Courses in Afroamerican and African Studies (Division 311)

100. Introduction to Afroamerican Studies. (4). (SS).

This course provides an interdisciplinary overview and introduction to the field of Afroamerican Studies. Historical, socio-economic, political, literary, and cultural analysis will be examined in the light of the most recent research on the Afro-American experience. Specifically, the course intends to: (1) introduce students to interdisciplinary aspects of Afroamerican Studies; (2) examine the salient issues, debates and critiques in field; (3) acquaint students with the research interests of CAAS faculty and associates. The course has two weekly lectures and discussion sections which will be supplied by quest lecturers, colloquia, and films. (Francille Wilson)

331. The World of the Black Child. (3). (SS).

This course has two objectives: They are, first, to introduce key areas of research and theory related to the socialization of African-American children, and second, to facilitate critical thinking regarding this body of research and theory. The course will focus on cultural and situational forces which affect the lives of Black lower- and middle-income children in the United States. In order to highlight the factors which contribute to the universe of the African-American child a section of the course will look at the lives of specific individuals, through their personal accounts, and will compare the converging and diverging features of socialization with the African children. Topics to be discussed will include: (1) family, peer, and community socialization; (2) the development of a sense of self; (3) professional counsel on the rearing of African-American children; (4) school and other socio-structural factors, including the welfare system; (5) play and cognitive development; and, (6) language development. Students are required to complete two in-class examinations, a midterm and a final. These examinations will be a combination of short answer and essay. Exams will count equally toward the final grade. In addition, students will be expected to be prepared to discuss the reading material assigned for each class session. (McLoyd)

338/English 320. Literature in Afro-American Culture. (3). (HU).

In the year 1703, the story of one Adam, "servant of John Saffin, Esquire" was published, marking the birth of a new literary genre in America: the slave narrative. This course will focus primarily on the slave narratives written between the years 1830-1860, that much celebrated period in American literary history known as the American Renaissance. We will begin with The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African and end with the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, an American Slave. Linda: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself, one of the few slave narratives of its kind told by a woman, will give us an opportunity to examine the implications of gender in relation to the slave narrative. Two novels - -Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and William Wells Brown's Clotel; or The President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States will give us an opportunity to examine the influence of slave narratives on slave novels written during this period. Other issues we will discuss are: African retentions, European influences, and the effect of slave experiences outside the United States. Two papers (one long, one short) and class participation will be required. (Nicholas)

351/Pol. Sci. 359. The Struggle for Southern Africa. Lectures: 2 credits; lectures and discussion: 4 credits. (SS).

This course will examine the social, economic and political problems of development within the region. The colonial history and independence movements will be reviewed to gain a better understanding of contemporary circumstances. A thorough consideration of the transition from liberation movement to becoming the national government will be made. The implication of resource planning, manpower development, physical location and international relationships will be explored in the context of the region's future. The potential for greater regional political and economic cooperation will also be considered. Students will be expected to actively participate by focusing upon one country within the region and developing a through knowledge of its history and contemporary problems for presentation to the class. A film series examining the problems of liberation, national development and the role of women will also be an integral part of this course. (Kamara)

360. Afroamerican Art. (3). (HU).

This accelerated course provides an interdisciplinary overview and an introduction to the area of culture and art, and their influences on society. Students will look at the visual arts, music, dance, theatre, literature, television and education. Historical, philosophical, religious, aesthetic and ideological perspectives are considered as we wrestle with the nation of the Afroamerican cultural reality. This course tends to: (a) introduce students to a primary body of knowledge reflective of a fundamental basis of thought capable of establishing an overview of West African cultures and their relationships to Afro-American culture; (b) develop reference on a broad level for an Afrocentric aesthetic and point of view; (c) encourage greater insight and exploration into the arts of African and Afro-American people and the spirits and realities that motivate the "arts"; (d) create a living vehicle capable of a broader understanding and resolution of problematic cultural pattern levels which disturb, confuse, and cancerize our historic and our contemporary lives. The course has two weekly lecture/discussion with weekly readings, video, audio tapes, and slides. Readings include David Walkers' Appeals, Frederick Douglas, Charles Chestnut, Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, Romare Beardon, Maya Angelou, and Dr. Martin Luther King. Video and audio tapes include The History of the Black Athlete, Imamu Baraka (Leroi Jones), Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael), Maulana Ron Karenga, Fannie Lou Hamer, Harry Belafonte and Elma Lewis, Bing Davis, Robert Stull, Jon Lockard and Allan Crite. Courses requirements include three short papers (3-5 pages each), an analytical overview from a video presentation, guest lecturer or audio presentation (5 pages), and an in-class final group presentation. This course is designed to be "communal/interactive/intensive/informative/spiritual", creating countless opportunities for students to involve themselves, strengthen their skills, and establish a clearer concept of identity, purpose, and direction. Students must be prepared for discussion and interaction. (Lockard)

403. Education and Development in Africa. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to serve the needs of students who plan to engage in international-related activities as well as those who may desire to gain basic understanding into the forces and dynamics of education in the processes of cultural and socioeconomic transformation in one of the major developing regions of the world, i.e. Africa Education operates within the existing political, religious and social institutions and values. It also has a profound impact on those institutions' conventions and values. The question is whether the direction and magnitude of the interactions can be controlled and guided in order to optimize social development. The lecture-discussion method is used. Students will be encouraged to read widely into the relevant literature. No prerequisite is required. Evaluation consists of class participation and periodical written tests. (Wagaw)

404/Hist. Art 404. The Art of Africa. (3). (HU),

See History of Art 404. (Maurer)

410. Supervised Reading and Research. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit with permission.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual study under the direction of a departmental staff member. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged.

426. Urban Redevelopment and Social Justice. (3). (SS).
Urban Redevelopment and Social Justice Can We Have Both? A Seminar for Future Professionals.


Taught from the perspective of a registered architect, this course is organized around topical issues of design, professionalism, and equity in urban resources development. Intended primarily for students with non-architectural backgrounds, the course seeks to provide a spirited exploration of the explicit (and subtle) connections between people, land and power in our cities and the specific affects of these linkages upon contemporary urban rebuilding. In the main, our explorations are aimed at providing a broadened philosophical understanding of the "Who?" and "Why?" of contemporary urban redevelopment policies particularly as such policies impact on the emerging "central city." As a class we will meet once each week for three hours. A seminar format will be followed, combining formal and informal lectures, color slide presentations, selected case studies, selected readings and a series of student-generated workshops. Throughout all discussion, there will be continuing class focus on the necessity for our making critical distinction between "effecting" (carrying out) and "affecting" (influencing the formation of) various environmental policy. Continued active class participation and the preparation of a ten minute audio cassette tape for presentation near the end of the term are basic course requirements. (Tape productions are intended as an opportunity for sharpening 'ethical sensibilities' and as an opportunity for each of us to clarify our own personal convictions about people and designed environments.) In addition to lectures and audio-visual presentations, ongoing class dialogue will be augmented periodically with urban field trips and invited guests. Enrollment limited to 35 students. (Chaffers)

444/Anthro. 414. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

See Anthropology 414. (Owusu)

447(536)/Hist. 447. Africa in the Nineteenth Century. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of 19th century Africa through an exploration of the great historical movements that shaped developments in the nineteenth century. The major issues to be covered by the lectures include: (1) Empire and state-building; (2) the dimensions of slavery and the slave trade; (3) the social, economic, military, religious and political revolutions that characterize the century; (4) Imperialism, the conquest of Africa, and their impact; (5) Socio-economic-cultural life; (6) African warfare. These will be explored through lectures, class discussion and written assignments. (Uzoigwe)

450 Black Communities and Legal Rights. (3). (SS).

Law is a central factor in Black history, defining the status and prospects of Blacks, occupying a key role in programmatic debate and activity and reflecting dominant historical trends. This course, in examining the nexus between law, race and social order, uses law as a medium to interpret the forces that shape the Black past and present. One objective is to assist students in gaining knowledge of targeted areas of law i.e., the slaves of slavery, the slave trade, and quasi-freedom in the antebellum United States; the constitutional and legislative legacy of reconstruction; contemporary legal trends in education, voting, and employment; considerations of immigration, refuge and international law; the impact of shifting concepts of federalism on race-related legal issues; and comparative perspectives on legal developments in the African diaspora. A second aim is to aid students in refining techniques of theme identification, thesis-building and comparative analysis. The course considers several themes, e.g. multiple causation in the formulation of law; the political economy of legal development; the role of ideology in shaping the legal and public policy terrain; and thematic comparisons in diasporic legal history. Bell, Race, Racism, American Law; Civil Rights Leading Cases. Two tests, final, book analysis. (Woods)

452. Education of the Black Child. (2). (SS).

The course is designed to make it possible for students to engage in the examination and analysis of the public education philosophies, laws, and practices as related to the education of the Black children in the past and at present. It considers the theoretical frameworks of growth, development and learning of children in different settings and at different life space on the one hand and the existing structural, socio-political and psychological conditions of the public school systems on the other and attempts to find ways and means of relating the objectives and philosophies of the schools to the needs of Black child. The course may be taken to fulfill requirements for cross cultural studies by the School of Education or units of LS&A, etc. No prerequisite required. The lecture-discussion method is used. Evaluation consists of brief presentation in class on a researched topic, participation in class, discussions, and end of term written examination. (Wagaw)

456/Pol. Sci. 409. Comparative Black Political Thought. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See Political Science 409. (Mazrui)

458. Topics in Black World Studies. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Politics and Letters: That Which the Soul Lives By.
There is an interesting moment at the beginning of Zora Neale Hurston's Mules and Men. In it, the folklorist and novelist outlines the process whereby her book and her self-awareness were simultaneously created: "I was glad when someone told me, 'You go and collect Negro folk-lore.' In a way it would not be a new experience for me. When I pitched headforemost into the world I landed in the crib of negroism...But it was fitting me like a tight chemise. I couldn't see it for wearing it. It was only when I was off in college, away from my native surroundings, that I could see myself like somebody else and stand off and look at my garment. Then I had to have the spy-glass of Anthropology to look through at that." It is this process that will be the focus of our concern this semester. Using the lives, times, and works of Zora Hurston, Jomo Kenyatta, and Frantz Fanon; we will explore the means by which voyages of discovery become devices of self-definition; we will consider the paradox of identity as that which yet remains to be created. Our thought will include the ways in which these authors were both shaped by and were shapers of their historical moments moments which also contained particular realizations of Black identity. Core readings will include Mules and Men, Facing Mt. Kenya, Black Skin White Masks. Other works such as Rosengarten's All God's Dangers, the Life of Nate Shaw, and Huggins' Harlem Renaissance, will provide insight into the times in which our authors lived, while still other works such as Culler's On Deconstruction, Gate's "The Blackness of Blackness: A Critique of the Sign and the Signifying Monkey", and Said's Orientalism will provide our theoretical spy-glasses. Evaluation will be based upon class participation and two written assignments. (Roberts)

476/Engl. 478. Contemporary Afroamerican Literature. Permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This is a course in contemporary Afro-American fiction. We will read four early works for background and connections: Frederick Douglass' Narrative of the Life of, Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, Jane Toomer's Cane, and Richard Wright's Native Son. Contemporary writers will include: Ralph Ellison, Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones), Ernest J. Gaines, Alice Walker, and Toni Morrison. There will be several exams and a final paper. (G. Jones)

479/Pol. Sci. 479. International Relations of Africa. (4). (SS).

See Political Science 479. (Mazrui)

Courses in American Culture (Division 315)

Unless otherwise stated, the permission required for the repetition for credit of specially designated courses is that of the student's concentration or B.G.S. adviser.

201. American Values. (4). (HU).

From the European discovery of America to the present, it has been assumed that America was a special land, a land anointed by God, chosen as the New Jerusalem, the landscape in which the millennium would occur. From John Winthrop to Ronald Reagan, America has been envisioned "as a city upon the hill," a beacon shining forth for the rest of the world. When that light has dimmed, Americans have denounced their land in a peculiar way, mourning its declension. And then they have written of what America is supposed to be, and of how a person is properly to become an American. They have undertaken their inquiry into values, proposing, often in the form of utopian visions, a reconstruction of their nation, a return to inherent values. This course will examine a few of these visions. Such visions have changed across time, but a core of values has remained as Americans have continued to celebrate, discuss, lament, and recreate America in an ongoing obsession with the meaning of their land, values such as pastoralism, agrarianism, the work ethic, efficiency, the American as Adam, the frontier, pragmatism, anti-intellectualism, the melting pot, the self-made man, and, more recently, the self-made woman, or the belief that if the American only works hard enough, believes enough, he or she can succeed, that from out of the rubble one can emerge to conquer. In all, the course will consider the machine, the garden, the Republic, and the belief that the Republic and the landscape can survive the machine, that no matter how complex the technology, a Han Solo will drive his spacecraft across light warps as singularly as a teenager his hot rod, that individualism, in other words, will still count in America, that one man, in the name of the Republic, can still destroy the Death Star. A midterm and final examination will be required, along with a 5-7 page paper.

240/Women's Studies 240. Introduction to Women's Studies. Open to all undergraduates. (4). (HU).

See Women's Studies 240. (Stevens)

430/Women's Studies 430. Theories of Feminism. Any of Women's Studies 341-345; or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

See Women's Studies 430. (Howard)

490. History of the American Film. Junior standing. (3-4). (HU). Laboratory fee (approximately $20.00).

The western, the detective/crime film, the musical, the screwball comedy, the science fiction film, etc., form a background against which we measure and understand contemporary American cinema. These film genres each have their particular conventions presenting certain kinds of characters and plots; utilizing particular camera styles, mise-en-scène, and acting; and addressing themselves to particular issues and conflicts. As these genres evolve, old patterns are given new twists, surprising the viewer with unexpected departures from the norm and turning the genre toward consideration of new social and cultural problems. We will examine four characteristic American film genres. A weekly film screening will be accompanied by two hours of lectures and one hour of discussion. Three films in each genre will be studied, ranging in period from the 1930's to the 1970's, thus allowing us to analyze changes within the genre, and the aesthetic as well as the socio-political implications of these changes. Short units on the documentary and the avant-garde film may be included. Students will be evaluated on the basis of four short papers, one longer paper and their participation in discussion. Required texts vary in accordance with the genres chosen for study. (Eagle)

496. Historical Approaches to American Culture. (3). (SS). May be repeated for credit with permission.

In Fall Term, 1984, this course is jointly offered with Music History and Musicology 450. See MHM 450 for description. (Crawford)

498. Literary Approaches to American Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission.
Native American Literature.
What makes Indian literature literature (and not Anthropology or History)? What makes Indian literature Indian? Can the vocabulary of traditional literary criticism account for the unique content and form of Indian literature? These are some of the questions we will grapple with in this course. To begin with, "Indian" is a socio-political term more than it is a cultural term; the native peoples of the North American continent are culturally diverse and can only be referred to as "Indian" in the context of Indian/White relations. We will need, therefore, to review U.S. Government policy toward Indians as part of our background in studying Indian literature(s). Essentially a survey, the course is designed to give the student an overview of the wealth of literary materials written by Indians. Course requirements: A midterm exam or project, a term paper, and a final exam. Music and art will supplement the primary literary texts by such authors as Leslie Silko, N. Scott Momaday, James Welch and Simon Ortiz and may be utilized creatively in fulfilling the course requirements. (Vangen)

Courses in American Institutions (Division 316)

240/Poli. Sci. 210. Introduction to the Political Economy of American Institutions. (4). (SS).

