Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

What place does politics have in the pursuit of the good life? Are politicians free to behave immorally? Should a good person get involved in politics? A survey of the history of political theory, this course will focus on such questions. Along the way, we will explore the differences between ancient and modern society, and examine in what light political theory can shed on politics. No background is needed. Readings include Homer, Sophocles, Thucydides, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Rosseau, Marx, and Mill. Requirements: two 5-page papers, a midterm, and a final. Hourly lectures twice a week, and two hours of section meeting a week. (Herzog)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress, and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kind of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. (Kingdon)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence political life; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; the role of political institutions; and the analysis of contemporary political conflicts. The course will offer two lectures per week, plus two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of communication. (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this beginning course is to expose the student to the core questions that should be asked at any beginning of the study of international politics. Who are the major actors in international affairs? What kind of order exists in relations among nations? What mechanisms exist for change? What regularities exist in the behavior of actors toward one another that give shape and direction to the system? We shall try to get at some of the questions raised by using three of the major approaches students in the field utilize to select the behaviors they wish to study. One approach is to study the process of decision-making in foreign policy. Another approach is to study the effects that differences in national growth have on the politics among nations. A third way is to study the way the international system constrains the actions of individuals and groups. The major elements of the course are contained in four sets of lectures. (1) The decision-making approach; (2) effects of national growth on international politics; (3) problems and consequences of different types of international systems; (4) global trends in contemporary world politics including such topics as imperialism, neocolonialism, international economics and interdependence, developed-developing world relations, international organizations, and the limits to growth. There will be one, possibly two, exams during the term, plus a final. Other requirements may include a 12-15 page essay and such additional assignments as may be made by individual section leaders. (Organski)

210/Amer. Inst. 240. Introduction to the Political Economy of American Institutions. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 240. (Walker)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

300. Contemporary Political Issues. (4). (SS).

It is recommended that the student has taken at least Political Science 111. The course will focus on the implications of recent political change for the conduct of political campaigns and the governance of the country. Critical issues in the study of political behavior will be addressed by examining the following five questions: 1) How are candidates for political office evaluated by the public? 2) Does the recent increase in political independence indicate that Independents are alienated from political parties or that they think parties are irrelevant? 3) Is the electorate more ideological today than in the past? 4) Are non-partisan group attachments replacing political parties as the mobilizing force in American politics? 5) Does the media select our candidates for high office? (Markus)

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.
This course will center on the investigation and discussion of the various frameworks of analysis used to examine the roles of women in politics.

320. Chicano Politics and the Chicano Community. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended to be a critical examination into the study of Chicano Politics.

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on various dimensions of the Arab-Israeli conflict which is approached from numerous perspectives, among them: the history of Arab-Israeli antagonism, inter-Arab politics, superpower objectives in the Middle East, and the competing nationalisms of Israel and the Palestinians. Course requirements include a midterm and final examinations. (Green)

359/CAAS 351. The Struggle for Southern Africa. Lectures: 2 credits; lectures and discussion: 4 credits. (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 351. (Kamara-Swan)

391. Introductory Internship in Political Science. One 100-level course in political science, permission of supervising instructor before the internship period, and review by Department's internship adviser. Intended for non-concentrators. (2-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected for a total of 8 credits for both Political Science 391 and 392.

Supervised internship, primarily for non-concentrators. Requires the approval of the instructor and review by the department's internship coordinator. (2-4 each)

395/Econ. 395/REES 395/Slavic 395/Hist. 332/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

402. Development of Political Thought: To Modern Period. Junior standing or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is two-fold: (1) to give the student a sense of the history of political philosophy from the ancient Greek period to the end of the sixteenth century, and (2) to help the student become aware of the complexities and assumptions entailed in the articulation of a coherent political theory. We will be reading the works of such major political philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Machiavelli. We will be concerned with such issues as the basis for obligation, the sources of legitimacy, the role of the individual in the political community and the value and purpose of political life. Readings will be from primary sources. (Gondek)

