Courses in Linguistics (Division 423)

211. Introduction to Language. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the scope and methods of linguistic inquiry. It should enable students to acquire familiarity with the different branches of linguistics and to come to some appreciation of what linguists do. The course has two principal goals: to introduce many of the basic tools for studying language and to learn to use those tools to improve our understanding of language as we encounter it in our daily lives. One part of the course will examine principles for analysing sounds, words, sentences, and larger texts such as conversation and narratives. Another part of the course will explore how social factors affect language use. For example, students will look at differences between men and women, older and younger people, and ethnic groups. A study of how language changes will also be discussed. In the third part of the course the role of psychological factors in language is explored. As part of the assignments, students will study language in films, advertising, and politics. This course is not designed to meet the needs of any particular group but rather provides an opportunity for people from any discipline to find out what linguistics is all about. In general, undergraduates should enroll in Linguistics 211. Honors students and those undergraduates desiring to do graduate level assignments should enroll in Linguistics 411. (Manaster-Ramer)

311. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. (3). (HU).

Basic concepts and field techniques in linguistics will be introduced and explained in the course of exploring and describing, from word to discourse, a non-Western language. Several short papers. No prerequisites. Textbook: K.L. Pike, On Describing Languages. (Becker)

312. Introduction to Analysis of Sounds. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to two interdependent branches of the study of speech-sounds. These are: (1) phonetics, concerned chiefly with the analysis and classification of all the sounds that can be pronounced by human vocal tracts the total human sound-producing potential, and (2) phonology, concerned with the different ways in which particular languages utilize this universal human sound-potential. The approach to phonetics will be largely experimental, though non-instrumental: that is, students will discover the range of possible human sounds, and how they are produced, by systematic experimentation in their own vocal tracts. Thus, the categories used in the classification of all speech-sounds will be learned experientially as well as intellectually. The last third of the course, dealing with some basic concepts of phonology, will survey ways in which features of the universal human sound-potential are organized into the different sound-systems of particular languages. Examples will be drawn from English and a few other familiar languages. Text: a course-pack. Grading: by two tests of practical ability to analyse and describe sounds in the taxonomic categories of phonetics, and one test relating to phonology. Prerequisites: none (except an interest in language!). (Catford)

314. Introduction to Word Analysis. (3). (HU).

Much of what is commonly called 'grammar' word endings, verb and noun forms, paradigms, etc. falls within the linguistic area of morphology. This field deals with the internal structure of words and the meaningful pieces, or 'morphemes' (such as type, write, er, and s in English typewriters), from which they are made and through which grammatical and semantic relationships among words are expressed. This course will deal with morphological analysis in a wide range of language types. There will be frequent data analysis homework problems and a final project involving extended morphological analysis of a language of the student's choice. Text: Matthews: Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of Word-Structure. (Hill)

315. Introduction to Sentence Analysis. (3). (HU).

This is an introduction to what is commonly called syntax in a classical transformational framework. No prior knowledge of linguistics or of languages other than English is assumed. One of the most important facts about syntactic analysis is that it is based on argumentation: one cannot simply claim an analysis, one must argue for that analysis. Accordingly, this course concentrates on syntactic argumentation. We learn how to organize data, form logical hypotheses, argue for the best hypothesis, and test the predictions of our hypotheses. There are frequent problem sets and the students are strongly encouraged to meet in groups outside class to discuss the problem sets. There are no exams, papers, or regular readings. Near the end of the term there may be selected readings. The data we use will all come from the students' heads: sentences of natural languages. Class progresses by discussion, with student participation being crucial. This course should be of interest to language, mathematics, music, law, and philosophy "types" as well as anyone else who wants to build up skills in argumentation. (Napoli)

351. Second Language Acquisition. (3). (SS).

This is an introductory course in second language acquisition, dealing with how people learn foreign/second languages. We will first examine methodological issues necessary for the interpretation of second language data. The major part of the course will focus on topics of recent second language acquisition research, especially those that enable us to test proposed models of second language acquisition. Through data analysis problems students will have first-hand experience dealing with second language data. Given the introductory nature of this course, no prior coursework in second language acquisition is necessary. A course pack made up of selected readings will serve as the readings. The course is intended for all students who are interested in knowing more about how second languages are learned. (Gass)

354. Language and the Public Interest. (3). (SS).

This course examines the characteristics of language used in major American institutions. We will look at the written and spoken language of advertising, politics, medicine, psychotherapy, pharmacy, law, banking, insurance, and the schools. In addition, we will be concerned with factors thought to influence how language is used in these institutions such as the sex roles, social status, and degree of intimacy the participants in these institutions share. We will also explore how the spoken and written varieties of language used in these institutions differ and what consequences this has. There will be a series of brief assignments and one major course paper. (Keller-Cohen)