The principle objective of this course is to understand the governmental and private institutions in the U.S. that allocate resources, resolve social conflicts, build consensus, and establish national goals. The course will begin with an analysis of how markets operate and under what circumstances they fail or malfunction, giving rise to calls for governmental intervention. Various modes of government intervention, such as the regulation of prices, provision of subsidies, the delivery of social services, or the imposition of taxes will be described and the impacts analyzed. The possibilities and obstacles facing citizens in affecting public policy will be analyzed with special emphasis on social movements, interest groups, and political parties. Students will write papers about the appropriate scope or purpose of government, the possibilities and limitations of planning, and problems of maintaining legitimacy in capitalist democracies, and the tradeoffs between equity and efficiency, or democratic participation and political stability. As part of the lectures, case studies of the provision of medical care in America, the regulation and promotion of industry, and the protection of civil rights will be presented. Both lecture and discussion sessions will be employed. Grades will be based upon a series of assigned essays, a midterm and final exam. (Walker)

426/Econ. 426. The Development of the American Labor Market Institutions. Econ. 201 or the equivalent. Not open to students who have taken or are taking Econ. 421 or 422. (3). (SS).

This course is an intensive investigation of selected topics in the development of the labor market in the U.S. These include: the rise of living standards; the labor market role of education; waves of immigration and their impact on wage structure; the determinants of the labor market status of Blacks from the Civil War to the present; the birth, growth, and decline of trade unionism; and the occupational status of women. The class is run in conventional lecture format; grades are based on a midterm and a final examination. This course is not open to students who have taken or are taking Econ 421 and 422. (Johnson)

439/Econ. 425/Poli. Sci. 439. Inequality in the United States. Econ.. 201 or Poli. Sci. 111. (3). (SS).

This course deals with economic inequality in the U.S. We begin by asking whether the goal of equality competes with other societal goals such as liberty and efficiency. Next we examine the sources of economic inequality. We investigate how and whether the family, neighborhoods, schools, and labor markets exacerbate and/or reduce economic inequality. This is followed by an examination of domestic social policies directed toward economic inequality. This will include: tax policies, charity, neighborhood reorganization, constitutional amendments and equal opportunity policies. We will ask whether these policies can be altered to be more effective. This course requires eight short papers and a final exam. (Corcoran and Courant)

450/Poli. Sci. 438. Ethics and Public Policy. (4). (SS).

This course will explore the ethical issues raised by a variety of public policies. After some initial discussion of ethical theories and of the relationship between ethics and politics, we will consider four topics: (1) evaluation techniques such as benefit-cost analysis, (2) the concept of liberty and policies that restrict it, (3) the concept of equal treatment, and (4) some of the ethical issues raised by the operations of multinational corporations. Classes will combine lectures about the various concepts and discussions of particular policies. Among the texts for the course will be Fred Feldman, Introductory Ethics; J.S. Mill, On Liberty; John Rawls, A Theory of Justice; Douglas Rae, Equalities; and Henry Shue, Basic Rights. There will be approximately eight writing assignments during the term, several of which will be revised and resubmitted. There will be no exams. (Chamberlin)

468/History 468. Politics, Power, and the Public Sector in America, 1820-1920. (4). (SS).

What historical forces have helped to shape the public sector in contemporary America? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists to analyze the development of the public sector at local, state, and national levels in pre-New Deal America. The course will be conducted as a colloquium and, therefore, will be organized around weekly meetings to discuss assigned readings which will include both theoretical works and historical case studies. Among the former will be pluralist and neo-Marxian theories of power and the state, and collective choice theories and models of political mobilization. Historical case studies will focus on the relationships among socio-economic change, political action, and demands for the expansion of the public sector at critical moments in the nation's history. Of particular interest in the case studies will be the question from where demands for the expansion of the public sector originated. Students will write brief, weekly papers on the assigned readings and longer papers comparing theoretical and historical works. (McDonald)

471/History 571. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

This course will analyze the American family from the colonial period to the present. It will trace changes in the family from a preindustrial society to a post-industrial one. The approach is topical and will cover such issues as the use of birth control and abortions, childbearing practices, adolescence, role of women, old age, and death and dying. Particular attention will be placed on analyzing the impact of changes in American institutions on the development of the family. Course format consists of lectures and classroom discussions with an emphasis on a critical reading of the assigned materials. The grading will be based upon the midterm and final examination. Some of the readings will include: Michael Gordon's The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective; David Fischer's Growing Old in America; David Stannard's Death in America; and James Mohr's Abortion in America. (Vinovskis)

Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, this course serves as an introduction to anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. The format of the course is three weekly lectures and one weekly discussion section, which will serve as a question and answer session. The required text is Weiss and Mann, Human Biology and Behavior. The course grade will be based on three hour exams given at approximately equal intervals throughout the course. (Brainard)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures and readings, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecological shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology, and the changes in physical form that are the consequences of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. Class participation and discussion are emphasized. The examinations are midterm and final. (Wolpoff)

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order and its major divisions, and provide detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior, aggression and competition, and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, but it also serves as an introduction to 369, Primate Social Relationships. Two lecture hours, one film, and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. Required readings are Chalmers, Social Behaviour in Primates, and a course pack. (Wrangham and Smuts)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

466. Fossil Evidence and Evolutionary Theory. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course attempts to apply evolutionary theory to the specifics of human evolution. Both the fossil evidence and that derived from the study of man's closest living relatives will be considered in reconstructing the ecological adaptations that the human species has made in the past. The course grade is based on a midterm and non-cumulative final examination. (Livingstone)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This lecture course will survey the major features of the human reproductive process using a combination of demographic, biometrical and physiological approaches. Emphasis will be placed on accounting for the range of variation in natural fertility in the human species as a whole, and on assessing the relative roles of physiological, behavioral and environmental factors in controlling reproductive output. The evolution of human reproductive patterns will also be discussed. Special attention will be given to the design and implementation of field research in reproductive ecology by anthropologists. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one examination and a term paper. (Brainard and Wood)

471. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The course is addressed at evaluating the physiological responses and adaptations that enable humans to survive environmental extremes such as those found under stressful conditions of heat, cold, solar radiation, high altitude, undernutrition, overnutrition associated with modern western diets, and air pollution. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental stress, the discussion of major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory studies with humans and experimental animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development and their implications for understanding the origins of population differences in biological traits. Student evaluation includes three tests, a final exam, and a term paper. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. (Frisancho)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology Regional Courses, Ethnology Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles that unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American "pop" culture; counter arguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, civilized, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lectures; a text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Three hourly exams. No final. No papers. (Kottak)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two to three take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (O'Shea)

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction specifically to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged for graduate students. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construe "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" (including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics). There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic data; 2) how to read ethnographic reports critically; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve their writing techniques. Grades will be based on seven short papers (six pp. each). (Carroll)

Ethnology Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (3). (SS).

The course provides an introduction to Native North American peoples and involves a detailed discussion of several typical cultures and culture areas, with a special emphasis on modes of subsistence, social and economic organization, and religion. By focusing on native world views, an attempt is also made to gain a better understanding of the Native Americans' own perceptions of and attitudes towards their lives. The course deals primarily with the more "traditional" native cultures prior to the spread of Western domination. Nevertheless, several major post-contact cultural developments, aspects of Indian-White relations, and contemporary problems (including those of Michigan Indians) are touched upon. Required reading includes several short ethnographic studies, a biography of a Native American man or woman, and a few articles from a course pack. Student evaluation is based on three essay-type exams (some of them take-home). One of the exams can be substituted by a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor. While lectures are the major method of instruction, discussion, films, and demonstration of artifacts from the Museum of Anthropology play an important role in this course (Kan)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (SS).

The course covers traditional and contemporary China, with an emphasis on the peasant sector. The focus is on continuity and change in Chinese society. The first part of the course discusses the social, economic, and political organization of late traditional China; ecological variations including some of China's "national minorities"; folk-religion interpretations of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism; popular arts; and the causes and forms of early peasant rebellions. The second part deals with peasant participation in the socialist revolution, the reorganization of society since 1949, and with contemporary aspects of community life, peasant economy, family, social stratification and social thought in the Peoples Republic of China and also Taiwan. This is a lecture course, open to students with junior standing or higher, and to sophomores with permission of instructor. The readings are drawn mainly from the ethnological/cultural anthropology literature on China, with some selections from sociology, social history, rural economics and Chinese fiction. There is a midterm and a final essay examination. Undergraduates write two short book-reviews; graduate students write a research paper on a topic of their choice. (Diamond)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religious organizations; race, class, and education; Caribbean migration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films on the Caribbean will be shown. Course requirements: four three to five page typewritten papers which ask students to synthesize reading and lecture materials. (Owusu)

417. Indians of Mexico and Guatemala. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

We will survey the literature which deals with the Indian groups that occupy Mesoamerica; these include the Nahua (Aztec), Tarahumara, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Tarascan, Totonac, Otomi, and other Indian populations. Emphasis will be on the aboriginal adaptations and culture, rather than on the colonial or modern peasants. Topics will include religion, ideology, social and political organization, subsistence, and settlement patterns. This is a lecture course requiring a take-home midterm and a final paper; these two assignments will constitute the grade in the course. Anthropology 101 or another anthropology course is a prerequisite; others interested may seek permission of instructor if they have not had any anthropology course. (Marcus)

423. Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course covers the culture area of Western Melanesia with a particular emphasis on New Guinea a large island which contains 1000 distinct cultural groups. Many of these have been brought into contact with western civilization only within the past 15 years, and the area therefore offers unique opportunities for the study of tribal society in a relatively pristine condition and has served as a focus of much of recent anthropological research. The course provides general coverage of the social, political, and economic organization of 4 major sub-areas of western Melanesia and explores a number of additional topics of current research interest, viz. male-female hostility and the definition of sex roles, witchcraft, warfare, economic networks, Big Man system of leadership, and millenarian movements. Lecture format; evaluation is based on term paper and take home exam. (Kelly)

503 Japanese Society and Culture. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Please contact the Department of Anthropology (1054 LS&A Building) or POINT 10 (764-6810) after late April for information about course content and requirements.

509. Ethnology of the Near East and North Africa. Anthro. 409, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of the anthropological literature on the Near East and North Africa, with particular attention being paid to intra-regional variations in the major cultural traditions, and the interplay of these with minority ethnic identities and groups. In addition, the principal theoretical problems that have emerged from anthropological research in the area particularly among towns-people, peasants and tribal pastoralists are reviewed and their significance considered. It is a lecture course with considerable classroom discussion and may involve a midterm and a final examination, for either of which a short research paper may be substituted. Readings are assigned in a number of monographs and collections of articles, a range of choice being provided to permit the individual student to emphasize a particular regional or topical interest.

Ethnology Topical Courses

327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (3). (SS).

This is essentially a "great books" course. Students read six or seven classic ethnographies and write four short comparative essays on them. (The latter provide the basis of student evaluation.) The ethnographies are selected so as to display some of the main trends in the theoretical development of anthropology. These trends are evident in successive author's interpretations of the same cultural phenomena, e.g. magic, ritual, economic organization, etc. About half the class meetings are devoted to lecture and half to discussion. This course is particularly well suited to anthropology concentrators and those with a high degree of interest in anthropology. It assumes the background acquired in Anthropology 101. Students who have not taken 101 but have some background derived from other anthropology courses may elect 327 by permission of instructor. (Kelly)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Social and human implications of technological change. Analysis and discussion of changes in family life, government and law, economy and religion under the influence of western technology. Case studies from Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa. Course requirements: two 4-5 typewritten page reviews, plus a term or research paper. Seminar format. (Owusu)

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second semester of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first semester of their senior year. Interested students should consult Prof. Carroll, the Departmental Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course sequence is divided into two parts. During the first term, students meet together once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. These sessions provide background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors adviser may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis adviser. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

449. Metaphor Enacted: Magic, Healing and Ritual Transformations. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course will be a detailed study of the structure and function of magic, healing and ritual and the roles these play in human society as devices of transformation. We will start from the premise that metaphor and metonymy are two complementary processes whose powers to transform are employed differently by each of the three. The core of the course will be ethnographic data, both classic (e.g., Evans-Pritchard, Kluckhon, and Junod) and recent (e.g., the instructor's), which would be selected both for its wealth of detail and its geographic spread. Theoretical works will form the illuminating complement to the data and, in keeping with the concept of enacted metaphor, will include such philosophers and literary writers as Max Black, Kenneth Burke, and Wittgenstein; as well as authors such as Arnheim, Fraser, V. Turner, de Heusch, and Levi-Strauss. Classes will be combinations of lectures and discussion by students, who will be expected to have completed the relevant readings prior to each class. Ideas or points to be considered while reading will be suggested by the instructor, to assist students in their work. Evaluation will be made on the basis of a short paper, a midterm exam, and a take-home final exam. Students wishing to do so may substitute a longer research paper for the final exam. Its topic and form must be approved by the instructor, and the student is expected to keep in close touch with the instructor throughout the term. (Roberts)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Culture of Terror and Resistance.
This course begins with the proposition that there are special and systematic features to torture and terror which make them not merely subjects for social and cultural analysis but also and therefore a little easier to fight against. In using texts mainly from South and Central America, works on dictatorship, torture, and death squads, testimonies from Guatemala and El Salvador, together with my own work on terror in the Putumayo rubber boom and on shamanic healing, I want to suggest ways by which terror is composed, functions, and can be blunted. Some very basic issues in social and historical inquiry shall of necessity be worked through, and in a sense the course is also a study in methods of social analysis, utilizing, in my own way, theories of Walter Benjamin, Michel Foucault, Mikail Bakhtin, Bertolt Brecht, Raymond Williams, and Sheila Rowbotham. Dialogue, not monologue, is essential for the teaching. (Taussig)

Section 002 Anthropology of Death and Dying. Death is a universal human experience, yet the attitudes and responses towards it develop out of a complex interplay between individuals and their socio-cultural environment. Using anthropological works (e.g., The Death Rituals of Rural Greece by L. Danforth; A Death in the Sanchez Family by O. Lewis), novels (e.g., The Death of Ivan Illych by L. Tolstoi) and films, the course explores the meaning of death in several Western and non-Western cultures and religious traditions. Particular attention is paid to understanding native ideas about the person, the life-cycle, and the afterlife; as well as interpreting mortuary rituals and the experience of the dying and the survivors. The course also offers an anthropological perspective on the development, since the nineteenth century, of the characteristic American mode of dealing with death and dying, including such controversial issues as suicide and euthanasia. Recommended prerequisites: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. Student evaluation is based on two take-home exams and a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor. Method of instruction combines lectures and discussion. (Kan)

Section 003 Problems in Near Eastern Ethnology. The Near East is an important region where ideological allegiance and conflicts are deeply intertwined with political and economic relations. It is thus an arena in which we can evaluate new developments in anthropological theories.

Section 004 Problems in Japanese Ethnology. Please contact the Department of Anthropology (1054 LS&A Building) or POINT 10 (764-6810) after late April for information about course content and requirements.

528. History of Anthropological Thought. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an intensive analysis of critical problems in social anthropological interpretation within both a contemporary and an historical context. The course begins with a discussion of theoretical problems. This is followed by a detailed analysis of how these problems are crucial in an analysis of the works of many pre-1945 theoreticians such as Marx, Morgan, Durkheim, Weber, Boas and Kroeber, Benedict and Mead, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown. Class format is a combination of lecture and discussion, and course requirements include the reading of critical works by the theoreticians mentioned above and a final examination which is given as a take-home examination. (Yengoyan)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

This course explores the relationship between language and culture as a set of mutually reinforcing constraints which form different types of coherence systems. Language is dealt with both as a set of grammatical forces as well as semantic imperatives which must be related to culture as a system of social principles, as webs of meaning, and as a framework of knowledge and philosophy. The realm of thought is analyzed as a human condition which produces creative and constrictive conditions on language and culture. A few short paperback volumes are required in addition to articles placed on undergraduate reserves. Course requirements are a midterm and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

576/Ling. 510. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course serves as an introduction to language and linguistics for anthropologists. It provides the basic tools necessary for discussing and working with linguistic systems and introduces theoretical models both as tools for working with data and as models of cultural activity. The nature of language as a sign activity, the status of linguistic representations, and semiotic and biological bases of linguistic universals are explored (Mannheim)

Archaeology

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).

