Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110(101). Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is designed to give students a general view of the western tradition as it developed in Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire down to the seventeenth century. I assume that many of you will have had no exposure to the evolution of some of our most important traditions like the Christian Church (both as an institution and as a body of doctrines); the capitalist economy; the renaissance and reformation; and the growth of the modern state. I shall examine these various problems in lectures, always giving consideration where appropriate to cultural developments such as art, architecture, and music, and then break the class down into small study groups for discussion. In these sections you will have the opportunity to follow up on the lectures and to work in depth on problems of your own interest. Readings will be in primary sources such as the Bible and in historical analyses such as H. Miskimin The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe. The requirements for the course will be a midterm examination and a final examination. In addition, you will have an opportunity to write three short papers that will be analyzed for content, organization, and style; so that you develop your writing skills as well as your analytic capabilities. (Vann)

111(102). Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with Europe since 1700 in broad outline, focusing on large-scale changes in the economy, society and politics. The lectures will not provide basic narrative accounts of each country's history, but will be organized around general themes, making reference to individual countries for illustration. For this reason it is important to follow the course through the assigned text-book and the associated readings, as the lectures have to leave a lot of background knowledge understood. The aim of the course is not just to communicate facts, but to deal with general ideas, and to introduce the problems of interpreting historical change or its absence. Assignments: critical review, midterm and final. (Eley)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 121. (Arnesen)

151(101)/Asian Studies 111. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Murphey)

160(331). United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on changing notions of what American, both as a society and as a polity, stands for. It will turn first to the sources of the growing American self-consciousness in the 18th century: will describe the vision embraced by the founding fathers; will explain the forces which produced a mutation in that vision, creating Jacksonianism; will develop the seeds of self-destruction in the Jacksonian creed; will explain the sources of the suicide of Jacksonian America and the birth of the industrial faith; and will seek to define the residuum which each of these historical movements contributed to modern America. There will be a midterm and a final examination. Weekly assignments will amount to perhaps 150 to 200 pages, and will be drawn both from primary sources and from secondary comments. Though designed as a survey, the course presupposes some vague familiarity with the structure of American history; and will therefore desert the strictly narrative, for emphasis on certain episodes and movements which possess symbolic value. (Thornton)

161(332). United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 is designed to trace via talks, discussion sections and books America's history from 1865 to the present. The course will attempt to offer, with consistency, an analytical framework of usefulness to those trying to comprehend America. Its principal themes will be those of small-town America and its ideological persistence; the rise of an opposing set of values embodied in bureaucratic institutions; and the continuing tension between local and national values in such issues as race, religion, women's rights, foreign policy, government regulation, etc. The talks and a significant number of the books will also attempt to convey the varieties of personal experience so important to this period. The course meets four hours each week: Two in lecture and two in a discussion section. Tentative marking requirements include a short paper, a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 161. (Linderman)

196 Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).

In addition to readings (and writing assignments) on what history is, approaches to history by certain great historians and other methodological issues, a major course paper will be carried out based on archival work at the Michigan Historical Collection. (J. Fine)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200(311). Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

History 200 is a survey of Greek history (with an occasional glance at events in the Middle East) from the Minoans/Mycenaeans to Alexander's conquest of Persia. Through lectures and discussion sections translations of eight or nine Greek classics will be read the following topics will be explored: the end of the Mycenaean civilization and the Dark Age; the emergence of Athenian democracy; the formation of the Athenian Empire and its dissolution; Greek-Persian relations to the death of Alexander. Each student will be asked to complete the midterm exam or a paper and to take a final examination. (Adams)

211(314)/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100 1500. (4). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contacts with the East were re-established, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved West over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Some specific topics to be covered include the demands of the secular world for greater religious experience; definitions of orthodoxy and the development of the Inquisition; scholastic thought and Western creativity; feudalism, chivalry, and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and a fascination with the macabre. Modern interpretations of the period will be supplemented with readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.). In addition to a midterm and a final examination, students will write a book report and a paper. This is a lecture course, but some periods will be reserved for discussion. (Hughes)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "diginity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945 1975. (4). (SS).