408. Communist Political Thought: From Marx to the Present. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to Marxism and its development from Hegel to contemporary schools. Emphasis is placed on a thorough exploration of the basic ideas and concepts presented in the writings of Engels and Marx as well as on unresolved questions and contradictions in the Marxist heritage. Readings include extensive assignments from the writings of Marx, Engels, and Bolshevism. Each student is expected to write a major paper on a pertinent topic of the student's choice. The class format is a lecture/discussion combination. (Meyer)

409/CAAS 456. Comparative Black Political Thought. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a comparative analysis of Black political thought with the following themes: Africa and the Black Diaspora; A Vortex of Ideas; Pan-African and Pan-Black Movements; African Thought and the Legacy of Slavery; The Warrior Tradition in Black Political Cultures. Other topics include: Negritude, Nostalgia and Sacred Origins; Religion and Black Political Thought; Language, Literature, and Black Political Thought. Select Black thinkers, chosen from African, Caribbean and Black American writers and ideological leaders will be studied. (Mazrui)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This is a course about American public policies what they are, how they develop, and what difference they make. The purposes of the course are, first, to help students understand the enormous scope and variety of actions taken by the 80,000 or so American governments, and second, to help students learn how to think about public policy in the United States.

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

My aim in this course is to acquaint you with the political behavior of individuals, as it is conventionally studied in American political science. We will start by examining some of the assumptions that are the foundations for political science work investigating these matters. These foundational considerations cover normative proposals recommending criteria that desirable political systems ought to satisfy, factual observations concerning the institutional context in which ordinary individuals live and act, and theoretical proposals offering ways these matters can be studied. Then, though not really in strict sequence, we will examine some research covering several interrelated areas of political substance: political belief systems and political ideologies; partisanship; electoral (vote) choices; democratic political participation; and the nature of personal involvement in political affairs. My hope is that this way of introducing this field will both enable you to decide for yourself how adequate you think the usual political science treatments of individual political life are, and provide you with tools with which to articulate ways its approaches might be improved. Prior familiarity with political science work in these areas will be helpful, but it is not necessary. (Mebane)

412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Legal process will concentrate on the formal structure of the American court system, as well as on its rules, roles, and responsibilities. Our first aim will be descriptive, to depict as accurately as possible the innerworking of the state and federal courts. Our second aim will be theoretical, to understand the fragile nature of legal legitimacy, the reliance of law on complex social customs, the reconstruction of reality in a legal context and the relation between legal logic and other forms of reasoning. This course will require of the student a large commitment for reading and it will assume its students have flexible and critical minds. (Schepple)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the law of civil rights and liberties as it is derived from American constitutional interpretation. Attention will be devoted to (a) theories of civil liberty appropriate to a liberal democracy, with (b) application of such theories to specific areas of civil rights law drawn from the following: freedom of expression, political participation, and religion; equal protection and rights of minorities; rights of the accused; privacy, "life-style" issues, and control of personal information; as well as issues like access to the news media and private abridgment of freedoms.

415. The American Chief Executive. Pol. Sci. 111, 410, or 411; or junior standing. (4). (SS).

An advanced survey of the American presidency. Topics include the development of the institution, the selection of the President with special emphasis on the current election, installation and operation of the new administration, and the development of selected executive policies. A basic knowledge of American government and politics is requisite. In addition to the final examination, two one-hour examinations (one of which may be replaced by a term paper) are required as part of the grading pattern. There are two textbooks. Readings are required and extensive. (Grassmuck)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course describes the behavior of legislators and seeks to explain their actions. There is some emphasis on the U.S. Congress. Topics include decision-making in committees and on the floor, the informal legislative folkways, the place of political parties and leadership, and the relationships between legislators and constituents, interest groups, the executive branch, and the press.

423. Politics of the Metropolis. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the major demographic, social and economic trends in metropolitan areas and analyzes the governmental responses to these trends. The course will discuss urban elites, race and ethnicity, governmental forms, and conventional and nonconventional modes of participation.