The course will trace the development of North American Indian cultures north of Mexico from the first entry of big game hunters into the New World 10,000 to 15,000 years ago through the origins of agriculture and the appearance of the first sedentary farming villages to the emergence shortly before European contact of complex socially stratified political systems. The course will focus especially on the Eastern U.S. and the American Southwest. Emphasis will be given to the importance of the prehistoric record for understanding Native American cultures at the time of contact, and the value of historic and ethnographic descriptions for understanding the past. Three hourly exams and final; lecture format. (Speth)

483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course surveys the archeology of Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran from the Lower Paleolithic to the beginnings of Sumerian civilization. It emphasizes the most salient cultural developments within this region and demonstrates how civilization evolved from hunting and gathering economies, through plant and animal domestication, the first permanent settlements, and finally urbanization. (Flannery)

494. Introduction to Analytical Methods in Archaeology. One course in statistics or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the application of analytical techniques in archaeology and to provide an understanding of the role of numerical analysis in archaeological research. Course coverage will range from the most basic use of numbers in data presentation to the consideration of a variety of more complex techniques which have been developed specifically to cope with the unique character of archaeological research. The course will be organized around sets of lectures and class exercises, and a basic familiarity with archaeological research and common statistical methods will be assumed. Students will require a good hand calculator for regular class use. Readings for the course will be drawn from a variety of sources, and as such no core text will be assigned. Evaluation of student performance will be based on a series of assigned projects designed to highlight the student's control over the subject matter of the course. (O'Shea)

581. Archaeology I. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The first part of this course is devoted to developing models of the operation and evolution of hunter-gatherer cultural systems and to discussing the ways in which these systems may be studied from the archaeological record. The second half of the course consists of a review of the archaeological evidence for the evolution of these cultural systems from their earliest appearance until the beginnings of sedentary, agricultural communities. Most emphasis is given to materials from Africa and Europe with brief attention paid to Asia and the New World. Lecture course. Evaluation based on paper and examinations. (Speth)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term, 497 in the Winter Term. Content of both courses is the same unless a student has already had either course. If so, then the student works on exhibitions with anthropological themes. These courses are intended to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with this introduction, individual instruction is offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of collections of material culture. There will be one hour of lecture per week, with the remaining time being devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants working in the museum laboratories. For each credit elected, three hours of participation are required. Thus for one credit there will be one hour of lecture and two of applied museum work; for two credits, one hour of lecture and four of work; for three credits, two hours of lecture and six of work. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on lectures, requirements, and directed work. Emphasis is on the nature of museum work as a career within a research framework as well as on a general understanding of how anthropological museums are organized and exhibits originate. (Ford)

499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 hours credit.

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

Courses in Armenian Studies (Division 322)

171/Slavic Ling. 171. First-Year Armenian. (4). (FL).

See Slavic Linguistics 171. (Harlan)

271/Slavic Ling. 271. Second-Year Armenian. Armenian 172 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

See Slavic Linguistics 271. (Harlan)

287(270)/REES 287/History 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

See History 287. (Suny)

Courses in Asian Studies (Division 323)

111/History 151. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilization of the Indian sub-continent, from its origins about 3000 B.C. to the present, where it comprises over a fifth of the world's people and its oldest living civilized tradition, its largest political democracy, and a major component of the Third World. The course progresses from origins and the Indus culture through the Aryans, Hinduism, caste, and classical India to the succession of empires from the Mauryas to the Mughals and the British, colonialism, and independence, and partition. We then consider current problems and changes topically: regionalism and language, agriculture and rural development, population, urbanization, industrialization, and "modernization," and the rise of separate nation-states (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). Lectures and varied readings (via a Course Pack) are designed to stimulate class discussion, and there will be some use of slides and films. Art, literature, and religion will also be discussed as part of the evolving culture. There will be one take-home midterm, and a similar final exam, with optional additional papers at student request, all of the essay type. There are no prerequisites and no previous knowledge is assumed. (Murphey)

121/History 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

This course is a broad introductory survey of traditional Chinese and Japanese civilizations from about 2000 B.C. until the advent of modern European imperialism at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The primary purpose of the course is to help nonspecialists begin to understand the patterns (but not necessarily the details) of how these two civilizations arose, changed, and interacted, with particular emphasis upon their important institutional and cultural traditions. The approach will be largely historical, but by drawing upon guest lecturers from the University's outstanding East Asian faculty, we shall also sample the glories of the traditional literature, secular philosophy, and religious thought of China and Japan. Course readings will include not only survey histories, therefore, but also selections from anthologies of both literary and philosophical writings. Grading will be based upon a midterm and a final exam, with exams being of the essay type. No prior knowledge of East Asia is assumed. (Arnesen)

441. Asia Through Fiction. (3). (HU).

This course deals with selected novels and short stories by Asian writers and by Westerners writing about Asia. It attempts to compare different perspectives on the Asian scene and particularly focuses on East/West interactions. Course readings center on India, Southeast Asia, Japan, and China. Four short essays are required, which take the place of an examination. The class is usually small enough to function very successfully as a group discussion, which considers also the Asian context. There are several evening opportunities to sample Asian cuisine and films. Writers dealt with include Narayan, Greene, Mishima, Forster, Kipling, Conrad, Tanizaki, Orwell, Markandaya, Buck, Lu Hsun, and others. (Murphey)

444. The Southeast Asian Village. (3). (SS).

This course examines aspects of village form, function, life and problems in Southeast Asia. Using readings, lectures and films it provides a comparative view of the varied rural societies of the region. Sections of the course deal with the physical setting of the village, house types, the village economy, daily and seasonal activities, religion, custom and tradition, and popular culture. Village economic, social and political organization are also covered, as well as tension and change associated with development, urban migration and the decline of the village. The course makes extensive use of case studies and guest lecturers. Course grading is based on a research paper: reading is moderate to heavy, and can be focused on the country and problems of interest to the individual student. The course meets for a three-hour period once a week to provide the most flexible format for films and discussion. (Gosling)

511. Colloquium on Southern Asia: The Interface of the Humanities and the Social Sciences. (2). (Excl).
The Newly-Industrializing Countries of Asia.
This course will study the national economics of the four newly-industrializing countries of Asia: the republic of Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore, in a comparative context. It will examine their internal economic structures, their respective roles in the international and Asian regional economics, and the relative role of market forces, government policies and private sector institutions in their remarkable economic success. Students should have some background in business, economics, development or Asian Studies. The course will be run as a seminar, with both lecture and discussion sessions. Course evaluation will be based on a final examination and possibly a short term paper.

Courses in Astronomy (Division 326)

101. Introductory Astronomy: The Solar System. No credit is granted to those who have completed 111 or 130. (4). (NS).
Section 001.
Astronomy 101 students attend the same lectures as Astronomy 111 students. For course description, see Astronomy 111, section 001.

Section 007. Astronomy 101 students attend the same lectures as Astronomy 111 students. For course description, see Astronomy 111, Section 007.

102. Introductory Astronomy: Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe. No credit is granted to those who have completed 112 or 130. (4). (NS).
Section 001.
Astronomy 102 students attend the same lectures as Astronomy 112 students. For the course description, see Astronomy 112, Section 001. (Teske)

Section 007. See Astronomy 112, Section 006.

111. Introductory Astronomy: The Solar System. No credit is granted to those who have completed 101 or 130. (4). (NS).
Section 001.
Lectures are the same for both Astronomy 101 and 111. They deal with the beginnings of astronomy, motions of bodies in the solar system, time and the seasons, properties of light and atoms, telescopes, the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, individual planets and satellites, comets and meteors, and the origin of the solar system and life. Astronomy 111 has laboratory sections. Astronomy 101 has discussion sections. Course requirements include homework observations, six short quizzes, two midterms and a final examination. Laboratory sections include observations with telescopes. A planetarium visit will be arranged. (Sears)

Section 006. Lectures are the same for both Astronomy 101 and 111. They deal with the beginnings of astronomy, motions of bodies in the solar system, properties of light and atoms, the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, individual planets and satellites, comets and meteors, and the origin of the solar system and life. The exploration of the solar system by spacecraft will be emphasized. Astronomy 111 has laboratory sections every week. Astronomy 101 has discussion sections. Course requirements include two midterms and a final examination. Laboratory sections include observations with telescopes. A planetarium visit will be arranged.

112. Introductory Astronomy: Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe. No credit is granted to those who have completed 102 or 130. (4). (NS).
Section 001.
This course is intended primarily for non-science majors and it is not necessary for a student in it to have taken Astro 101 or 111 as a pre-requisite. The subject of the course is the astronomical description of the Universe beyond the solar system. We will examine the properties of stars, of the material in space between the stars, and of the galaxies, and will give special attention to current scientific views about the nature and origin of the Universe. There will be quizzes, two midterm examinations, and a final examination. Astronomy 102 students will have homework connected with their discussion sections; Astronomy 112 students will work on laboratory exercises. The discussion sections and laboratory sections will include planetarium demonstrations and observing sessions with the telescopes.

Section 006. Lectures are the same for Astronomy 102 and 112. This course treats modern ideas concerning the origin and evolution of stars, galaxies, and of the Universe as a whole. The lectures emphasize current knowledge of the formation and evolution of stars toward their ultimate destiny as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes. The course will outline the evidence that the Universe is currently expanding from a hot dense phase in the distant past toward a fate that is accessible to observation. Specific objects such as supernovae, quasars, and galaxies are also examined. Course work includes assigned reading, short quizzes, midterm and final examinations, and section meetings. Astronomy 112 students have evening laboratory and observation periods every other week, and daytime discussions in alternative weeks. Astronomy 102 has only discussion sections.

130. Explorations in Astronomy. No credit is granted to those who have completed 101, 102, 111, or 112. (4). (NS).

This course covers selected topics concerning the stars, the galaxy, and the universe. Some of the subjects discussed are: the results of the space program, the life history of stars, interstellar nebulae, pulsars, black holes, normal and peculiar galaxies, quasars, and the evolution of the universe. There are four lectures per week and observations with telescopes and a planetarium visit will be arranged. (D. Richstone)

221. General Astronomy: The Solar System. Prior or concurrent election of Math. 115. No credit is granted to those who have completed 101, 111, or 130. (4). (NS).

Astronomy 221-222 is a two-term introductory sequence intended primarily for students in the sciences and engineering. In the Fall Term, Astronomy 221 deals with the astronomy and physics of the solar system. Topics covered include: (1) principles of orbit theory; (2) interior structure, surface features and atmospheres of the planets; (3) the minor constituents of the solar system; (4) the sun. Laboratory work will include observations with the telescopes atop Angell Hall, experiments and discussions. Homework problems are assigned almost weekly. Some outside reading will be assigned. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination. (Teske)

261/NOEP 301. Navigation. (2). (Excl).

See NOEP 301. (Lt. Costello)

Courses in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (Division 241)

Although A&OS 202 and 203 are offered through the College of Engineering, the courses are approved by LS&A to earn LS&A credits and may be used to meet Natural Science distribution requirements. There is no specific relationship between A&OS 202 and 203 though the courses complement each other and, in turn, complement offerings in the Geological Sciences Department. Other Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences courses are listed in the College of Engineering Bulletin, and in the Time Schedule as part of the offerings of the College of Engineering in the A&OS subsection and may be elected by LS&A students as a pat of non-LS&A course work. These other courses do not help meet LS&A distribution requirements. Students who have a serious professional interest in the field should consult the department (2233 Space Research Building, 764-3335).

202. Weather and Climate. (3). (NS).
Section 001.
The focus of the course is on understanding the basic nature and behavior of the earth's atmosphere. Students learn to relate observable features of day-to-day weather to atmospheric motions and other characteristics revealed on the daily weather maps. They learn, also, to appreciate the forces which shape and change the climate and to understand the processes which produce atmospheric optical phenomena. The course studies the atmosphere as a natural resource, stressing both its limitations in the transport and deposition of air pollutants and the potential climate response to those pollutants. About ten minutes of each class period are devoted to description of current weather with the aid of same-day maps. A weather observation log and report is prepared by each class member. Three hour exams are given at 3-4 week intervals. These account for 60% of the course grade, the weather log/report 20%, and homework assignments the remainder. (Samson)

Section 002. Focus of the course is on understanding the basic nature and behavior of the earth's atmosphere through comprehension of weather maps and charts. Students learn to relate observable features of day-to-day weather and of climate to atmospheric motions and other characteristics revealed on the daily weather maps. They learn, also, to appreciate the atmosphere as a natural resource and to understand its limitations in the transport and diffusion of air pollutants. About ten minutes each class hour are devoted to description of current weather with aid of same-day maps. Students learn to plot and analyze weather maps. A report on the weather and climate of a particular place of personal interest is prepared by each. Hour examinations are given at 3-4 week intervals. These account for about 60% of course grade, the report about 20%, and weather map analyses and homework assignments the remainder. (Portman)

203. The Oceans. (3). (NS).

This course, which presents an overview of the four broad subfields of modern oceanography: (1) Physical Oceanography, (2) Geological Oceanography, (3) Chemical Oceanography, and (4) Biological Oceanography will draw examples from contemporary issues facing the world's oceans. Topics such as man's extension into the sea; aquaculture; economic potential of the sea's living and mineral resources; the law of the sea; intelligence in the sea; and whale and dolphin communication will serve to enhance the understanding of basic scientific principles. The format of the course will be lecture supplemented by readings in The World Ocean and a paperback novel, The Frail Ocean. Three hourly exams and a final will be given. (Section 1: Owen; Section 2: Meadows)

Courses in Biological Chemistry (Division 517)

415. Introductory Biochemistry. Two terms of organic chemistry equivalent to Chem. 225 and 226. Credit is not granted for both Biol. Chem. 415 and Biol. 411. (3-4).

This is a one semester course in biochemistry. Biochemistry is essentially the identification of the characteristics of living matter. Specifically the course will cover the biochemistry of the living state, the chemistry of biomolecules, energy transformations and chemical reactions in living cells; function of the immune system and action of hormones; self-regulation and self-replication of living organisms. The course begins with a set of 16 objectives in the form of questions, and at the end these objectives are reexamined. The main text is Biochemistry , 2nd ed. by Stryer. Some topics on molecular biology are also covered by Molecular Biology of the Gene 3rd ed., by Watson. The course is basically a lecture course with handouts provided for emphasis. Four hourly exams and a final examination will be used to evaluate student performance. It is possible to obtain a fourth credit hour by attending an extra series of lectures and preparing a research paper. (Zand)

416. Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory. Quantitative analysis (e.g., Chemistry 197 or 348, or 346 and 347); prior or concurrent election of Biol. Chem. 415; or permission of instructor. Credit is not granted for both Biol. Chem. 416 and Biol. Chem. 516. (2).