The course treats the Vietnam War both as part of an ongoing revolution within Vietnamese society and as the product of Western interventions in that revolution. It will look at the background of Vietnamese nationalism in the period of French colonialism and coalescence of that nationalism with a militant revolutionary movement. The resulting foreign wars, first with France and then with the U.S., will be discussed in the context of post-World War II global tendencies, including movements for national liberation, Western responses to these movements, and American policies for containing Communism. Special attention will be given to the manner of U.S. involvement in and extrication from Vietnam. There will be assigned readings from different points of view, three 50-minute lectures and a 50-minute discussion section each week, midterm and final examinations, and an optional paper. (Lieberman and Staff)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

An introduction to British history from 55 B.C. (Caesar's invasion) to 1688 (William of Orange's invasion). Particular attention will be given to the development and disintegration of several "British societies," i.e., the Anglo-Saxon, the medieval, and the early modern. A textbook will provide the basic framework for the historical narrative and lectures will supplement rather than repeat the text. Other readings will include literary as well as historical works. There will be an hourly examination, a final examination and a brief paper. The course format will primarily be lectures, with class sessions allotted for discussion. (Herrup)

250(543). China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of Chinese history from the Neolithic Age to the early 1800s, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

283(263). Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

287(270)/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the periods of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (R. Suny)

316(443). History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (4). (SS).

The course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of eight to ten pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

324/Religion 324. The Biblical and Patristic Roots of Christian Mysticism. (3). (HU).

See Religion 324. (Dutton)

332(391)/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

371(288)/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

A survey of the history of American women with particular emphasis on social, economic, and intellectual aspects. The course will examine the historical position of women within the family and the society, focusing on such problems as separate spheres, the nature of women's work, the implications of class, the rise of the "lady", changing notions of sexuality, the meaning of education, and feminism. Readings (approximately one book a week) will include historical studies, fiction, social commentary, and anthropological articles. In addition to a midterm and a final, students will write several papers.

384(470). Modern Jewish History 1880 1948. (4). (SS).

The course centers on a number of themes: Jewish responses to developments in late nineteenth-century Europe and Russia including socialism, migration, and Zionism; the impact of twentieth-century European culture on Jewish thought; the rise of modern anti-Semitism and its culmination in the Holocaust; the decline of Jewish settlement in Europe, Russia, and North Africa and the creation of new Jewish centers in the United States and Israel. The readings will be drawn from books and articles. There will be two exams and a comprehensive take-home final. (Weinberg)

396 History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 The Art of History from Herodotus to Machiavelli.
This course is intended to introduce students to ancient, medieval, and Renaissance historiography through reading classic examples of the art of history selected from this 2000-year span. We will begin with some of the historians of ancient Greece and Rome - -Herodotus and Thucydides, Livy and Sallust and examine what they considered to be the proper subject matter of history and how they interpreted and expressed that matter. We will then explore the transformation of historiography in the Middle Ages as new subjects were treated in new ways and for new ends, the historians of the Church, chronicles of the crusades, and universal chronicles. Finally, we will study the revival of the matter and form of classical historiography in the Italian Renaissance, as exemplified in works by Leonardo Bruni, Angelo Poliziano, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Francesco Guicciardini. Throughout the course, our focus will be on the ways in which people have used the writing of history to order and interpret chaotic experience. Students will write several short papers on assigned topics, a longer paper on a topic selected in consultation with the instructor, and a final exam. (Bornstein)

Section 002 The Mongols. This is a seminar on the Mongols and their impact on Asia, the Near East, and Europe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Students will study and discuss various topics touching the Mongols and/or those societies which the Mongols conquered. Most of the readings will come from translated documents of the period; students will also read and discuss some modern studies as well as relevant anthropological literature. Students will be responsible for discussion in class and will prepare a number of short reading reports. (Lindner)