431. Public Administration. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The focus of this course will be public bureaucracies and various ways of talking about them. The course will begin with an examination of what we mean by bureaucracy. Then, metaphors of bureaucracies (as systems based on expertise, as systems oriented to internal functioning, as systems oriented to external interest groups) will be explored. The readings will focus primarily at the national level, but the course itself will cover aspects of bureaucracies common to all levels. One or more papers, a midterm and final examination will be required. (Feldman)

438/Amer. Inst. 450. Ethics and Public Policy. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 450. (Chamberlin)

439/Econ. 425/Amer. Inst. 439. Inequality in the United States. Econ.. 201 or Poli. Sci. 111. (3). (SS).

See American Institutions 439. (Corcoran & Courant)

440. Comparative Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course provides an analysis of politics in contemporary western democracies, communist systems, and developing countries. The emphasis is on common patterns of governing, political behavior, emerging trends in different political systems. (Barnes)

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course will examine a set of ongoing trends that are transforming advanced industrial societies, including the U.S., Western Europe and Japan. We will deal with changes in the culture and values of these societies; changes in the ways people are organized, and how they participate in politics; and will examine the thesis that these societies may collapse within the next 50 years or so due to exhaustion of energy and mineral resources. The reading list consists of seven books, six of them paperbacks; a midterm and final exam and one term paper will be required. (Inglehart)

448. Governments and Politics of Latin America. Pol. Sci. 140 or 440; or a course on Latin America elected through another department. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of social and political conflict and change in contemporary Latin America. The class combines attention to major issues and trends with in-depth analysis of selected cases. Among the issues and cases to be considered in Fall 1984 are the following: the changing role of the Catholic Church, the expansion of the state, patterns of economic transformation and their political implications, formation and mobilization of peasantries, international influences on domestic politics. Detailed attention will be paid to cases such as Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Columbia. Class format combines lecture with discussion. This course is being offered in Fall 1984 as an upper-level writing course to satisfy ECB requirements. The writing requirement can be fulfilled either through preparation of a series of short papers with commentary and rewriting, or through preparation of a research paper. If the latter option is chosen, students will be expected to present a prospectus and outline, a bibliographical essay, and a draft of the paper before submission of the final paper. There will also be a midterm examination and a final examination. (Levine)

455. Government and Politics of China. (4). (SS).

The Chinese government is guiding nearly one-quarter of mankind through the industrial revolution. This historically unprecedented effort is being directed by a revolutionary party that gained power through a massive rural insurgency in a country that had over the centuries made world renowned achievements in culture and statecraft. Government and Politics of China uses these three broad dimensions China's traditions, the revolutionary history of the Chinese Communist Party, and the strains of the transition to industrial society to analyze the politics of the People's Republic of China since 1949. In addition to providing a detailed political history of the PRC, this course focuses on two efforts: (1) explaining key decisions in terms of both the political forces at play and the decision making processes themselves; and (2) understanding in depth the substantive issues on the current Chinese political agenda. There will be some treatment of foreign affairs, but the major effort centers on domestic politics. This course complements rather than overlaps with Political Science 428 but Poli. Sci. 428 is not a prerequisite for Poli. Sci. 455. Grades are based on a midterm and a final examination, and a paper. (Lieberthal)

456. Government and Politics of Japan. Pol. Sci. 140, 440, or 450; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an overview of Japanese politics, mainly contemporary, with rather little technical political science. Special attention is given to the changes of the Occupation period, social patterns, political behavior, the decision-making process, and patterns of domestic and foreign public policy. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination and a paper (about ten pages for undergraduates). Enrollment is usually low enough to hold rather informal meetings and to respond to individual interests. Many students who elect the course have no background either in Japanese studies or political science and seem at no great disadvantage. (Campbell)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course deals with the shifts in superpower relations during the post-1945 period, and, in particular, their effects on the international system. The historical record of détente and confrontation as well as explanations for changes are important. The impact of changes on arms control, disarmament, armaments and arms trade are included. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the relationship for local conflict patterns, conflict resolution alliance cohesion and internal political developments. European and Third World perspectives on superpower relations are covered as are general problems of measurement and causal explanation.