The goal of this laboratory-lecture course is to introduce students to modern biochemical techniques involving the separation and isolation of large molecules (proteins, DNA, RNA) and small molecules. An enzyme is isolated and purified and then used to study enzyme kinetics; and through this process students are introduced to spectrophotometric analysis, chromatographic (paper, columns, thin-layer) separations, disc gel electrophoresis. Thermodynamic parameters are calculated from an experiment using alcohol dehydrogenase. Students are also introduced to the use of radioisotopes in metabolic studies and radioimmunoassay. Students are expected to be familiar with simple chemical calculations at a level equivalent to that acquired through an introductory level college chemistry course. Previous laboratory work, especially Chemistry 346 or its equivalent is useful. This course is elected by biochemists and chemists and no distinction is made between undergraduates (about three-fourths) and graduates (about one-fourth) in assigning final grades in the course. The course is not related or equivalent to Zoology 416. (Hajra, Jourdian)

Biology Sciences

Courses in Biology (Division 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to concentrators in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. It can be taken to satisfy distribution requirements under Patterns I, II, or III. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Within these areas topics such as cell structure, cell metabolism, nutrition, alcohol as a drug, human genetics, genetic engineering, cancer, nature of evolution, and sociobiology will be discussed. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, observe and perform experiments which illustrate lecture material, and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Attendance at the discussion section is required. Course grade is determined on the basis of three lecture examinations (300 points) and upon discussion quizzes and papers (100 points). (J. Allen)

101. Biology and Human Affairs. (4). (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include DNA recombinant research, genetic engineering, IQ and genetics, sociobiology, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, nutrition and health. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. An analysis of the nature of the scientific method in biology, both historically and as currently applied, is a unifying theme of the course. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. (Vandermeer)

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112/114 sequence, covering essentially the same material. It is open to students who have completed at least one term of introductory college chemistry (Chem. 123 or equivalent) and have a strong background in high school biology. Biology 105 may be substituted whenever Biology 112/114 are prerequisites, but it is closed to students who have completed Biology 112 or 114. Reading, writing, and verbal skills play important roles in this course; students who are weak in these skills or who are not motivated to rapid, self-disciplined study habits are advised against taking the course. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112/114 sequence not only in the fast pace of study, but in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on students' initiative to study material from assigned readings and to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations). Assigned readings, laboratory material, and a study guide are given for each unit. The entire class meets three times a week; two one-hour lecture periods for lectures and examinations and once for an hour-long discussion to introduce the laboratory exercises and integrate the lab and lecture material. The laboratories (3043, 3032 NR) are open for 18 hours weekly during which each student spends approximately a 3-hour block of time. Students meet once a week for two hours in small recitation sections after their laboratory work to analyze and discuss laboratory results and the readings. Three 2-hour examinations (including the final) are given to test students' understanding of both reading and laboratory material. These examinations cover each unit of the course at several levels of complexity and each of three levels is graded on a 0-100 basis. In addition, each student is required to submit two written laboratory reports which are graded on a 0-100 basis. The final grade is based on Teaching Assistants' evaluations for a total of 1200 points. The textbook for this course is Biological Science (3rd edition, 1980) by W.T. Keeton. A Xeroxed laboratory manual must also be purchased at the University Cellar. A laboratory kit must be purchased at the Chemistry Store. For more information see the laboratory coordinator, 3064 NR (phone 30495). (Ikuma)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent is recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be three course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students should not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

An Honors laboratory section is available (see Time Schedule); enrollment for Honors work will entail laboratory and discussion time and effort beyond the regular course material; times for additional meetings will be announced.

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is required, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course are acceptable. (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). High school chemistry is not suitable as a prerequisite unless a student has obtained Advanced Placement credit for Chemistry 123, or has obtained other certification of college-level equivalency in general chemistry. Students who have completed Chemistry 123 with a grade below C- are to repeat the course before electing Biology 112, or repeat it concurrently with Biology 112. Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1570 C.C. Little Building.) (Kleinsmith, Estabrook)

Section 008 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 114 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C.C. Little Building. (Hazlett, Oakley)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Rizki, Grossman)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course is intended for students who have taken or are taking Genetics (Biology 305) and is designed to complement material covered in that course. Students will be given the opportunity to use biological materials and instruments utilized in genetic research. They will also do experiments using a variety of genetic tests and collect and analyze data. Each student will evaluate and interpret results independently. The experiments will be done with Drosophila, fungi, bacteria and bacteriophage. One three-hour laboratory session is scheduled per week, and another period is to be arranged. Some work will have to be done outside regularly scheduled lab hours. The laboratory will be open daily and evenings. In general, the experiments (about six or seven in number) will be done by pairs of students, however, each student will be expected to keep his own lab notebook and to write his own summarizing report for each experiment. Six written reports are required during the term. Student evaluation will be based on performance in laboratory, and written laboratory reports. This course is designed for advanced students interested in genetics. (Gay)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 112-114 or 105; Chem. 126 or the equivalent. Organic chemistry is helpful but not required. Not open to students who have completed Biol. 415. (3). (NS).

This lecture course is designed to provide undergraduates with (1) understanding of the basic functions of living cells, (2) appreciation for the experimental and observational methods which have established current knowledge, and (3) awareness of contributions of molecular and cellular biology to other areas of biological science and to human affairs. The interdependence of cell function and cell structure is stressed. As far as possible, an effort is made to phrase explanations in molecular terms and to provide insight into how biological molecules are integrated into higher levels of organization. Course content includes an introduction which stresses the essential unity of cell functions throughout the biosphere, the organizational basis of cell functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the basis of cell diversity. The course also includes a brief overview of selected metabolic pathways; energy transformations; flow of matter and information in biosynthesis (selected aspects); biogenesis of supramolecular structure and orangelles; cell surfaces; membrane structure, permeability and transport; secretion; the cell cycle and cell division; cellular aspects of locomotion; intracellular regulatory mechanisms; and special topics. This course provides a one-term core background in cellular biology, molecular biology and related subjects. It is suitable for concentrators and for other students wishing a one-term survey of this subject matter. Students desiring more detailed treatment may elect the two-term sequence Biology 411 and 415. Lecture notes and books containing recommended readings will be on reserve at the Undergraduate Library. There will be a textbook; purchase is optional. Each of two or three examinations during the term include short-answer "factual" questions and also several questions requiring brief explanatory paragraphs providing interpretation of data or formulation or proof of a hypothesis. There will be a final exam. In the past students have had considerable input into style and frequency of examinations. For further questions contact the instructor. (Shappirio, 764-1491)

351. General Ecology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. No credit to those who have complete Biology 350. (5). (NS).

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 351 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Three field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. Two laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is Ecology, by R.E. Ricklefs. (Rathcke, Goldberg)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exams. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer)

414. Immunobiology. Organic chemistry and 16 credits of biology. (3). (NS).

This course provides upper level undergraduate and graduate students with an introduction to immunochemistry as applied to diverse problems in biology. The focus is on the nature of the antigen/antibody reaction, its manifestations, the reagents and cells which are involved, and applications, rather than on clinical immunobiology. On completing the course students should be able to read critically the literature concerning immunochemistry in their area of study. Nine to twelve hours of background lectures are followed by presentations of visiting immunobiologists. Exams include a take-home exam and short quizzes. A term paper is required. This combines the current literature on immunochemistry with an area of interest to the student. Evaluation is based on the interim exams, the term paper, and a final (usually oral). Texts change rapidly because of constant development in the field. (Nace)

443. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (NS).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's Limnology, second edition, is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 444 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

444. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 443 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

445. Evolution and Systematics. Biol. 112-114 and 305, or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

Biology 445 is an overview of contemporary issues in evolution and systematics - the processes and patterns that account for organic diversity. The following topics are emphasized in lecture and discussion sections: (1) phylogenetic systematics; (2) vicariance biogeography; (3) coevolution; (4) epigenetics, heterochrony and other sources of macroevolutionary phenomena; (5) punctuated equilibrium; (6) effect hypothesis; (7) levels of selection, including organelles and species selection; (8) philosophy and covering theories; and (9) species as individuals or classes. Most reading assignments involve original literature. (Kluge)

456. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology and Math. 115 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

An analysis of ecological principles as they apply to agricultural ecosystems, emphasizing theoretical aspects but also covering empirical results of critical experiments. While the emphasis is on principles, practical applicability is also explored where appropriate. Physical, biological, and social forces will be integrated as necessary. Designed as preparation for active research in agroecosystem ecology. (Vandermeer)

470. Patterns in Evolutionary Ecology. Two laboratory courses in biology. (3). (NS).

This course will present modern theories of the evolution of ecological characteristics of animals and plants, chiefly at the population level. We will study the influence of natural selection upon birth rates, brood size, parental care, feeding strategies, competitive relations, polymorphism, mimicry, dispersal, habitat selection, etc. The evidence for these theories from laboratory and field studies will be critically examined. There will be two hours of lectures and one hour of discussion each week. A previous ecology course is strongly recommended. Evaluation will be based on two term papers, discussions and a short final exam. (Grant)

473. Mathematical Analogies in Evolutionary Biology. Two courses in biology; and Math. 114 or 116, or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

This course is intended primarily for juniors, seniors, and graduate students who desire a better understanding of mathematics applied to evolutionary biology, and who wish to read and criticize published papers in this field with more confidence. In lectures on Tuesdays and Thursdays, mathematical ideas are made understandable mostly by examples and intuitive arguments. On Mondays following a short quiz, applications of mathematical ideas are examined through student presentations and discussions of published articles. Central to the course are the role of theory in scientific method, and the formulation and testing of quantitative theory in evolutionary biology. The term project provides each student, whether weak or strong in quantitative background, the opportunity to invent a mathematical analogy that will challenge his or her creativity. Grading is based on class participation, weekly quizzes, and term project. (Estabrook)

475. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (3). (NS).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior may be appropriately viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution by natural selection, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary biology are outlined, with special reference to topics like sexuality, senescence, parental care, nepotism, and social reciprocity. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed in relation to evolutionary arguments, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and the results of experimental psychology to the human background of evolution by natural selection. The significance of evolutionary considerations for concepts of ethics, morality, and justice are explored. This course alternates with Zoology 475. A special discussion section will be arranged for students interested in animal behavior. (Alexander and Flinn)

511. Current Topics in Molecular Biology. Biol. 411; a course in cellular and molecular biology or microbiology strongly recommended. (2).

The course requires seminar presentations by students enrolled and readings from the original biological literature. A course in biochemistry is required. Courses in cellular and molecular biology or microbiology are recommended but not required. (Jones)

518. Bioenergetics. A course in biochemistry and permission of instructor. (3).

Bioenergetics deals with the mechanisms by which mitochondrial and chloroplast electron transport reactions generate ATP. The course will include comprehensive coverage of the following topics: (1) elementary thermodynamics; (2) the biochemistry of metalloenzymes, flavocoenzymes, and quinones; (3) mechanisms of electron transport in mitochondria and chloroplasts; (4) structure and function of coupling enzymes; and (5) chemiosmotic and conformational coupling hypotheses. The course consists of lectures by the instructor and in-class discussion of outside reading assignments. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Students should have access to an up-to-date biochemistry text such as Lehninger (2nd edition). In addition, three paperback books will be used: I.M. Klotz, Energy Changes in Biochemical Reactions (Academic Press); Lehninger, Bioenergetics (Benjamin); and Krogmann, Biochemistry of Green Plants (Prentice-Hall). (Charles Yocum)

567. Topics in Molecular Evolution. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Topics in Molecular Evolution: MOLECULAR METHODS IN SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY. This year we will examine the usefulness of molecular analysis for studies of systematics and evolution, beginning with a brief survey of the classes of molecules available and an evaluation of their relative merits. The use of informational macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) will be emphasized. We will discuss strengths and weaknesses of various analytical techniques, the kind of data that each provides, and various ways devised for handling and interpreting the data. Both practical and theoretical considerations will be addressed. The techniques covered will include protein electrophoresis, immunological methods, peptide analysis, protein sequencing, DNA hybridization, restriction enzyme analysis of DNA, DNA sequencing, comparison of structural features of DNA, structural analysis of chromosomes, and RNA oligonucleotide analysis. Laboratory exercises and demonstrations will include preparation and electrophoresis of proteins and DNA, DNA hybridization, DNA sequencing, and chromosome manipulations. A strong background in systematic and evolutionary biology is a prerequisite. Student evaluations will be based on examinations, problem sets and a research paper. (Brown and Patton)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4).

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and darkroom techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

This course is a basic course in learning how to grow and to use plants. The main topics in lecture and laboratory include landscaping principles and design; propagation of plants by cuttings, bulbs, tubers and corms and by grafting and budding; edible wild plants; seed germination; plant breeding; growing house plants, crop plants, vegetables, and flowers; methods of making compost; soils and their improvement; uses of fertilizers; hydroponics; pests and their control; plant pruning, including bonsai; and wine and beer making. There are field trips which emphasize ecology, wild edible plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as a visit to a local commercial orchid grower's greenhouse. One of the highlights of the course is a natural food and edible wild plants dinner. There is one lecture plus two discussion periods and six hours of laboratory at the Botanical Gardens each week. (Kaufman)

230/Nat. Res. 230. Woody Plants I: Biology and Recognition. (4). (NS).

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification is taught during one afternoon field trip per week. Woody plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities oak-hickory forests, beech-maple forests, river floodplain community, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, fruit types, life history, forest ecology, variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., of Europe, and the Tropics. Laboratories (field trips) are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 p.m. once a week. No single text is available for the entire course. For identification, the student should supplement field notes with readings from a standard dendrology book. Lecture material based in part on Spurr and Barnes, Forest Ecology. Grading based 60% on field quizzes and exams (8) and indoor identification exams (2); 40% on lecture (2 hour exams). (Wagner)

281. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in plant sciences (cell and molecular biology or botany). The course introduces the basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out vital functions and introduces students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The contents of the lectures fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzymes action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, water relations, transpiration and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant developments, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. This course is offered only in the Fall terms. (Charles Yocum and Conrad Yocum)

282. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Botany 281. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course is intended to provide experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiology research. The laboratory experiments will focus on the three main categories covered in Biology 381: (1) plant physiology, (2) transport phenomena and (3) growth and development. Biology 381 must have been taken prior or concurrently with this course. This course is only offered in the Fall terms. (Frasch)

403. Economic Botany. An introductory botany or biology course. (2). (NS).

Botany 403 is open to students who have had an introductory course in botany or biology and/or have an understanding of the basic concepts of plant classification, structure, physiology and reproduction. The general course objectives are to develop a knowledge of the botany, culture, origin, and improvement of cultivated plants and an understanding of the impact of the cultivated plants on the political, economic, and social aspects of our civilization. Topics include the major food crops, the origin of agriculture, agricultural systems throughout the world, beverage, medicinal, and fiber plants, plant breeding, the origin and evolution of the cultivated plants and agricultural resources and the population problem. The course meets one evening per week for two hours. Lectures are supplemented with slides and films. Two projects are required: an herbarium collection of common edible wild plants or weeds and a term paper dealing with a topic appropriate to the study of economic botany. A text is recommended for background reading, supplementation of the lectures, and reference. In the Fall Term of 1984, the class will meet on Tuesday and Thursday evenings from 7:00-8:30; the final exam will be given November 1 at 7:00 PM during the last scheduled class meeting of the term. (Steiner)

439. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This course studies the very diverse group of plants collectively known as "the algae", which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative genera from the various algal groups mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved material. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and their interrelationships. An evolutionary perspective is strived for, and a comparative approach is used. The use of algae as research tools is stressed where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled as well as two field trips during the term. The text is Bold and Wynne's Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction, 2nd ed., 1984, Prentice-Hall. (Wynne)

447. Pteridology. Bot. 207 or 422; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The biology and systematics of whiskferns, clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts, horsetails, adder's-tongues, grapeferns, curly-grasses, climbing ferns, and common ferns the lower vascular plants or pteridophytes. Emphasis is upon the modern types that live today. They are studied in the field, the laboratory, and with illustrated lectures. Most of the field trips are short an afternoon or a single weekend day but there will be two weekend trips, one to Canada, the other to the Cumberland Plateau. In the laboratory there are demonstration specimens and microscope preparations. The lectures cover the major groups, their biology, and evolutionary relationships. Tropical as well as temperate genera will be taken up. Exotic types will be illustrated by color projection slides taken in natural habitats. Special stress is given to ecology of the plants in the wild, especially processes of reproduction, and the class will find gametophytes. Methods of studying hybridization and polyploidy using chromosomes will be taught, as well as literature and major research centers in this field. Students should have at least the equivalent of Botany 207 or Botany 422, or the permission of the instructor. Grading is based on quizzes and examinations. Only required book (for field): J.T. Mickel, How to Know the Ferns and Fern Allies, W.C. Brown Co. (Wagner)

488. Plant Constituents and their Functions. Biol. 105 or 114 and one term of organic chemistry. (2). (NS).

A different kind of study of plants for students interested in the special functional and economic aspects of plant chemical constituents and plant-plant or plant-animal interactions. This course will survey the major secondary compounds in plants, their functions in plants and their effects on animals. These compounds will be grouped primarily on a functional rather than a structural basis. Pigments, fragrances, hormones, allelopathic agents, toxins (including mycotoxins and carcinogens), medicinal compounds, hallucinogens, plant defenses against pathogens, and others will be considered in terms of their value to plants, their mode of action, and their evolution or potential use as phyletic markers. This courses will be offered only in alternate years. (Nooden)

532. Aquatic Flowering Plants. Written permission of instructor and Bot. 422 or the equivalent. (3).

This course aims to provide familiarity with the local aquatic vascular plants (both submersed and emergent species), with the kinds of characters used in their identification (regardless of region), and with the natural history of these plants through field experience and indoor discussion-laboratory sessions. Adaptations to aquatic existence, pollination, aquatic "weeds," and uses of aquatics by wildlife and people are among the topics considered. The first five weeks consist of field trips, including one all-day Saturday trip to marshes of Lake Erie. Indoor discussions later in the season are thus based on some firsthand observation, although the field work is oriented primarily toward recognition of about 150 species. Indoor work includes identification of some additional species and consideration of other topics, aided by a study herbarium for the course, demonstration materials (dry, pickled, and fresh), color slides, and literature "on reserve" in the lab. Fassett's Manual of Aquatic Plants is the only required text; handouts include a bibliography and suggested readings, which are available in the lab. Checklists of expected species are distributed for each field trip. A hand lens is essential in the field. Grading is based on identification and essay/short-answer exams on general topics; there is no term paper. Enrollment is limited to eight, and a waiting list is maintained by the instructor (in 2012 NUB), from whom more complete information is available. (Voss)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114; or the equivalent. (6). (NS).