Section 003 Technology and Society Through the Ages. The objective of this colloquium will be to study the history of technological development and its interactions with society. The course will be broad and comparative, looking at developments from Neolithic times to the present in different cultures. The major course assignment will be an in depth survey of the relationship between social and technological development in one culture. (Steneck)

397 History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 American Political Development.
This course is concerned with the political development of the U.S. from the early days of the nation to the present. The course is also premised on the view that the better understanding of the difficulties and problems facing the nation can be gained by considering them in relation to historical experience and to the processes of change which the nation has undergone. In this sense the course can be seen as an effort in "applied history." An underlying argument is that political institutions, practices and attitudes are formed in particular historical circumstances but persist long after circumstances have changed. One consequence is political stability, but another is constraint upon the capacity of the nation to adapt to new circumstances and difficulties. Thus one of the goals of the course is to assess for the contemporary period, the consequences of the persistence of political attitudes and approaches to government from the past into the present and the future. (Clubb)

Section 004 Feudalism in Japan and Europe. In this course, we will be examining the question of whether or not feudalism is a useful intellectual construct for ordering our understanding of the medieval histories of Japan and Western Europe. We will begin by studying the ways in which a number of continental historians have used "feudalism" in their writings, and then move on to an examination of medieval England as a case study of European feudalism. In the last part of the course, we will read a variety of English-language treatments of "Japanese feudalism," and attempt to discover how meaningful a concept feudalism really is in that context. Grading in this course will be based on three papers, two of 5-7 pages, and one of 8-10. Readings will range from the empirical studies of such English scholars as Maitland and Stenton to the Marxist theory of Perry Anderson. The papers will be based on the readings for the course. (Arnesen)

Section 005 Northern Renaissance. The course will treat the impact upon northern Europe of a variety of intellectual and cultural activities originating in Italy during the Renaissance. Special attention will be paid to the writings of the humanists on education, rhetoric, language, politics, religion and the arts. The influence of humanistic ideas on these topics will be considered for western Europe in general, with particular attention on France and England. After reading two classic historical accounts comparing north and south European culture (J. Burckhardt and J. Huizinga), the following thinkers will be discussed: Erasmus, More, Rabelais, Montaigne, Bacon, Shakespeare, and Jonson. Discussions will focus on social factors favorable to the migration of ideas, forms and motifs from south Europe to the North. Here we shall deal expressly with the reception of such Italian texts as Boccaccio's Decameron, Petrarch's poetry, Machiavelli's The Prince, and Castiglione's The Courtier. Students will be required to do reports and book reviews. (Becker)

Section 007 Soldiers, Diplomats, Merchants and Missionaries: The American Involvement in Modern Japan. This course concerns one aspect of the encounter between the U.S. and Japan. It deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It focuses on individual Americans from different walks of life government representatives military figures, businessmen, government advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers, and explorers - -their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as a way of examining the broader involvement of Americans in the history of modern Japan. Each student will prepare three biographical sketches. Grades will be based on class discussions of readings and on the quality oral reports and assigned papers. (Hackett)

Section 008 Politics, Power and the Development of the Public Sector in America. What historical forces have helped to shape the public sector in contemporary America? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists to analyze the development of the public sector at local, state, and national levels in pre-New Deal America. The course will be conducted as a colloquium and, therefore, will be organized around weekly meetings to discuss assigned readings which will include both theoretical works and historical case studies. Among the former will be pluralist and neo-Marxist theories of power and the state, and collective choice theories and models of political mobilization. Historical case studies will focus on the relationships among socio-economic change, political action, and demands for the expansion of the public sector at critical moments in the nation's history. Of particular interest in the case studies will be the question of from where demands for the expansion of the public sector originated. Students will write brief, weekly papers on the assigned readings and longer papers comparing theoretical and historical works. (McDonald)