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to review major theories of political development. The course is divided into five parts: (1) Major Approaches to Political Development; (2) Agrarian Movements; (3) Revolutions Left and Right; (4) Varieties of Authoritarianism; and (5) International Dependence. The work for the course involves writing three papers each of about l0 to 15 pages. They are due at regular intervals during the term. (McDonough)

469. Politics of International Economic Relations. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with the interplay of political and economic considerations in international relations. Although the two are usually dealt with separately, there is an obvious interdependence of politics and economics in the international movements of goods (trade), capital (investments) and aid. Apparently political phenomena such as wars and arms races also have a strong economic foundation. The purpose of the course will be to provide students with the conceptual tools and substantive knowledge needed to analyze such instances of political economic interplay.

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to provide the advanced undergraduate student with: (a) an understanding of the global and domestic context within which US foreign policy is formulated, executed, evaluated, and modified; (b) alternative interpretations of the policy process and context; (c) methods by which these interpretations can be compared and tested against the empirical evidence; and (d) the ability to evaluate past policy decisions and propose future ones. In pursuit of these objectives, we will examine and discuss some case histories (World War I and II, formation of the UN, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, SALT negotiations, GATT agreements, etc.), along with memoirs of participants and scholarly analyses of the cases. Equally important will be the efforts of scholars to generalize from such cases, using methods that range from the impressionistic to the highly quantitative. We will meet twice per week for lectures and discussions combined, and there will be assigned as well as suggested readings each week. Evaluation will rest on take-home final exam, several brief memos during the term, intelligent participation in discussion, and additional work of an optional nature. Prior work in scientific method is desirable but not essential. Texts not yet selected. (Singer)

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course covers defense, deterrence, and arms control in the contemporary context. Special emphasis is given to the policies, perspectives, and capabilities of the United States and the Soviet Union, but consideration is also given to Western Europe and China. Illustrative issues are alternative strategic nuclear doctrines, prospects for arms control, conscription, organization of the Executive Branch for foreign and military policy formation, and interalliance politics. (Tanter)

474. International Relations of India and South Asia. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The primary focus will be on external relations of South Asian countries with their neighbors, the super powers, China, the EEC, the Comecon, Africa, Latin America. The course will concentrate mainly on India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, while other countries will be dealt with briefly. (Ahsani)

475. International Relations of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a course on Soviet foreign policy since World War II. For additional information call on the instructor, Prof. A. Yanov (5620 Haven Hall, tel. 764-6386) (Yanov)

477. Southeast Asia: International Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on the international relations of Southeast Asia. Special emphasis is given to the policies of major outside powers like the United States, China, the Soviet Union, and Japan toward the area. Also considered are the foreign policies of the nine countries of Southeast Asia. In theoretical terms, the concepts of multipolarity, regionalism, and political economy are applied to Southeast Asia.

478. International Relations of the Far East. Pol. Sci. 160 and one other course in political science; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course examines the interplay of the Great Powers in East and Southeast Asia China, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the United States from the 1840's to the present. The course is rooted in the assumption that contemporary international relations can only be understood through a sound knowledge of history. We will examine how the Great Powers repeatedly have competed for influence in Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. We will trace the complicated linkages between shifts in the balance of power in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East and developments in East and Southeast Asia. We will trace continuities and changes in the nature of interstate relations in the region over the past 150 years. Our approach will be chronological. This is a demanding course aimed at the serious and mature student of world affairs. The required readings are considerable. Grades will be based on a take-home, open-book exam. (Oksenberg)

479/CAAS 479. International Relations of Africa. (4). (SS).

Africa as an international subsystem; the foreign policies of African states; aid and trade in African international relations; race and culture in African diplomacy; alliances and alignments in world policies; the political economy of dependency, liberation, and development. (Mazrui)

481. Junior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with junior standing. (4). (SS).

This is the first seminar in the Political Science Honors program. It has two aims. First, it will alert students to the scope and method of the study of politics through a critical discussion of key concepts and their function in some of the classics of political theory. Second, it will introduce students to the range of specialized interests and methodological skills of the University's Political Science faculty. The purpose of this is not only to help students see what forms the age-old questions about politics take in contemporary research, but also to help them find faculty supervisors for their Honors theses. Open to Honors concentrators in Political Science. There is no prerequisite; but Political Science 101 or 400 might be useful preparations. (Meyer)

483. American Political Parties and Electoral Problems. Political Science 111, 140, 410, or 411; or permission of instructor. instructor. (4). (SS).