360. ESL Theory, Methods, and Tests I. One introductory course in linguistics. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to provide students with a sound theoretical and practical basis for language teaching. The background of knowledge and experiences it provides is intended not only for those interested in finding out about teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESL), but is also applicable to English teaching in general, and to foreign language teaching as well. A wide variety of topics related to language learning and teaching will be studied. The complexities involved in the teaching of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills will be investigated in detail. An evaluative consumer's guide to different language learning theories, teaching methods, and testing procedures will be developed to enable students to make informed choices for their own teaching requirements. Additional topics will include a study of situational needs for language use (e.g., language for business, language for science) with special attention to the language of the classroom. Throughout the course a general background of educational issues crucial to language teaching will be provided. There are no prerequisites. All students interested in language teaching are invited. (Ard)

370. Language and Language Policy of the USSR. (3). (Excl.).

The topics to be taken up in this course will include the different languages of the USSR (belonging to many families, very different in structure: a survey; classification); how and when they came to their present location (cf. Caucasian); history of linguistic studies in the USSR (much has been done by those exiled by czars); linguistic policy under czars and after the revolution of 1917 (e.g., the policy of russification, Moldavian versus Rumanian, the policy of preferences for "big" languages including new names for languages; linguistics studies in Russia (of languages present there; linguistics in republics: Lithuania, Estonia, Uzbekistan, Ukrainia, Moldavia, etc.). (Shevoroshkin)

409/Anthro. 472. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

See Cultural Anthropology 472. (Yengoyan)

411/Anthro. 475. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

This course introduces the discipline of linguistics, with major focus on developing the ability to make descriptive generalizations about linguistic systems of languages not known (beyond small data sets) to the students. We will concentrate on "descriptive" linguistics: phonetics (the nature of speech sounds), phonology (how speech sounds are organized), morphology (combinations of meaningful units into words), syntax (sentence formation), semantics (meaning), pragmatics (language use). We will also spend some time on comparative/historical linguistics, including: language origins, language variation and change, relationships among languages, linguistics as a method for studying prehistory. Textbook: Fromkin and Rodman: An Introduction to Language (second edition). (Hill)

420. Microcomputer Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The computer has been part of our culture a fixture in our hopes, plans, and nightmares for more than a generation. Recent developments in microcomputer technology have placed the power of the computer within the reach of virtually everyone...if we can manage to grasp it. Computers are useful only to the extent that they can meet people's needs, and this depends on the ways that exist to communicate these needs to the computer. Just as in human communication, these take the form of languages. This course is designed for linguistics students and others with a strong interest and thorough grounding in Language and languages. We will begin with the theory and practice of microcomputer operation, then proceed to editing and wordprocessing, learning and analyzing several command languages in the process. Further topics covered include documentation and its production, user interface design, types of programming languages, and text analysis of representative technical material and advertising. The thrust of the course is on applying Linguistic methods and findings to real problems in microcomputer software design and use. Prior programming knowledge and experience is useful but not required. There will be homework, several writing assignments, and a final term project, done on a microcomputer. The text is Cortesi, Inside CP/M, and course packs. Students must have had at least an introductory course in Linguistics. (Lawler)

442/Anthro. 478. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

Introduction to the use of language in its social context, and to the analysis of natural linguistics data. The course involves some field work, ;and covers bilingual and multilingual communities, language and politics, language and social issues, social variation in language, conversational interaction.

485. Linguistic Typology. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

There are hundreds of languages in the world how different can they be? And how similar, and what are the reasons for these similarities? What differences are there between the surface level and the deep level of language organization? And why is it that the similarities among languages are best perceived at the deep level? To what extent can all the variety of thoughts conveyed by languages be described by several dozen elementary meanings? What are language universals? What are the rules of language change? In what ways do today's languages differ from the languages which existed 10,000 years ago? How can we understand the striking similarities between such distant languages as those of American Indians and the languages of the Caucasus? (Shevoroshkin)

492. Topics in Linguistics. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Language Paradigms and Verbal Art.
This course will explore the deep indebtedness of creative writers to the theories current in the worlds in which they wrote. These theories at the most fundamental level are often born in the work of linguists. This course seeks to interrelate language and literature, language as an object of analysis and as a communicative device. It is a course that attempts to form a bridge between current trends in linguistics per se and those in literature, particularly literary criticism. There will be a one page paper each week; no exams. (Markey)

510/Anthro. 576. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Anthropology 576. (Mannheim)

Language Courses

170. English as a Foreign Language. Students will be placed in 170 based on the English Language Proficiency Examination. (4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for non-native graduates and undergraduates who have sufficient language proficiency to be admitted to the University but who need to improve their language skills to perform successfully in academic work. For example, some students may have difficulty expressing themselves in writing, giving oral presentations, and understanding lectures. A prerequisite for placement in the course is a score in the 80's on the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. There are three hours per week of group instruction, discussion, and practice exercises. Students receive instruction and practice in the writing of well formed sentences, paragraphs, and essays. Library resources, research techniques, and the steps for developing a well organized and properly documented term paper are presented. Instruction is given in techniques of oral presentation and classroom discussion. Pronunciation instruction is provided on a tutorial basis and self-access listening comprehension materials are available in the language laboratory. Students are graded on a credit/no credit basis. A student receives a passing grade if she or he has attended classes regularly and satisfactorily completed specified assignments, including the final end of term research paper. (Soden)