Section 009 The Role of Death in American Society. The course will analyze the manner in which American society has dealt with death in the past as well as today. The emphasis will be on class discussions of primary and secondary materials dealing with the reaction of Americans to death. Students will have an opportunity to explore some particular aspect of this topic in more detail in a long term paper for the course. (Vinovski)

Section 011 Alexander the Great. Recent archaeological discoveries in Greece and fresh studies of Philip and Alexander have rekindled debate on the personality, motives, and exploits of the Macedonian conqueror. Through readings, discussion, reports, and papers this course will explore several topics at the center of this debate: the reliability of the ancient accounts; the significance of the recent archaeological discoveries at Vergina; Macedonia-Greek relations under Philip and Alexander; the issues that inspired that Greek-Persian hostility; the purpose and logistics of Alexander's campaign. In addition to participation in discussions of assigned reading, each student will be asked to write one review essay and one research paper of 20-25 pages. (Adams)

Section 012: Popular Culture and High Culture in Modern British History. This colloquium will focus on the relationship between two often antithetical notions of culture in a modern, industrial society. Topics for reading and discussion include: popular culture in Britain during the Industrial Revolution, intellectual responses in the Victorian era, the rise of mass culture, the impact of technology on communications, mass media and elite culture in the twentieth century. There will be two or three papers and a final examination. (Lemahieu)

399(394). Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

We will discuss practical problems of research. While there is an agenda, it is a flexible one. The main emphasis is on accommodating and discussing the problems that occur in the research of each individual student. As such it should help to reduce frustrations and anxieties. It should be added that this class does not and cannot replace close contact with the special thesis advisor. (J. Fine)

404(415). The Later Roman Empire. (4). (HU).

This course explores the major developments of the later Empire - e.g. the conflict between Paganism and Christianity, the problem of 'decline' through lectures, discussions, and reading of the ancient sources in translation. In addition to his/her participation in discussions, each student will be expected to write a midterm and final examination and to produce a term paper. Some familiarity with Roman history before A.D. 284 (through History 201 or an equivalent course) is desirable. (Eadie)

414(457). Northern Renaissance and Reformation. (4). (HU).

A survey of the major intellectual movements of the period 1450-1600, including scholasticism, humanism, political theory, Protestantism, and the Counter-Reformation. Almost all of the reading will be from primary sources, such as the writings of Aquinas, à Kempis, Erasmus, More, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, Loyola, and related documents (papal and conciliar decrees, creedal statements, and religious settlements.) There will be no assigned textbook, and lectures will be designed to provide the necessary background. There will be regular discussions and students will be encouraged to ask question about the material. Requirements: a midterm, three short essays on the assigned reading, and a final. (For requirements for three-credit course, see MARC 428.) (Tentler)

417(460). Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (4). (HU).

A lecture course devoted to the ideas characterizing the anti-positivist revolt, neo-romanticism and modernity and its discontents. Now that "modernism" as a movement is drawing to a close, it is possible to distinguish both its positive and negative elements and to establish its relationship to the rise of the totalitarian political movements of the 20th century and to post-modern political liberalism. "Modernism" will be defined in engendering experience, symbolic integration, philosophy and style. There will be a midterm and final examination. Students will write a term paper 2,500 words in length on "The Use of Myth as Integrative System by Modernists." The text is Roland N. Stromberg, An Intellectual History of Modern Europe, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1966). (Tonsor)

423(465). Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930s, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: modern European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

430(417). Byzantine Empire, 284 867. (4). (HU).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the history of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and conversion to Christianity (entering Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationships between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed: all that is sought is student interest. Freshmen and sophomores are welcome, and in past years freshmen have taken and done very well in the course. The textbook for the course is Ostrgorsky's History of the Byzantine State, take into consideration special interests, and a special reading list has been drawn up for those interested in Church History. Requirements: A midterm written hour exam (in place of which a half-hour oral exam may be taken). One ten-page paper (which can be used to replace the hour exam if the student chooses and takes on a more major project) and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J. Fine)

432(501). Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (SS).