Lectures focusing on the origin, evolution, and biology of the chordates, with particular emphasis on vertebrates. The evolution of the structure in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates is examined in the laboratory, primarily through dissection of a series of selected vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a museum field trip. (Gans and Northcutt)

420. Lectures in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Biol. 105, or Biol 112 and 114; Math 113 or 115; organic chemistry; physics. Students who have completed Zool. 325 must obtain permission of the instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the aims, concepts, and methods of comparative physiology through consideration of metabolic physiology and physiological regulation. Topics covered from a comparative standpoint include: aerobiosis and anaerobiosis, respiratory mechanisms and gas transport, circulation, nitrogen excretion, ionic and osmotic regulation, acid-base balance, and temperature regulation. Physiological adaptation to the environment in the course and a number of examples of it are discussed. Three lectures a week are presented and these are supplemented by assigned readings from a required textbook. There are three one-hour examinations (100 points each) and a final examination (125 points). (Dawson)

421. Laboratory in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Accompanied by Zool. 420. (5). (NS).

The laboratory sessions permit work with a number of species of invertebrates and vertebrates in experiments dealing with energy metabolism, respiration and gas transport, circulation, ionic and osmotic regulation, and temperature responses. The laboratory consists of two three-hour periods, with each section limited to twenty students. Laboratory instructions specifically written for Zoology 421 are used. The last two weeks of the laboratory are devoted to independent research projects designed by the students in consultation with the laboratory staff. Students prepare laboratory reports that involve consultation of the original literature. (Dawson)

428. Endocrinology. Biol. 105 or 112 and 114; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates but will also consider those of invertebrates. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Other courses, including Zoology 581-582, treat mammalian reproductive endocrinology in detail. Instruction in Zoology 428 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in Chemistry through Organic is essential and a course in Biochemistry would be helpful. (Doneen)

430. Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 428; and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course must be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Zoology 428. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation, and mechanisms of action of hormones. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled each week; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. (Doneen)

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (NS).

The invertebrate phyla represent about 90% of the species of animals alive today. Zoology 437 surveys the biology of these groups with special emphasis on particularities of morphology, cytology, physiology and ecology which account for the fact that major discoveries in these fields have utilized advantages offered by various invertebrates' systems. An example is the use of giant squid axons in nerve physiology. In the laboratory, live specimens are provided for as many groups as possible; standard dissections are made, and the theory and use of the microscope are considered. Evaluation is by laboratory practicals and lecture exams. (Cather)

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (4). (NS).

This is a general course which covers information concerning four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom and is intended to give some perspective on invertebrate systems as opposed to the more usual emphasis on vertebrate animals. The emphasis is on the whole animal what it is, what it does, how it does it, how it got there. In lectures the wealth of information and generalizations gathered from insects concerning all major aspects of biology are discussed. In the laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. This course is an introduction to specialization in all aspects of biology in which insects are appropriate experimental organisms and an introduction to the appreciation and enjoyment of living animals. The following topics are discussed, with special emphasis on aspects recently treated in research publications: synopsis of orders; general functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity and nervous organization; regulation of development and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration in insects; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization in insects; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships of insects; insect flight. The laboratory work encompasses a more unified scope. The only prerequisites for this course are an introductory college course in biology or zoology and an interest in understanding living organisms. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week. Only one text, Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to the Study of Insects, is required for both lecture and laboratory. Except for preparing an insect collection and some collecting, outside work is at a minimum. There is one essay hour exam and a final essay exam in lecture, which are comprehensive in nature; and a minimum of four one-hour practical examinations in laboratory. (T. Moore)

450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Biol. 105 or 114. (4). (NS).

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize identification, life history, adaptations, and field methods. (Nussbaum)

481. Vertebrate Developmental Biology. Eight credits in biology; Zool. 252 or 351 is recommended. (3). (NS).

Development is progressive change from the time of conception until death. Lectures will survey the anatomy of the developing individual (descriptive development) and also the mechanisms of development (experimental analysis of development). The course seeks to answer such questions as: How do cells, tissues and organs interact to form an organism? What regulates form, size and longevity? The first third of the course covers the progress of development from the time of fertilization until birth. Topics during the middle third include growth, differentiation, genetic control, cell interactions, induction, transplantation immunity, regeneration, metamorphosis, cancer, teratology, aging and death. The last third surveys the development of organ systems in the human. The laboratory course, Zoology 482, may be taken concurrently. Grading is based on performance in two midterm examinations, a final examination, and a submitted abstract and review on a topic chosen by the student. Lecture outlines with references are distributed as guides to library sources of information. (Kemp)

482. Laboratory in Developmental Biology. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 481. (2). (NS).

The laboratory in developmental biology provides practical experience in studying developmental anatomy and physiology. Early stages of development, including gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and neurulation, are studied from a variety of embryos. Organogenesis is studied in frog, chick and mouse embryos both from living embryos and from serial microscopic sections. Experiments illustrating microsurgery, tissue culture, transplantation, teratology and metamorphosis supplement the microscopic analysis. The course is designed to accompany Zoology 481. Grading is based on quizzes, which may be given at any period, and on three principal examinations covering major segments of the work. The laboratory sessions are three-hour periods twice weekly. (Kemp)

Courses in Chemistry (Division 334)

107. 2.5 General Chemistry. Three years of high school math or Math. 105, and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Chemistry 107 is the first part of a three course sequence (107, 108, 109) taken during the Fall, Winter, and Spring Terms. It is equivalent to Chemistry 123, 125, 126 and is intended for students who would benefit most by taking general chemistry over a longer period of time.

120. General and Organic Chemistry: Structure and Transformations of Matter. Three years of high school mathematics; one year of high school chemistry; and admission into the INTEFLEX program. (5). (NS).

Chemistry 120 is the first course of a three course sequence (Chemistry 120, 220, and 221) which emphasizes selected aspects of general and organic chemistry for students admitted to the INTEFLEX program. The course consists of four lectures, one discussion and one four-hour laboratory per week.

123. General and Inorganic Chemistry: Structure of Matter. Three years of high school mathematics or mathematics through 105. (3). (NS).

Chemistry 123 is the first term chemistry course in the (123 or 124)/125/126 sequence. Chemistry 125 and 126 are taken second semester. Chemistry 123 consists of three lectures and an optional help session with the professor plus one discussion session with a teaching assistant per week. Topics covered include stoichiometry, periodic properties, gases, quantum theory, electronic structure, covalent bonding, introduction to organic chemistry and nuclear chemistry. There are three one-hour examinations (Tuesday nights) and a final examination (as listed in the Winter Time Schedule).

124. General and Inorganic Chemistry: Structure of Matter. Three years of high school mathematics and a strong background in high school chemistry validated by a satisfactory grade on a placement test administered (each term) during orientation. Chem. 125 to be elected concurrently. (3). (NS).

Students are placed into Chemistry 124 on the basis of examinations given during Orientation. Chemistry 124 is elected with Chemistry 125 as the first term of the (124 or 123)/125/126 sequence. The topics in 123 and 124 and the final examinations are nearly the same. Topics are covered in greater depth in 124. There are three lectures and one discussion period with a teaching assistant per week. Topics covered include stoichiometry, periodic properties, gases, quantum theory, electronic structure, covalent bonding, introduction to organic chemistry and nuclear chemistry. There are three one-hour examinations (Tuesday nights) and a final exam as listed in the Fall Time Schedule.

125. General and Inorganic Chemistry: Laboratory. To be elected by students who have completed Chem. 123 or are eligible for (or enrolled in) Chem. 124. (2). (NS).

This course is a part of the (123 or 124)/125/126 sequence and is intended to be elected with Chemistry 124 (in the 124/126 sequence) or with Chemistry 126 (in the 123/126 sequence). The format consists of one lecture and one four-hour laboratory each week. Computer simulations implemented on the Commodore PET microcomputer are used to supplement the experiments. Part of the last hour of the laboratory period is used to discuss the laboratory work just completed. Special emphasis is placed on quantitative measurements, inferences from experimental observations, and properties of inorganic substances. Topics include gravimetric and volumetric analysis, equilibria, thermochemistry, kinetics, synthesis and qualitative analysis. There are two one-hour examinations (Tuesday nights).

126. General and Inorganic Chemistry: Chemical Dynamics. Chem. 123 or 124; prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 125. (3). (NS).

This course is a continuation of Chemistry 123 or 124 and should be preceded or accompanied by Chemistry 125. The course has three lectures and one discussion per week. Topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibria, electrochemistry and coordination chemistry. There are three one-hour examinations (Tuesday nights) and a final examination as listed in the Winter Time Schedule.

196. Honors General Chemistry. A strong background in high school chemistry and mathematics; and permission of the Honors chemistry adviser or the instructor. (5). (NS).

This course is the first of a two course sequence (both Chemistry 196 and Chemistry 197 are prerequisite to organic chemistry) which is designed for students who have strong high school science backgrounds as well as a scientific orientation. It is particularly intended for students who plan to concentrate in chemistry. Admission to the course is by permission of the Honors Chemistry Counselor (1210 Angell Hall). Students in Chemistry 196 usually score above 680 on the Chemistry CEEB or above the 85th percentile on the Summer Orientation placement examination in chemistry and 650 or higher on the SAT Math. Math 115, 185, or 195 should be elected concurrently. The course format includes lecture/discussion with one four-hour laboratory each week. Laboratory is organized around the department's Investigations in General Chemistry as well as some individual handouts for optional experiments. The lectures emphasize chemical principles (quantitative models, phases, atomic and molecular structure, and an introduction to chemical thermodynamics and equilibria) while the laboratory focuses on descriptive chemistry and experimental techniques.

220. General and Organic Chemistry: Energetics and Properties of Matter. Chem. 120. (4). (NS).

This course is the second of a two term lecture sequence in the basic principles of organic chemistry. It is elected by preprofessional students and by some chemistry concentrators. Chemistry concentrators are encouraged to elect Chem. 294/295 (Honors); Inteflex students elect Chem. 220/221. Chem. 225/226 requires skill in spatial relations, the ability to organize important concepts. There are three lectures each week and a one-hour discussion. The course grade is determined by a student's scores on three one-hour examinations and a final examination. Inteflex students are scheduled as two groups for discussion sections.

225. Organic Chemistry. Chem. 126 or 197 or 348. (4). (NS).

This course is the first of a two term lecture sequence in the basic principles of organic chemistry. It is elected by preprofessional students and by some chemistry concentrators. Chemistry concentrators are encouraged to elect Chemistry 294/295 (Honors); Inteflex students elect Chemistry 220/221. Chemistry 225/226 requires skill in spatial relations, the ability to organize information carefully and the ability to recognize important concepts. Chemistry 225, which establishes the conceptual framework upon which Chemistry 226 is based, describes the relationship between structure, energy and chemical reactivity. There are three lectures each week and a one-hour discussion. The course grade is determined by a student's scores on three one-hour examinations and a final examination.

226. Organic Chemistry. Chem. 225; and concurrent enrollment in Chem. 227. (3). (NS).

This course is a continuation of Chemistry 225 and emphasizes functional group chemistry. Some attention is given to biochemistry and to the chemistry of natural products, especially the chemistry of carbohydrates and proteins. The course format is three lectures each week, and the final grade is based on three one-hour examinations and a final examination.

227. Organic Chemistry Laboratory. Chem. 225. (2). (NS).

This course is a one term introduction to organic laboratory techniques and enables students to experience organic chemistry as a real science. Chemistry 227 is elected concurrently with Chemistry 226 and reinforces concepts developed in Chemistry 225/226 lectures. Wet chemical methods are emphasized, but there is some opportunity to identify organic materials or components of mixtures with the help of spectroscopic information (IR and NMR). The course grade is based upon laboratory work and written examinations.

228. Organic Chemistry. Chem. 226 and 227. (2). (NS).

This course is a one term organic laboratory course which introduces students to certain synthetic and manipulative techniques not taught in Chemistry 227. Course topics include gas chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, reactions run in inert atmospheres and distillation under reduced pressures. The course also includes instruction and practice in the use of the chemical literature. The final grade is based on laboratory performance mainly.

294. Honors Organic Chemistry. Chem. 126 or 197 or 348, Math. 116 or 186, and permission of instructor. (5). (NS).

See Chemistry 225/226/227/228 for a general description.

300. Principles of Chemical Instrumentation. Physics 240 and 241. (3). (NS).

This laboratory course introduces the components of modern chemical instrumentation. The major emphasis is on signal conditioning electronics and digital processing (wired logic microcomputer methods). The first 40% of the course consists of characterizations of discrete elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, transformers, and transistors) in student-constructed circuits. The next 30% treats more complex circuits (power supplies, operational amplifiers, and TTL integrated circuits). The last part treats other complex circuits (analog-to-digital conversion, wave shaping, digital interfacing and communication, and microcomputer operations) and may include special projects chosen by individual students. The circuits include several types of transducers but a systematic treatment of these elements is not attempted. Although lectures are given during the first eight weeks of the term (during the first lab meeting each week), the emphasis is on work in the laboratory. Evaluation is based on laboratory work (70%), written and oral reports on the last unit (15%), and work directly related to lecture (15%, primarily assigned problems).

319. Independent Study. Chem. 126 or 197 or 348; and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 4 credits.

Research in an area of interest to, and supervised by, a Departmental faculty member. Exact details such as nature of the research, level of involvement of the student, credit hours awarded and criteria for grading are individually determined in consultation with the faculty member.

346. Quantitative Analysis. Chem. 126; organic chemistry is recommended. (3). (NS).

This course in analytical chemistry is designed for nonchemistry concentrators and is elected primarily by zoology, medical technology, microbiology, and other biological and health science oriented students. The subject matter of the course is based on the practice of quantitative analytical chemistry which consists of a sequence of four basic operations: (1) selection of a representative sample; (2) preparation of the sample for measurement (which frequently involves physical separation); (3) measurement of the desired constituent; and (4) calculation, evaluation, and interpretation of the data obtained in terms of the objective for which the analysis was done. The lectures in the course emphasize the theoretical and practical fundamentals underlying (1) important types of solution equilibria including acid-base, complexation, and redox; (2) separation approaches including precipitation, chromatography, and extraction; and (3) measurement techniques including methods based on mass, chemical reactivity (e.g., titration), and electrical and optical properties. The manner in which these concepts and processes are applied to obtain useful information about the composition of materials is considered, including the problem of sampling and the statistical evaluation of analytical data. The course grade is usually based on performance in the best ten of thirteen weekly thirty minute examinations. Three lectures per week.