180. English for Foreign GSTAs. Teaching assistants will be placed in 180 on the basis of pre-session testing. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for students who do not pass the special English Language Skills Test for Teaching Assistants. Instruction will be given twice a week in two hour sessions and in additional small group work. The course will focus on oral presentations in the student's own field of study. Extensive use of video-taping and critiquing will be included. Topics to be covered will include: (1) methods of organization for oral presentation; (2) public speaking skills; (3) classroom interactional skills; (4) intensive audio and video pronunciation workshop instruction. Students will be tested on pronunciation early in the course, and when necessary assigned to special self-study pronunciation work in the language laboratory in addition to the pronunciation workshops. Note that this course is designed to meet the needs of non-native speakers of English. (Ard)

222 Elementary Ojibwa. (3). (FL).

This course is designed to give the conversational and cultural skills necessary to enable students to use Ojibwa in real life situations. The teaching methods are entirely inductive, and the role of writing is downplayed. There is considerable emphasis on teaching culturally appropriate behavior, and the simple conversational patterns of greetings, leave takings, introductions, table talk, etc. There is no prerequisite for the course. (Rhodes)

301 Thai. (4). (FL).

This course is the first half of the sequential Elementary Thai courses. The emphases are on practicing pronunciation and simple conversation, reading and writing simple Thai, and expanding students' vocabulary. Four hours of language lab per week are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

307 Elementary Tagalog. (4). (FL).

This course is designed for those students who wish to learn Tagalog and to acquire a reading and speaking knowledge of it and for those students who wish to learn about Tagalog structure from a linguistic viewpoint. The first kind of student is a specialist who wishes to learn Tagalog as a tool for conducting research in Philippine history, anthropology, political science, or linguistics, or in Austronesian linguistics or education in Southeast Asia. The second type of student is the linguist who wishes to gain or add comparative knowledge of a different linguistic system. Linguistics 307 begins a two-term sequence which emphasizes against a background of Philippine culture Tagalog pronunciation, word formation processes, and basic sentence structure. By the end of the first year, students should have acquired a competence in spoken Tagalog and should be ready for intermediate level reading. Language laboratory tapes are assigned, and there are question and answer sessions in class. Once a week a class session is devoted to a lecture/discussion of Tagalog structure. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination, part of which is oral. For those students whose primary interest is linguistics, a paper takes the place of the final examination. Tentative course texts and materials include J. Donald Bowen, editor, Beginning Tagalog; Schachter and Otanes, Tagalog Reference Grammar; language laboratory tapes prepared by UCLA and/or the instructor; and a Tagalog-English dictionary. A list of supplementary reading is given at the beginning of the term. (Naylor)

322 Intermediate Ojibwa. (3). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the basic conversational skills of the student who knows some Ojibwa. The emphasis in class is on increasing the range of situations in which the student can use Ojibwa in real life. Some emphasis is placed on teaching the students to be able to learn more Ojibwa outside of the classroom, by talking and using the language with native speakers. Linguistics 223 is a prerequisite, or some speaking knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

331/German 301. Elementary Yiddish. (3). (FL).

See German 301. (Norich)

401 Intermediate Thai. Ling. 302. (3). (FL).

This course is the first half of the sequential Intermediate Thai courses. It is designed to increase students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing abilities, as well as vocabulary expansion. Students practice pronunciation and conversation as well as read and write short paragraphs. Four hours of language lab per week are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

422 Advanced Ojibwa. Ling. 322 and 323, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is aimed at giving students with conversational ability in Ojibwa the opportunity to both improve their speaking and listening skills and to introduce them to Ojibwa literature, and the various dialects represented in the literature. Students will work with the original, unedited texts, as well as with edited, retranscribed materials, and thus learn about the problems of working in a language without a standard writing system that is widely accepted. The course prerequisite is Linguistics 323, or a conversational knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

433 Intermediate Tagalog. Ling. 314 or permission of instructor. (3). (FL).

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is part of a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Linguistics 307 and 308 must pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format of the course will be as follows: readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points and question and answer sessions in Tagalog on the content. There will be written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination part of which will be oral. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write brief letters, read certain plays, newspapers, magazines, etc. Course texts are: Intermediate Readings in Tagalog, ed. by Bowen; Tagalog Reference Grammar by Schacter and Otanes; and a Tagalog-English Dictionary. Supplementary readings will be assigned during the term. (Naylor)

501 Advanced Thai. Ling. 402. (3). (FL).

This course is the first half of the two sequential Advanced Thai courses. The course is designed to improve students' proficiency in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension of the Thai language. The course is flexible and tailored to suit students' needs and interests.

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