This course examines American political parties within a comparative context. After a brief discussion of the historical development of the American party system the following topics are considered: party organization, party leadership, campaigns and party finance, leadership recruitment, nominations and the national presidential convention and primary systems, elections and voting behavior, and party leadership in the policy process and in government. Much time is spent in analyzing the system from the standpoint of (1) where is it going is realignment taking place? (2) how "democratic" and responsive is it? and (3) what is the impact of the party system and its activities on the public and on society? The distinctive features of the American system in contrast to other systems are discussed as well as the factors responsible for producing the American system. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the system, to discuss its defects as well as its strong points, and to suggest types of reforms that might be introduced. A research paper from 10-15 pages in length is required as well as one or two one-hour examinations and a final. There are also required readings, a text, and recommended readings. Students are often involved in a Field Survey Project in which they interview party leaders and/or citizens concerning their attitudes toward, and participation in, parties and campaigns. (Eldersveld)

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on (1) the formation and nature of public opinion and mass political participation and (2) the links between public opinion and participation and public policy. It will familiarize students with survey and other methods for generating opinion and participation data. Particular attention will be given to the effects of socio-economic structure, gender, personality, life cycle, family, peer group, school, work environment, groups, and political institutions on public opinion and participation. Course requirements include a final exam, midterm and an optional research paper (30%). (Langton)

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is not required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. (Kinder)

491. Directed Studies. Two courses in political science and permission of instructor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). Political Science 491 and 492 may be elected for a total of eight credits.

A directed study on any subject agreed upon by a student and an advising instructor that does not duplicate a regular course offering. May be elected for 1-6 hours; a maximum of 4 credits may be applied toward the concentration core in political science. Students wishing to enroll for a directed study course are urged to work out the details of the course before the start of the term.

493. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course. (Meyer)

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Recent Theories of Liberalism and Justice.
A critical exploration of the recent philosophical debate on liberalism and justice. Are the current economic policies of liberal states just? Is radical redistribution called for? Or should we restore a fully free market? Is liberalism in fact incurably depraved? Readings include John Rawls' A Theory of Justice, Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Bruce Ackerman's Social Justice in the Liberal State, Alastair MacIntyre's After Virtue, Michael Walzer's Spheres of Justice, and scattered articles. A background in political theory or philosophy will be quite helpful. Students will be graded on participation in seminar as well as three 5-page papers and one 10-page paper. (Herzog)

Section 002 Freud and Political Philosophy. In this seminar we will study the Freudian conception of human nature, with particular attention to its possible relevance to the understanding of political phenomena. The course will begin with an overview of Freudian psychology, drawing on Freud's Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis, The Interpretation of Dreams, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, and The Ego and the Id. We will then undertake a systematic study of Freud's social psychology, during which we will read Totem and Taboo, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, The Future of an Illusion, Civilization and its Discontents, Moses and Monotheism, and various shorter works dealing with moral, cultural, and political issues. No previous knowledge of Freudian psychology will be assumed; some familiarity with the history of political philosophy is highly desirable. Each student in the seminar will be expected to prepare a brief (fifteen-minute) oral presentation once during the term, introducing the reading for the week. Apart from active participation in seminar discussion, the only other requirement will be to write a term paper of approximately twenty pages. (Schwartz)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001.
An advanced seminar in the field of American Government and Politics.