347. Experimental Methods of Quantitative Analysis. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 346. (2). (NS)

One lecture per week with two laboratory meetings per week. Work is self-paced on an individual and/or group basis. Experiments include the use of spectrophotometers, gas chromatographs, indicator methods, and potentiometric methods involving pH and ion-selective electrodes. A laboratory manual is required and is available through the Chemistry Stores dispensing window on the Chemistry Building loading dock.

348. Quantitative Analytical Chemistry. Chem. 125 and 126; or the equivalent. (4). (NS)

Chemistry 348 is identical to 197 and is elected by students with advanced standing or credit for Chemistry 123 (124), 125, 126 or its equivalent for 4 credits. Analytical chemistry is emphasized in 348. Topics include statistics, chemical equilibrium (weak acid-base, complexation, solubility), potentiometry, phase equilibrium and chromatography, optical methods of analysis, and radioactive and kinetic methods of analysis. Three lectures and two laboratory periods per week. Weekly short quizzes are given (12 total of which the two lowest for each student are omitted from the final total) in lieu of exams; no final exam. The text is Chemical Separation and Measurements by Peters, et al. A laboratory manual is also required and is available at the Chemistry Stores dispensing window on the Chemistry Building loading dock.

391. Honors Physical Chemistry Laboratory. Chem. 197, 300, or 348, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 397. (2). (NS).

This course has two principal objectives: (1) to acquaint the student with the laboratory aspect of physical chemistry in order to give a different perspective to the theoretical concepts discussed in the basic lecture course; and (2), to improve the sophistication of the student with respect to the nature of physical measurements, the errors associated with the measurements, and how these errors may be treated in a systematic fashion.

392. Honors Physical Chemistry Laboratory. Chem. 391. (2). (NS).

Chemistry 392 is a continuation of Chemistry 391 with more advanced experiments. These experiments are often less structured than those in Chemistry 391 and thus offer a greater opportunity for individual initiative.

396. Honors Physical Chemistry. Chem. 226 and 227, or Chem. 295; Math. 216 or 286, Phys. 240 and 241; and permission of instructor or chemistry Honors adviser. (4). (NS).

First course in a two part series in physical chemistry for Honors students and chemistry concentrators. Other students elect the chemistry 468 and 469 series. Lectures and discussions.

399. Honors Introduction to Research. Permission of a chemistry concentration adviser and the professor who will supervise the research. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 4 credits during junior or senior year.

Same as Chem. 319 except that Chem. 399 is the Honors degree equivalent. Elected in the junior or senior year, this course culminates in the senior thesis, a requirement for the Honors degree.

403. Inorganic Chemistry. Chem. 197 or 348, or 346 and 347, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 469. (3). (NS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the development and use of various theories, concepts, and models useful in explaining reactivity and structures of inorganic systems. Descriptive chemistry will also be discussed systematically within such a framework. Students will be responsible for assigned material from the text as well as additional selections from reserved material in the Chemistry Library. Text: To be announced.

413. Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 403. (2). (NS).

Chemistry 413 is designed to introduce the student to a variety of inorganic preparations and techniques, including high temperature solid state reactions, vacuum line techniques, electrochemical syntheses, air exclusion techniques, photochemical preparations, magnetic susceptibility, and mass spectral measurements. Compounds prepared include organo-transition metal derivatives, classical coordination complexes, magnetic solids, Lewis acid-base adducts, and main group compounds. Toward the end of the term, short research projects may be undertaken. Text: R. J. Angelici, Synthesis and Technique in Inorganic Chemistry.

425. Qualitative Organic Chemistry. Chem. 228 or 295. (5). (NS).

This is a course in the systematic identification of organic compounds by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Two lecture periods per week; heavy laboratory commitment. The laboratory gives experience in separation, purification, and characterization of organic compounds. There is heavy use of the primary chemical literature. Grade is based on laboratory work, identification of compounds, and written examinations.

447. Physical Methods of Analysis. Chem. 197 or 348, and 225. (3). (NS).

The objective of the course is to acquaint students with the conceptual and methodological principles of contemporary analytical chemistry, beyond the level to which the students have been exposed in Chemistry 197 or 348, and to introduce the students to the utilization of these principles in solving the types of problems which are currently of interest in chemistry and allied areas. The course meets three times per week. Duplicated lecture outlines and illustrative material for each topic are distributed. Sets of numerical and other problems are assigned periodically; these are intended as a review and self-help mechanism and are not collected, but solutions and answers are distributed. The lectures generally emphasize the following: theoretical basis of the measurement and separation technics used in contemporary analytical chemistry; application of these technics to the study and solution of important classes of problems in science, e.g., ascertainment of compositional information, evaluation of interaction between chemical species and determination of molecular structure; basic features of the instrumentation used (details of instrument construction and operation, in so far as they should be covered, are left to other courses such as Chemistry 300 and 448). The treatment of an area is commonly unified with specific technics being used as illustrative examples, e.g., in photometry, which can be conveniently treated from a general approach, flame photometry, atomic absorption, emission spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence are briefly considered in a review of the origins of spectra as an example of means for determining elemental composition with differing independence of matrix composition. Chemistry 447 provides a good opportunity for the students to synthesize their previous experience and knowledge of chemistry, physics and mathematics into a coherent approach to the study of chemical species and systems, and to the resolution of chemical problems. The current text is Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Skoog and West; Saunders; 2nd ed. References to pertinent material in other books are provided; these books are placed on reserve in the Chemistry Library.

448. Physical Methods Laboratory. Chem. 300 and prior or concurrent enrollment in Chem. 447. (2). (NS).

Chemistry 448 provides "hands-on" experience with a variety of modern analytical instruments and the chemistry which supports them. Procedures of importance in such areas as pollution control or clinical analysis are used to illustrate the application and operation of most instruments. Techniques employed may include UV-visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrophoresis, gas chromatography and polarography. An introduction to computer-aided experimentation is provided. Written reports are required for each procedure carried out. There are no midterm or final examinations.

468. Physical Chemistry. Phys. 240 and 241, Math. 216, and prior enrollment in three terms of chemistry. (4). (NS).

This course is the first of a two-term lecture sequence in physical chemistry (Chemistry 468 and 469). The course is normally elected by students in programs requiring two semesters of physical chemistry, such as Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Cellular Biology, etc. (A one-semester treatment of physical chemistry on a somewhat lower level is given in Chemistry 365.) The topics covered in Chemistry 468 are properties of gases, equations of state, the laws of thermodynamics with application to chemical and phase equilibria, solutions and electrochemistry.

469. Physical Chemistry. Phys. 240 and 241, Math. 216, and prior enrollment in three terms of chemistry. (4). (NS).

This course is the second of the regular two-term sequence in physical chemistry (Chemistry 468 and 469). The topics include quantum chemistry, molecular structure and spectroscopy.

481. Physicochemical Measurements. Chem. 197 or 347 or 348 and 396 or 468. If advanced standing is granted for part of the work, Chemistry 481 may be elected for one credit with permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

The course has two principal objectives. The first is to acquaint the student with the laboratory aspect of physical chemistry in order to give a different perspective to the theoretical concepts discussed in the basic lecture course. The second is to improve the sophistication of the student with respect to the nature of physical measurements, the errors associated with the measurements, and how these errors may be treated in a systematic fashion. Prerequisite: Chemistry 468; the course should be preceded or accompanied by Chemistry 469. Text: Shoemaker & Garland, Experiments in Physical Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed.

482. Physicochemical Measurements. Chem. 300 and Chem 481. If advanced standing is granted for part of the work, Chemistry 482 may be elected for one credit with permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Chemistry 482 is a continuation of Chemistry 481 with more advanced experiments. These often are less structured than those in Chemistry 481 and thus offer a greater opportunity for individual initiative.

507. Inorganic Chemistry. Chem. 469 or 397. (3). (NS).

Generalizations of the periodic table and their relationship to classical and modern concepts of atomic and molecular structures. Particular topics include inorganic stereochemistry, silicates, ligand field theory and coordination complexes, main group chemistry, organometallic chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and bioinorganic chemistry.

536/Chem. Eng. 536. Laboratory in Macromolecular Chemistry. Chem. 535 or Phys. 418; or permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Experimental techniques for the study of polymer properties in solution will include viscosity, light scattering, NMR, optical rotary dispersion and UV absorption; more complex methods such as dielectric behavior and ultracentrifugation will be illustrated by laboratory demonstration. Elasticity, solvent swelling and gas permeation will be used to characterize bulk polymerization and the fractionization of polymers by chromatophic techniques will supplement those on polymer characterization.

538. Organic Chemistry of Macromolecules. Chem. 226 or 295. (2). (NS).

Chemistry of monomer and polymer synthesis; Mechanistristic analysis of reactions. Stereochemistry of polymer structures both natural and synthetic. Scope of subject matter: free radical and ionic polymerization, condensation polymerization, ring opening and nonclassical polymerization. Special topics from the recent literature.

540. Organic Principles. Chem. 228 and 469. (3). (NS).

Principles of chemical binding, mechanisms of organic chemical reactions and stereochemistry. The important types of organic reactions are discussed. Basic principles are emphasized and relatively little attention is paid to the scope and synthetic applications to the reactions.

570. Molecular Physical Chemistry. Chem. 468/469 or the equivalent. (3). (NS).

Designed as a terminal course for non-specialists and also in sequence with Chemistry 666 as a full course for students specializing in physical chemistry. Applications of wave mechanics to exactly solvable problems. Elementary applications of operators, symmetry, and group theory. Electronic structure of atoms and moleculars. Principles of molecular spectroscopy.

Classical Studies

Classical Archaeology (Division 342)

221/Hist. of Art 221. Introduction to Greek Archaeology. (4). (HU).

This course surveys the history and art of Crete and Greece as revealed by archaeology from the third millennium through the 4th century B.C. In the prehistoric period, particular attention is given to architectural and ceramic developments as well as to the crosscurrent of trade and economic contacts among Asia Minor, Crete, and mainland Greece. Emphasis is also given to the impact archaeology has had on views and theories of history: the destructions of the civilizations of Crete and Troy, the end of the bronze age, the volcanic eruption of Thera. In the historic period, major artistic developments in architecture, sculpture, and painting are considered and special attention is given to social interpretations: temples as banks and monasteries; sculpture as dedication, decoration, and commemorative propaganda; architectural sculpture as realized myth. Discussions in the sections will concentrate on the historical background, archaeological field techniques, methods of dating and stratigraphy. The sections will meet in the Kelsey museum where it will be possible to work with the actual ancient artifacts recovered in University of Michigan excavations. There are two one hour examinations and a final as well as illustrated lectures and assigned readings. (Pedley)

421/History of Art 421. Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. One previous art history, anthropology, or classical archaeology course recommended. (3). (HU).

See History of Art 421. (Root)

427/Hist. of Art 427. Pompeii: Its Life and Art. (3). (HU).

The history of the city of Pompeii, from the Etruscan and Greek periods through its destruction by volcanic eruption in A.D. 79. Attention will be paid to the development of the city plan, to architectural achievements (in both the public and private sectors), to social stratification and mobility, to religious developments, artistic currents, and to political organization. Throughout, attempts will be made to consider the particular ways in which a knowledge of Pompeii contributes uniquely to a modern appreciation of Roman civilization and culture; to this end, comparisons and contrasts with other Roman cities Ostia and Herculaneum will be stressed. Finally, some attention will be given to the history of the excavations, and to the contributions to 18th century artistic and cultural taste which resulted from the rediscovery of this ancient Campanian city. There will be a midterm and a final examination; and students will be expected to write a paper on a Pompeian topic of their choosing.

539/Hist. of Art 539. Greek Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 and Class. Arch. 330; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the chronological and stylistic development of the major forms of Greek architecture, sacred and secular, from the eighth through the second centuries B.C. The course will be divided into a series of units each treating a specific building type as it changed through time. Units will include the Doric temple, the Ionic temple, and other sacred building forms such as the treasury; the role of the stoa as an integrating architectural form of both sanctuary and city will be considered. The development of other key architectural forms theater, bouleuterion, prytaneion, and other public building types - will also be covered. The organizational principles of larger architectural spaces in both city and sanctuary will also be discussed. Assigned texts will be: W. B. Dinsmoor, The Architecture of Ancient Greece; J. J. Coulton, Ancient Greek Architects at Work; and a set of about ten articles relevant to specific topics. There will be a midterm and final examination, unit quizzes, and three short(about 5 pages) research papers on assigned topics. (Herbert)

Classical Linguistics (Division 345)

504/Rom. Ling. 504. History of the Latin Language II: 1 600 A.D. Latin 221 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

This course traces the history of the Latin language from early Imperial Rome to the late Latin that merges into the Romance languages. Special emphasis is given to phonology, morphology, syntax, and the lexicon as well as to the kind of usage that reflects the spoken language including local and social dialects. The prerequisite is a reading knowledge of Latin (equivalent to the proficiency attained at the end of a one-year course in college). The texts to be read, and commentaries, are contained in an anthology; students are also provided with a bibliography of works for outside reading and homework, a number of which are placed on Graduate Reserve in the Library. The course is conducted with lectures and discussion. Evaluation is based on a written final examination, or on a midterm examination and a final term paper. (Pulgram)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Greek. (4). (FL).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the koine Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. (Section 001 Ross; Section 002 Rickert)

301. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course is the first half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. It includes a grammar review, translation (primarily Plato), and analysis of ancient Greek texts. The primary purpose of the course is to prepare students for more and faster reading of Greek. It is followed by Greek 302 which is offered Winter Term. (A. Edwards)

308/ABS 308. The Acts of the Apostles. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (2). (HU).

Students electing this two credit course should have completed at least one year of Attic Greek. To the degree that there is mastery of the paradigm forms and the principal parts of the most common irregular verbs the reading assignments will be made easier and more enjoyable. Careful attention will be paid to the key features of koine Greek, especially as those features part company with Attic Greek morphology and syntax. Two hourly exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. In-class translation is followed by a discussion of the text. For further information contact Asst. Dean Nissen, 1220 Angell Hall, 764-7297. (Nissen)

Intermediate Courses

401. Early Greek Prose and Poetry. Greek 302 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is designed primarily to teach students how to read ancient Greek with some speed and comprehension. The syllabus will be composed of prose writings, with about two-thirds of the time spent on the Histories of Herodotus and the remaining one-third on representative texts of fifth and fourth-century Attic prose authors. Requirements: midterm and final examinations, one or two short papers, and an oral report. (Gellrich)

Advanced Courses

436. Herodotus. (3). (HU).

Concentrated and extensive readings in Herodotus, with analysis of Herodotean style, form, and thought. Prime emphasis will be placed on rapid familiarization with the most significant books of the Histories. Digressions will also focus on problems of Greek history of the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. encountered in the text.

459. Greek Bucolic Poets. (3). (HU).

Selected readings in the poetry of Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus, with special emphasis on the nature of the Hellenistic genre of bucolic and its later influence on, e.g., Vergil. Term paper; midterm and final examinations.

481. Plato, Republic. Greek 302 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Through translation and interpretation of sections of Plato's Republic the course provides an introduction to the ethical problems and views that underlie Plato's Republic. Relevant epistomological and metaphysical views such as the theory of forms will also be examined. Readings in translation from other Platonic dialogues, including Protagoras, Phaedo, Symposium, Phaedrus, and Aristotle's Politics will be used to supplement and criticize both the experiment and its underlying views. (Rickert)

520. Sophocles. Greek 402. (3). (HU).

Reading of two or three representative tragedies of Sophocles, with special attention to problems of text, meter, presentation, interpretation, and relation to Greek tragedy in general. Term paper; midterm and final examinations.

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential grammatical facts are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Students acquire a working vocabulary and demonstrate understanding of the reading by writing a readable translation. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 222, 231, and 232 in the Winter Term, 1984. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit the department office in 2014 Angell Hall, 764-0360, or the Elementary Latin Office in 2012 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed 103, 193, or 502. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of this text. Course topics include the morphology and syntax of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives; conjunctions, adverbs, and prepositions; and such basic sentence kernel types as active, passive, linking, and factitive. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hour examinations, and a final.

