definicion del genero. El profesor expondra los fundamentos del curso y guiara el analisis de cada obra. Los estudiantes deberan hacer dos investigaciones sobre asuntos especificos, que presentaran oralmente a la clase y por escrito. Habra examenes parciales. (Lopez-Grigera)


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