Section 002 Decision Making in Organizations. This course will examine decision making as part of the behavior in which organizational members engage. Thus, we will begin by exploring briefly some common ways of thinking about decision making (as rational behavior, as routine-following behavior, as political behavior, as symbolic behavior). Participation in class discussions will be an important basis for evaluation. One or more papers will be required. (Feldman)

Section 004 Politics of the Bureaucracy. This course should familiarize students with political and organizational "facts of life" facing policy analysts and managers in the federal bureaucracy. Political analysis matters because public policies are made in systems of widely shared power by participants with diverse goals, only one of which may be policy effectiveness. Organizational analysis matters because public policies are formulated and implemented by large organizations whose behavior is often unexpected. Illustrative material will draw heavily on the recent reform of the federal civil service system. Primarily readings will be available at the Undergraduate Library. In addition, books have been ordered through local bookstores and are recommended for purchase. Seminar requirements include one oral presentation, participation in class discussion, examinations, two short papers on topics assigned, and one more extensive paper on a topic chosen by the student and approved by the instructor. (Goldenberg)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 002 Political Problems of Advanced Industrial Democracies.
This seminar focuses on the emerging political problems common to the democracies of Western Europe and the U.S. Special attention will be devoted to the crisis of the welfare state, the expansion of participation, including unconventional as well as conventional forms, and changing belief systems. Within this framework, special interests of participants will be accommodated. A term paper is required. (Barnes)

Section 004 Nikita Khrushchev, The Soviet Reformer. A Case Study. Khrushchev's was a stormy rule. It included such major and contradictory domestic and international events as de-Stalinization and the Budapest massacre, the reduction of Soviet conventional forces and the Berlin Wall, far-reaching political and economic reforms, the Cuban missile crisis, and the strategy of "minimum deterrence" designed to halt the arms race. How was this almost incredible combination possible in one regime and one leader? And how come that Khrushchev's strategic doctrine had been actually much closer to that of Admiral Burke's (Chief of Naval Operations of the American Navy), than to his own comrades and successors like Brezhnev or Kosygin? Along with trying to answer these questions, the students will be asked to explore another one: how Western intellectual perceptions affected the fate of Krushchev's regime? Has the West lost or gained from its dramatic demise? How should it act in case a new reformist regime emerges in Moscow in the 1980's? The principal method of instruction will be discussion of students' presentations. Apart from the presentations there will be one exam. (Yanov)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics.
An advanced seminar in the field of international politics. Students do research on selected general topics.

Section 002 Ronald Reagan and the Middle East. The seminar considers the evolution of Ronald Reagan's ideas about the Middle East from the presidential campaign of 1980 until the present. One overall theme concerns how the shift from domestic political concerns goals affects U.S. policy toward the Middle East. Examples are drawn from the President's Spring 1981 decisions regarding AWACs and related equipment for Saudi Arabia and the President's Middle East peace initiative of September 1982. In the context of rising tensions, undesirable trade-offs have to be faced among competing national interests. The widespread belief in the bureaucracy that only in the context of a movement towards peace and security are America's conflicting goals in the Middle East reconcilable will be assessed in relation to the war in Lebanon, June through September 1982. There is a great emphasis on consensus-building and coalition-building and on the isolation of dissenting views in the national security decision process. With respect to the Middle East, even presidents have great difficulty imposing their personal views if they are outside the main stream. Bureaucratic politics can be seen as a dynamic search for agreement among principals who constantly move from coalition to coalition depending upon their perception of the personal and national stakes involved. In connection with a controversial area such as the Middle East, there is an even greater effort to gain consensus before embarking on policy changes. (Tanter)

514. The Use of Social Science Computer Programs. Pol. Sci. 499 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to the computer and to campus software systems. Topics considered include how the computer can be used to analyze social science data. Instruction will be provided in the use of a decwriter terminal and a display (CRT) terminal. The primary software system covered by this course is MIDAS, but students will also be introduced to OSIRIS and to basic MTS commands.

591. Advanced Internship in Political Science. Two courses in political science at the 400 level or above and concentration in political science; or graduate standing. Permission of supervising instructor and review by the Department's internship advisor. No more than 4 credits of internship may be included as part of a concentration plan in political science. (2-6). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). With approval, may be elected for a total of 8 credits for both Political Science 591 and 592.

Advanced Internship requires careful, individual planning between senior students in Political Science and individual faculty members who approve the internship and provide instruction. To register for the course, the student must complete the internship form and obtain an override to enter the course. The form is available in 6619 Haven Hall.

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