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 193 or 502. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, Latin for Reading. Course topics include the morphology and syntax of verbs, and indirect statements, questions, and commands. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final.

193. Intensive Elementary Latin I. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, 103 or 502. (4). (FL).

Taught jointly with Latin 502. See Latin 502 for the description. (Humphrey and Staff)

221. Continuation Course in Latin. Two or more units of high school Latin and assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 193, 194, 231, or 503. (4). (FL).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 221 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The text used is the same as that in Latin 101 and 102, and the course starts at the beginning of the book. A more rapid pace is maintained as 221 covers the material of 101 and 102. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final.

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 193, 194, 221, or 503. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Cicero, Caesar, Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final.

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed 193, 194, 222, or 503. (4). (FL).

The goal of this course is simple: to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. To the degree that there is mastery of the paradigm forms and the most common principal parts of irregular verbs the daily assignments will be made easier. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and times of the Emperor Augustus. Three hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. In-class translation is followed by a discussion of the text under consideration that day. (Section 001 Nissen; Section 002 Staff)

Intermediate Courses

301. Intermediate Latin. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The primary goal of this course is to serve as an introduction to the study of Latin literature, and, through the literature, of Roman culture. Texts by major prose authors will be read with a view to their literary, historical, and political contexts. Translation, and review of morphology and syntax as needed, will be stressed. (Knudsvig)

401. Republican Prose. Latin 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits with permission of concentration adviser.
CICERO'S ORATIONS.
In the Fall Term, 1984, we will read selected orations from several periods of Cicero's career, with special attention to historical context, rhetorical theory, and the development of Cicero's style. A short paper, and midterm and final exams will be required. (A. Edwards)

Advanced Courses

409. Augustan Poetry. Latin 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits with permission of concentration adviser.
THE ODES OF HORACE.
This course is designed to introduce the student to a critical appreciation of the poetry of the Augustan age. This is a highly derivative poetry, rich with allusions to antecedent and contemporary literature. This Fall Term the focus will be on the Odes of Horace, the Augustan writer whose work most clearly delineates the lines of literary influence that link the Republic and the Augustan period together. Class discussions will center on matters of style, genre, and structure. There will be a paper and midterm and final exams. (Scott)

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Senior standing in Latin. (3). (HU).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of descriptive linguistics that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior/senior standing. I and II: (3); III b: (2). (HU).

In the Fall Term, 1984, permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed primarily for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. (Knudsvig)

470. Catullus. (3). (HU).

The poetry of Catullus will be studied with attention given to his place in the development of both personal lyric and mannered Alexandrianism; to the political and social influences on poetry of his generation; to the figure of Catullus himself; and to the lasting importance of his work.

502. Rapid Beginning Latin. Intended for graduate students. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, 103, 193, or 504. (4). (FL).

This course, taught jointly with Latin 193, is a rapid introduction to Latin and is intended for students with little or no prior Latin. It is especially designed for graduate students who are in such fields as history, medieval or renaissance literature, or linguistics and who need to acquire a reading competence in Latin as quickly and efficiently as possible. Upperclass undergraduates with the same needs or undergraduates who intend to continue the study of Latin and want a rapid introduction that enables them to take upper-level Latin courses as soon as possible should elect Latin 193. The first term course (Latin 193/502) covers elementary grammar and syntax. (Humphrey and Staff)

536. Apuleius. Latin 401 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Apuleius' novel will be read and discussed. (Ross)

Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who have not had time or opportunity to learn these languages but who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

101. Classical Civilization I: The Ancient Greek World (in English). (4). (HU).

This course serves as an introduction to the civilization of ancient Greece from its beginnings through the Hellenistic age. It is offered for students without a knowledge of Greek or Latin and also serves as a companion course for students in elementary Greek and Latin classes who wish to supplement their language learning. Lectures include topics on history, literature, art, archaeology, philosophy, mythology, society, customs, politics, science, religion, law, and the economic life of Greece with special emphasis on ancient Athens. The lectures are given by various members of the Classical Studies Department and other departments. Literature read includes The Iliad and The Odyssey of Homer; selections from Greek lyric poetry; selected tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides; selections from the historians Herodotus and Thucydides; and selected philosophical writings of Plato. The readings average about 120 pages per week. There will be a midterm, three papers, and a final examination. Freshmen Honors students in Honors sections will write enough to meet the Introductory Composition requirement. This course is the first of a two-term series. Classical Civilization 102 is offered in the Winter Term and represents an equivalent treatment of the civilization of ancient Rome. It is recommended that the course be taken as a sequence, but it is not required. (Cameron)

352. Greek and Latin Elements in English Vocabulary. (3). (HU).

Students will learn enough elements of Greek and Latin vocabulary to increase significantly their understanding of English word formation. This leads to an improved ability to understand many unfamiliar words and to retain them. Although the emphasis is on Greek and Latin elements, the contribution of other languages is not neglected. Students are required to complete one programmed textbook and one more book chosen by the student with the approval of the instructor. A log of words learned each week beyond those in the text or covered in class is required. A minimum of 10 unit critiques and tests, a midterm, and a final exam. (Section 001 McCulloch; Sections 002 and 003: Staff)

371. Greek and Roman Sport and Recreation I. (4). (HU).

The course is following the same format as in previous years. There are three lectures per week (MWF 12) and a discussion section which meets for two hours every two weeks. Students may choose from six discussion sections which all meet at different times. There is a midterm exam, a final, and two other short quizzes in lectures. Three papers are required and these are due at four-week intervals through the term, on topics to be assigned. The grade is composed one-third of exams in class, one-third of papers, and one-third of discussion sections. The course is devoted to a study of ancient Greek athletics, primarily the ancient Olympic games. Individual lectures cover all of the major sports, the relationship between sport and Greek society, and other recreational activities which were not part of the formal games such as hunting and ball games. About one-third of the lectures are given by other members of the Department of Classical Studies on topics in which they have a special interest. (Humphrey)

388/Phil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 388. (N. White)

463. Greek Drama. (3). (HU).

Lectures on the history and development of the Greek theatre, and analysis of the major monuments of Greek tragedy, both as exemplary of their art in the context of the fifth century B.C. and as contributions to the Western tradition. The student will read most of the fourteen preserved plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, and about half of the nineteen plays of Euripides, as well as Aristotle's Poetics. Requirements: midterm examination, term paper, and final examination, with some additional requirements for Rackham graduate students. (Gellrich)

466/Religion 468. Greek Religion. (3). (HU).

Lectures, readings, and slides will present characteristic Greek deities (particularly Zeus, Athene, Dionysos, Apollo, Hermes, Artemis), religious beliefs (e.g., cosmogonies in religious and philosophical thought; afterlife), rituals (like the different types of sacrifices), the religion of the city states (especially Athens), and personal religions (mysteries and their expansion in posthellenistic times; beliefs in a single cosmic power; gnosis; and magic). Though the Greek religion will mainly be seen in its own historical developments from Indo-European and Mediterranean cultures and within its own social and political environment, attention will be directed to the waves of influences of Near Eastern religions. Moreover, an attempt will be made to reach beyond the limitations of clearly defined historical influences and to discuss the influence of the paleolithan culture of hunters on the formation of religious mind pattern and rituals. In this wider context, Greek religion will be seen in the context of human behavior and the developing civilization. Particular attention will be given to the different concepts of time in mythical and historical thought as well as to their overlaps as they still appear in our contemporary culture. No knowledge of Greek is required; the ability to read French or German will be helpful but not essential. (Classical Civilization 462 is not a prerequisite, though some knowledge of Greek mythology would be useful.) (Koenen)

Courses in Communication (Division 352)

100. Public Speaking. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (3). (HU).

This course emphasizes communication as a means of bringing about social change. It is especially designed for underclass students, and is recommended for students who will be pursuing degrees or careers in law, business, administration, or politics, and others who are concerned with communicating effectively with the general public. Each week three hours are devoted to small section meetings which focus on communication principles and application of these principles to problem-solving in public speaking settings. Course topics include audience analysis, source credibility, stage-fright, techniques of persuasion, and ethics. The ultimate purpose of the course is to encourage more effective communication by providing students with instruction and experiences which help them to be at ease before audiences and which encourage them to develop and present messages which have maximum audience impact.

101. Interpersonal Communication. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to provide students with an increased understanding of the complex processes underlying everyday person-to-person communication. Topics discussed typically include the relation of interpersonal perception and communication, the creation of interpersonal understanding through communication, the role of communication in the development of relationships with others, nonverbal communication, barriers to communication, the strategic management of interpersonal interaction, and the general structure of informal communicative transactions. Evaluation of students is based on exams and assigned papers. (This course is a pre-concentration requirement.)

102. Communication for Educators. Open only to students who will be teaching certificate candidates. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (3). (HU).

Communication 102 is designed to develop the communication skills necessary for effective teaching. Units include general theories of communication, nonverbal communication in the classroom, interpersonal communication between teachers and students, lecturing and public speaking techniques applicable to educational environments, and facilitating group communication for instructional purposes. Course requirements usually include a midterm, a final project/examination, and three or four presentations utilizing different teaching techniques. Approximately equal emphasis is placed on oral performance and knowledge of theoretical material. (Harrington)

103. Media of Mass Communication. I and II. (4). (SS).

This course is a survey of the structure and working process of the broadcasting, newspaper, magazine, and film industries and includes an analysis of the effects of these media on contemporary society with special emphasis given to political, economic, and psychological behavior, and to social change. Communication 103 serves as an introduction to advanced-level departmental media-related courses. One discussion section per week. Grading is based on discussion section assignments and three one-hour examinations. Two texts and a course pack constitute required reading. (Martin, Stevens)

210. Persuasive Communication. (3). (HU).

Exploration of the principles of persuasion as applied in print, broadcast, and interpersonal communication. From the theoretical perspective of balance theories of attitude change, strategies are examined for such topics as: attention, perception, credibility, identification, reinforcement, activation, logical proof, reducing resistance, verbal suggestion, and motivation. Students make two individual presentations, one oral and one written, on proposed projects of a creative, critical or experimental sort. In addition, students complete a final team project involving development of a persuasive campaign using several media. Class format involves lectures and discussion sections, readings, a final exam. Required of concentrators in Communication. (Martin)

211. Parliamentary Procedure and Group Leadership. (3). (HU).

This is an introductory course in parliamentary procedure stressing chairperson and member responsibilities within groups; constructing major resolutions for adoption; and knowing how to use the major motions in large and small groups. Both theoretical and practical elements are stressed. The course acquaints students with how to use correct procedure when conducting a meeting; suggests how a member might better assist in guiding business through a meeting; provides practice in handling incidental, subsidiary, privileged, and main motions; provides an arena for discussing some current problems; and notes how to arrive at decisions using parliamentary procedure. The major text is Henry Robert, Robert's Rules of Order (1970 or 1981) edition. Required reading is minimal, but considerable memorization is expected. Written assignments, class participation in parliamentary exercises, and examinations provide the basis for grading. Regular attendance is expected: in regular class meetings and in work groups. The format of the course is primarily discussion with several assignments requiring solo oral presentations along with written support for resolutions. Students also meet in lab sessions. (Hildebrandt)

220. Introduction to Film. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of the history, theory and aesthetics of the motion picture as illustrated through the works of representative film makers. It considers the types of artistic efforts that go into the making of a motion picture by emphasizing the roles of the director, the editor, the cinematographer as well as the roles of music and composition. The course traces the development of the motion picture from a primitive tool to a sophisticated art form. The latter part of the course is devoted to a selection of various films that illustrate genres, approaches to motion picture art: fantasy, documentary-realism, the documentary film. An effort is also made to explain some of the more recent developments in film beginning with the experimental film and concluding with Italian neo-realism and the New Wave film. There is a midterm examination and final exam. A written review of a contemporary film is required. There is one major text and one supplementary text. The course format is unusual in that the film medium itself (in the form of short clips, slides, etc.) is used to the largest possible extent in presenting the course material. Students who expect to pursue the film-making course sequence should take this course as early as possible, preferably during the freshman or sophomore years. (Beaver)

290. News Writing. Sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

This course teaches the fundamentals of journalistic writing for newspapers and general audiences. The ability to type is essential. Laboratories and discussion sessions are led by teaching assistants and cover topics such as journalistic writing style, news values, writing news leads, information seeking, copy editing, and interviewing. Laboratory sessions are used for writing and for editing in class. Teaching assistants also confer with students individually during the term to discuss student writing progress. Communication 290 makes use of computer-assisted instruction. Students are taught to use computer terminals for input of written assignments. Periodic performance tests are given to determine student progress in the course. (Buckley)

302. Writing for Mass Media. Comm. 290. (3). (Excl).
Section 001:
An advanced journalistic writing course designed to teach students how to report on business and economics for newspapers, periodicals, television, and radio. Students will gain experience in using a variety of research methods and materials appropriate to business and economics reporting, including public documents and corporate records. Students will practice covering local, regional, and national stories using a variety of formats and styles. Students will also learn how to analyze critically topical economic issues in the news, as well as the media which report these issues. Students will be required to write a number of stories and participate in a class project. There will be frequent visits from professional business writers. (Buckley)

Section 002: This is an advanced journalistic writing course. Successful completion of Communication 290 is the prerequisite for Communication 302, and students who receive a "C" or lower should not elect the course. Ability to originate story ideas and work independently is essential. Knowledge of the AP style rules is required. Certain sections may deal with specific topics. (Marzolf)

400. The Media in American History. Upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

The study of American newspapers, magazines, radio and television, with special attention to the contributions made by these media to American social, economic and cultural patterns and developments. There will be a midterm and a final exam. There will be a media history research paper. (Marzolf)

401. Selected Theories of Communication. (3). (HU).

The study of human communication as a social science discipline began early in the twentieth century and has grown and diversified to include such sub-fields as mass media processes and effects, persuasion, interpersonal, cross-cultural, etc. The basic theories of these areas of communication research to be examined in this course include Stimulus-Response, Uses and Gratifications, Modeling Theory, Sociolization, Information Control/Media Systems, Information Diffusion/Social Change, Cybernetics, Persuasion-Attitude Formation, Information Society/New Technologies.

403. Analyzing the Media. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course examines the practices, ethics, values and performance of the modern American mass media. Students will look at the practitioners' definitions of their jobs and responsibilities, at media standards and codes of ethics and how these work out in terms of media content. Case studies and critical analysis of the media from scholars and popular writers will be used. There will be assigned texts and readings. A short paper, group project, and critical article will be required. There will be a final examination. (Marzolf)

404. Media and the Marketplace. Upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

An examination of the economic structure of mass media industries. Attention is focused on the web of economic relationships, market processes, and external constraints which direct the activities of suppliers, producers, distributors, retailers, and consumers of mass media products. Explores why mass media industries are organized as they are and how their structure affects the behavior of media markets. The newspaper, magazine, television, radio, cable, telecommunication, book, and motion picture industries are studied in terms of: market structure, product differentiation, ownership patterns, financial controls, competitive behavior, demand-side and supply-side constraints, organizational adaptation, technology, and public policy. As an overview of contemporary issues involving the economic performance of mass media industries, this course investigates those distinctive attributes of the media marketplace that influence the nature of the competitive process. Grades are based on multiple-choice exams and a research paper. Required readings are diverse and challenging. Previous course work in economics and business is helpful but not required. (Buckley)

405. The Media and the Arts. Upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

Communication 405, Media and the Arts, is an exploration of the relationship between the arts and the mass media. Students will study the way various forms theatre, dance, music, architecture, and the fine arts are reported and critiqued in newspapers, magazines, and on TV as well as the ways the arts and the media effect each other. Because students will need an understanding of the emphasized art forms in order to appreciate what is written about them, the nature of each will also be examined. The course will center on six assigned art events, plays, concerts, exhibits, etc., that students will attend outside of class. In conjunction with these events many related, in-class activities are planned: guest lectures by reviewers and artists, films, and demonstration. Readings will include selections from scholarly works on criticism, basic works on the arts, and local and national newspapers. Students will be required to prepare six two page exercises and a final project and take midterm and final exams. (Cohen)

406. Mass Communication Research. Upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

Provides training in research skills relevant to studies of the impact of media on individuals and society. Topics covered include an introduction to research methods, an overview of issues and problems in mass media research, an extended examination of the influence of television and future developments in media research. In addition to lectures and discussions, students will be active participants in the implementation of a research project. Text: Wimmer, R. and Dominick, S. , Mass Media Research: An Introduction, Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth, 1983, plus course pack. (Watkins)

408. Introduction to Organizational Communication. Upperclass standing. (3). (HU).

The purpose of the course is to help students improve their understanding of communication structures and processes in the organization. The approach taken is to examine communication structures and processes at various levels of the organization: intrapersonal, dyadic, group, network and organizational levels. The emphasis is on improving one's understanding of communication behavior in organizations. For this reason, special attention is given to the study of motivation in organizational settings. Topics covered include person perception, non-verbal communication, and motivational theories at the intrapersonal level; interpersonal conflict, transactional analysis, and approaches to examining interpersonal communication (persuasion, contextual, rule-governed) at the dyadic level; decision making and problem solving approaches, role behavior, and leadership behavior at the group level; the study of formal and informal communication patterns and structures at the network level; innovation, decision-making, communication climates and design issues at the organizational level and the analysis of environmental issues, organizational scanning, and advocacy advertising at the interorganizational level.