The course covers the first seven centuries of recorded Russian history and focuses on such major topics as the Norsemen's conquest of Russia, the Golden Age of Kiev, the Mongol invasion, the rise of Moscow, relations with the West, expansion into Siberia, the Ukraine, and first contacts with China. During the first ten weeks, lectures follow a roughly chronological sequence (to the reign of Peter the Great). The last five weeks feature a series of survey lectures on special topics such as women in Old Russia, Jews and Jewish influences in Old Russian history, Cossacks, the rise of serfdom, Ivan the Terrible, aristocrats and bureaucrats, holy fools, problems in Old Russian culture, and legends and myths that shaped Russian history. The basic text is N. Riasanovsky's A History of Russia. Modest additional readings will be assigned. Questions and comments from the class during a lecture are welcome. The course is open to all students and assumes no prior knowledge of Russian history. (Dewey)

434(503). History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

A history of twentieth-century Russia, which concentrates on the social, political, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism as they developed before 1917, and as they were applied in domestic and, to some extent, foreign policies after 1917. Stress is placed on understanding Russian perspectives of Russian history, and on developing an awareness of important aspects of social development generally. Readings are drawn from various literary and historical monographs, rather than from a single text; and students are asked to integrate their own interests with the substantive material of Soviet history through class "projects," which may or may not be written term papers. There is also a midterm exam (with a graded/ungraded option as well as a take-home/in-class choice), and a final (graded, choice of take-home/in-class). (Rosenberg)

440(531)/GNE 470. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500 945. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 470. (Ehrenkreutz)

447(536)/CAAS 447. Africa in the Nineteenth Century. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 447. (Uzoigwe)

451(548). Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is W.G. Beasley, The Modern History of Japan, (Praeger, Rev. ed., 1974, pb). Other reading assignments will be organized with a course pack. (Hackett)

452(549). Premodern Southeast Asia. (4). (SS).

The course examines Southeast Asia from the earliest historic kingdoms to the European penetration of the mid-eighteenth century. It seeks to explain the emergence of distinctive Buddhist, Islamic, Confucian, and Hispanic zones, while at the same time answering the broader question: what regional traits and patterns of acculturation rendered premodern Southeast Asia a coherent historic unit? After describing the great classical civilizations (of Angkor, Burma, Vietnam, Srivijaya, and Java), the course analyzes the crisis of the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, and its implications for social and religious integration. European activities are seen as inaugurating the latest in a long series of maritime-based transformations. The course assumes no previous knowledge of Southeast Asia. There will be a variety of general and specialized readings, three 50-minute lectures a week, midterm and final exams, and an optional paper. (Lieberman)

454(588). The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (4). (HU).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

466(562). The United States, 1901 1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

468/American Instit. 468. Politics, Power, and the Public Sector in America, 1820-1920. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 468. (McDonald)

476(581). Hispanic America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. The approach is both thematic and chronological. Themes to be discussed include: the indigenous background to conquest; early interactions between Europeans and Indians; the institutional structures of empire; shifting uses of land and labor; the nature of settler society; class, race, and ethnicity; the character of 18th century reforms; and the social bases of the wars of independence. The major focus will be on Mexico and Peru, with some attention paid also to Brazil, Argentina, Central America and the Caribbean. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America will be the main text, with additional readings in works by Gibson, Crosby, Prescott, Taylor, Stein, and Lynch, and some primary materials by Columbus, Juan and Ulloa, and Humboldt. The method of instruction is lecture/discussion. Requirements include a short critical book review, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. (R. Scott)

488. The Left in Europe, 1789-1917. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the major democratic, socialist, and revolutionary opponents of the Old-Order in Europe and the critics of industrial capitalism from roughly the French Revolution to the Russian Revolution. Lectures will be presented on such topics as: Utopian socialism, Marxism and its evolution in the 19th century, the Paris Commune, the Russian populists, the origins of Bolshevism, European and Russian labor, and the revolutionary experiences of 1789, 1830, 1848, 1905, and 1917. Readings will include works by George Lefebvre, Robert Heilbrunner, Karl Marx, Leopold H. Haimson, Carl Schorske, and others. A research paper will be required as well as examinations. (Suny)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Webb)

516(425). History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (HU).

A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from earliest times until the fall of the Gaelic order. The course is conducted mainly by lecture. Students will write two briefer and one longer paper, and have a final examination. There are no prerequisites for the course though a prior course in later Irish history, or in Irish literature, or in ancient or medieval European history would be helpful. (McNamara)

551(545). Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (HU).

In this course, we shall seek the origins of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, which was so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely for antecedents and shall hear testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, bandits and warlords, cultural iconoclasm and conservative reaction, nationalism and women's liberation, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Mao's social vision and the People's Republic as a model of development.

Some familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful. Those entering the course without background should be ready to do some catch-up work. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write three short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

558(364). U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (SS).

An examination of American foreign policy to 1914, with special emphasis on the formative years (1775-1823) and America's entry into world politics (1898-1914). Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

566(573). History of the American City. (4). (SS).

History 566 is a general survey course of the history of American cities which is especially concerned with the period from the onset of the industrial revolution (circa 1840) to the present. It will consider cities primarily as systems of social relationships and focus upon the interactions among economic development, class structure, social differentiation, and political economy. Both chronological and topical approaches to the subject will be presented, and topics to be considered in some detail include the development of the urban class structure, the origins and professionalism of urban institutions such as police, schools, etc., machine and reform-style urban politics, the urban experience of racial and ethnic minorities, and the political economy of post World War II suburbanization, urban renewal, and central city fiscal crisis. On average there will be two lectures and one discussion of required reading per week. Students will read about ten paperback books, write an essay-type midterm and final examination, and prepare a brief (5-8pp.) interpretive essay based upon the course readings. Graduate students will be expected to accomplish an essay of greater length and complexity. (McDonald)

569(564)/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course examines the origins, development, and growth of American business. After tracing the beginning of business enterprise in Europe, the course describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation, the antitrust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920's, the impact on business of the 1929 depression and the New Deal, economic aspects of World War II, and the postwar business scene. Two quizzes, final exam. (Lewis)

571/Amer. Inst. 471. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 471. (Vinovskis)

581(429). Utopian and Millennial Movements. (4). (HU).

This course surveys past utopian and millennial movements and begins with a study of the most recent of them, the "counter culture" of the late 1960s. The course then takes a great leap backward to the beginnings of utopian idealism as represented by the prophetic message of ancient Judaism and the Christian apocalyptic vision. These two traditions are then compared with the Buddhist "Nirvana" and similar eastern ideals. After a rather brief review of the principal millennial trends of the middle ages, the course focuses on four utopian movements of modern times: the rationalist utopians of the French Revolution; communism from Hegel through Marx, Lenin, and Stalin to Mao; the Nazi vision of a "Third Reich"; and anarchism. The course then returns to the present with an analysis of recent and current communalism including an evaluation of the Israeli kibbutz. If time permits, modern science fiction as a form of utopian thought and sentiment will also be considered. (Mendel)

582(511). History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (SS).

This course traces the history of the criminal law in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: one short paper based on documents, a midterm and a final examination. (Green)

588(598). History of History II. (4). (HU).

An historiographical survey of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries stressing the development of historicism and its problems. The course places a major emphasis on the relationship of the development of method to philosophies of history. No text is employed. Students are expected to read four books of their own choice from an extensive bibliography and to write a critical 2,500 word paper. There is a midterm and a final examination. (Tonsor)

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