Section 001. Special topics include communication assessment as part of organizational development, the communication audit and internal communication programs. Students will be required to attend lectures, read a selected text, and take two written in-class examinations. (Colburn)

Section 002. Special topics include advocacy advertising, information processing as a part of organizational design, environmental analysis of social issues facing major corporations, communication in high technology firms, and new communications technology in the workplace. There is also a special unit on the art of Japanese management.

409. The Michigan Journalist. Comm. 290 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The Michigan Journalist is an experimental periodical designed to permit a select group of undergraduate and graduate students to write, edit, photograph and lay-out for publication. Each of three issues put out in the semester has a unifying theme. Staffers' articles explore it, reporting directly to the student editor and faculty advisor. Evaluation is based on the quality of work produced, and the individual's ability to function in a professional context. The class meets one period weekly for lab/seminar purposes; more often as the journalistic process requires. (Eisendrath)

410. Introduction to Group Communication. Junior standing. (3). (HU).
Section 001.


Section 002. Emphasis is given to the oral communication process in small group problem-solving situations. Subject matter includes: group leadership styles; member functions; barriers and obstacles to understanding in small groups, and techniques for group discussion effectiveness. Methods of class operation include: class discussion; mini-lectures; research reports; participation in small group processes; case problems, and class member evaluation of group discussions. Reading materials include selected readings on oral communication and small group research. (Storey)

411. Theory and Practice of Argumentation. Comm. 100. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to provide both basic theory and practice in argument. The structure of the class calls for a series of lectures on the principle terms and concepts in argument followed by actual classroom debates. Topics for debate are selected by students enrolled in the class. The course is limited to twenty-four students a term. Requirements include a midterm and final examination, one argumentative speech and participation in three classroom debates. (Colburn)

412. Elements of Persuasion. Comm. 100 or 102. (3). (HU).

This is a lecture course focusing on competing theoretical accounts of persuasion (the evidence concerning them, the problems they have encountered, etc.) and on research evidence concerning the effects of various factors on persuasion. No special background is required. The grade is based equally on each of two exams (midterm and final) and an individual project. (Allen)

415. Contemporary Public Address. Upperclass standing. (3). (HU).

A look at individual men and women and organized groups that have influenced American culture and policy by means of the spoken word, from World War I to the present. Course stresses changes in public discourse resulting from the growth of electronic media of communication, increased reliance on ghostwriters, organized dissent, bureaucratization of public information dissemination, other cultural developments. No special background is presumed, but contemporary history is useful. Lectures, some seminar discussions; students will produce three investigative papers, midterm and final. Grade based on papers and exams. Required readings are speeches drawn from a variety of sources in a course pack. Recommended background readings: John D. Hicks, Republican Ascendancy, 1920-1933; Wm. Leuchtenberg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and The New Deal, 1933-1940; Eric Goldman, The Crucial Decade and After, 1945-1960. (Martin)

428. Writing Drama for Radio and Television. Upperclass standing. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to introduce students to dramatic scriptwriting for television and film. Each student is required to complete a script for a full length feature film or a made-for-TV movie OR a script for a one hour dramatic episode for a TV series and a 30 minute situation comedy. Several exercises in character development and plot design will also be assigned. In-class discussions will focus on script analysis and critical evaluation of dramatic theatrical films and television programming. A final exam will be given and attendance is a factor in grading. (Watson)

500. Seminar. Open to senior concentrators. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 021: Covering Asia.
John Woodruff, Beijing correspondent for the Baltimore Sun, will present this short course during his home leave, October 29, through November 16. Meeting hours will be arranged. Research paper required. (Hovey)

518. Cross-Cultural Communication. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is an examination of some of the major issues concerning the nature of international communication: the flow of information across national boundaries; the unequal distribution and access to information worldwide; the varying points of views concerning the new world information order; the worldwide consequences of the Information Age (post-industrial society), and new paradigms that are being developed in this area. A major concern of the course is to understand how communication and the media presently operate, and to consider these implications for their future operation in a worldwide context. Format: there will be some lecturing, particularly early in the course. This will lessen as we go beyond the unglamorous work on fundamentals. To facilitate discussion, there will be a set of questions for each set of assigned readings. Evaluation and grading: concept explication 50%, and final paper 50%. (Allen)

527. Radio Television Management and Program Development. Comm. 426 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl.)

This course is designed to explore specific behaviors, skills, problems and issues associated with administrative roles in media organizations. The objective of the course is the preparation of students for administrative tasks. At the end of the course, they should be able to: (1) Identify and describe the variety of organizations in the electronic media. (2) Demonstrate skills in accounting and financial management. (3) Analyze executive tasks in the light of effective management of time. (4) Show improvement in the writing of reports and letters. (5) Demonstrate knowledge of effective managerial approaches to organizing, staffing, personnel supervision, determination of objectives and other problems facing today's executives. (6) Increase ability to discuss different problems in a rational and systematic fashion. The course is recommended for graduate and professional students and a few undergraduates who are capable of completing the writing assignments. A basic text on Accounting is required. Instructional methods are basically lecture and discussion including a number of guest lecturers. Papers are required on Marketing, Time Management, Law, Engineering, Financial Management and other management related areas. Although the course is not concerned with production, students from outside the Communication area, i.e., Law, Business, Engineering, etc., are paired with Telecommunications majors for the observation of studio programs to assist them in understanding the production-related aspects of management. (Schumacher)

Courses in Computer and Communication Sciences (Division 353)

270. Computer Science I. Math. 115 or equivalent. Credit is granted for only one course from among CCS 270 and 274. (3). (NS).

This is the first course in Computer Science for prospective concentrators. It introduces some of the basic concepts of algorithm and program preparation, using the PASCAL language as a vehicle. Students will be required to attend recitations and to prepare a number of computer programs of increasing complexity. Most of the programs will support the concepts that were introduced, and will be mainly non-numeric in nature. This course is not intended to be simply a course in programming. It is intended for people who will major in Computer Sciences, Computer Engineering, or Mathematics. Course work involves writing and running between five and eight computer programs. There may be several quizzes and/or exams. CCS majors must complete course with a grade of B- or better. No prior experience with computers is necessary or assumed. If enrollment is greater than class size, a screening exam will be administered. A screening examination may be given to enroll people from the waiting list.

274. Elementary Programming. Math. 105 or the equivalent. Credit is granted for only one course from among CCS 270 and 274. (3). (NS).

This course is an introduction to programming for people who intend to use the computer as a tool in their profession. The PASCAL Language is used as a vehicle for teaching structured programming methodologies. Students are required to participate in recitation and write five to eight computer programs of varying complexity. The course is a service course and is not considered appropriate for prospective computer science concentrators. There may be several quizzes and/or exams. No prior experience with computers is necessary or assumed.

Section 013: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of introductory computer science and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. The required extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts, group problem-solving, and computer use.

374. Programming and Computer Systems. CCS 274 or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

This is the second course in the programming sequence for non-honor students and is normally preceded by CCS 274 and followed by CCS 476. The course focus is on advanced programming language concepts and hardware/software support for programming and programming languages. The programming language taught and used in the course is the same as in CCS 274 and students without knowledge of the ALGOLW language can enroll in CCS 381 concurrently. The four or five required programming exercises are solved in the programming language; other languages may be used to provide examples. Examples of machine organization are taken from the machine being used at the Computing Center; other organizations will be useful for some examples. Homework consists of work problems (not involving programming) and four or five programming exercises. Course format is two lectures per week (one-and-a-half hours each) plus one discussion/problem session each week. Course content is divided into four parts: (1) machine organization (computer structure and machine language; addressing techniques, representation of data; assembly systems; logic, micro-programming, emulation; computer systems organization; and utility and support systems), (2) advanced programming language concepts (review of basic concepts, subprograms, data structures, parallel processing), (3) programming language translation (BNF syntax specification, in-fix and post-fix notation, translation of arithmetic expression from in-fix to post-fix, and structures of compilers), and (4) comparative programming languages (relation to language features to problem domain and programming languages for special domains).

Programming Language Short Courses. CCS 380 through 387 form a sequence of four-week short courses (offered for one credit each) which teach details and use of various common programming languages. CCS 380, 384, 385, and 387 are offered each term. Students can take these courses in conjunction with the primary programming course sequence (CCS 270 or 274, 370 or 374, and 476) or independently. Computer problems are assigned; grading is credit/no credit. Consult the Time Schedule for specific starting dates.

380. FORTRAN Programming Language. CCS 270 or 274 (may be elected concurrently). No credit granted to those who have completed Engin. 102. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

See introductory statement regarding programming short courses. Will meet last four weeks of the term.

384. SNOBOL Programming Language. CCS 370 or 374. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

See introductory statement regarding programming short courses. Will meet second four weeks of the term.

385. LISP Programming Language. CCS 370 or 374. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

See introductory statement regarding programming short courses. Will meet first four weeks of the term.

387. Various Programming Languages. CCS 270 or 274. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

A PASCAL programming course is offered twice this term. You may elect either the first four weeks or the second four weeks (not both). See introductory statement regarding programming language short courses.

400. Foundations of Computer and Communication Sciences. ECE 367 or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This is a basic course in the theory of Computer Science. It is required for CCS concentration. Prerequisites are ECE 367 or Math 312 only. However, a certain math culture is necessary for a successful study. The recommended textbook is: Elements of the Theory of Computation, by H.R. Lewis and C.H. Papadimitriou, Prentiss-Hall. Methods of instruction are: lectures, intermediate exam, final exam and a lot of homework. Syllabus: (1) A survey of the necessary math tools, (2) Finite automata and regular languages, (3) Context-free languages and pushdown automata, (4) Turing machines and recursive functions, (5) Uncomputability, (6) Introduction to computational complexity.

469. History of Computers. Declared CCS or ECE concentration, and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course covers the history of computing from the abacus to the emergence of the stored-program computer. The emphasis is on digital computers and control devices, but analog machines will also be covered. All devices and machines are presented and evaluated in terms of the needs they satisfied, the technology available to meet those needs, and the logical and architectural design of the machine. We will trace the sequence of discoveries, and for each evaluate its workability, its conceptual contributions, and its causal influences. Issues of credit, especially the patent controversies stemming from the first electronic computers, will be explained and evaluated. ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic computer, will be the high point of the course. There will be a laboratory session with the departmental exhibit of this machine. We will trace in detail how the ENIAC led to the first stored-program computer. This course offers broad, historical subject matter to students. It aims to give them an historical perspective on an important part of our contemporary technology and to show the inventive process in its historical context. (Burks)

476. Data Structures. CCS 370 or 374 or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

This is the fourth course in the programming sequence for CCS concentrators and is normally preceded by CCS 270, 271, and 370. Data structuring principles of use in a wide variety of problem solving areas are covered. Alternatives are considered with respect to utilization of storage and time. Lectures and discussion sections.

478. Introduction to Software Architecture. CCS 370 or 374; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The purpose of the course is to teach the student the skills and techniques involved in the design and implementation of large software systems. The format of the course is a lecture for approximately 3/4 of the term, and a work on a project under the guidance of a TA. The grade will be based on two midterms and the project. The course is available to CCS concentrators. Students are recommended (but not required) to take CCS 476 before enrolling in this course. Textbook: R.S. Pressman, Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach. (Rajlich)

502. Special Topics in Computer and Communication Sciences. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (NS). May be repeated for credit.

Students enrolling in CCS 502 this term must have completed CCS 400, and it is recommended that students should also have completed CCS 476. CCS 502 will provide an introduction to research in Artificial Intelligence. The two basic themes of AI, Representation and Search, will be studied in abstract and in some of the many application areas of AI. The course will consist of three hours a week of lecture plus one hour a week of tutorial/problem-solving session given by a TA, both starting after the initial four weeks of CCS 385. It is anticipated that the course will cover the following areas (not necessarily in non-overlapping fashion): (a) An historical outline: based on papers by Turing and Nilsson; (b)Representation: State-space (graph) representation, Problem- reduction (Hypergraph) representation. Macro-moves. Representation transformation (Gaschnig, Amarel, Korf); (c) Search: Backtracking (Depth-first, Breadth-first, Best-first), Forward-Checking, Branch and Bound, A*, AO*, SSS*; (d) Applications: Computer vision (Waltz, Rosenfeld, Haralick), Symbolic Integration (Slagle) Theorem Proving, Games and Puzzles. Expected work: Students may be required to implement algorithms, run experiments, solve problems, and/or survey research papers. No exam will be required. Text: Problem-Solving Methods in Artificial Intelligence by Nilsson (1971, McGraw-Hill). Recommended: Techniques in Artificial Intelligence, Shapiro (1979, Van Nostrand).) A course pack will be provided. Corequisites: CCS 385: LISP short course. If not already taken, this should be taken for the first four weeks of the term. (Nudel)

520. Foundations of Formal Systems. Graduate standing in Computer and Communication Sciences or permission of the instructor. (3). (NS).
Theoretical Computer Science I.
A review of the automata theory and context-free grammars. General grammars, recursive functions, logic, complexity theory and applications of the above.

575/CICE 575. Compiler Construction. CCS 476, CCS 572, or ECE 364; or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

Introduction to compiling techniques including parsing algorithms, semantic processing, and code generation. With the aid of a compiler writing system, students implement a compiler for a substantial programming language. Other topics include portability, bootstrapping, parser generation, compiler writing systems. Very heavy programming load. (Volz)

Dance

Students may elect dance courses in any of three divisions: (1) Division 671, the Dance Department in the School of Music; (2) Division 212, Education F, the Physical Education Department in the School of Education; and (3) Division 895, the Adult Activities Program of Physical Education (courses listed in the Time Schedule under LS&A after Women's Studies).

All elected dance courses appear on a student's transcript, but for LS&A students only the School of Music and Education F dance courses cross-listed with the School of Music carry honor points and credits (and these are non-LS&A credits) toward a degree.

For information about Dance Department courses, call 763-5460; questions about LS&A degree credit may be directed to POINT-10 (764-6810).

Courses in Economics (Division 358: arranged by groups)

A. Introductory Courses

Students who earned credit for Economics 201 or 400 prior to Fall Term 1982 are permitted to enter all those upper-level courses whose prerequisites are designated Economics 201 and 202. Students who elect Economics 201 in Fall Term 1983 and thereafter will be required to take its sequel, Economics 202, in order to take any advanced course in the Economics Department. Economics 400, taken in Fall, 1982, and thereafter, does not normally fulfill the prerequisite for advanced courses in Economics.

201. Principles of Economics I. Open to second-term freshmen. No credit granted to those who have completed 400. (4). (SS).

Economics 201 is open to first-term freshmen in the Honors Program and to non-Honors second-term freshmen. Freshmen who believe that their backgrounds and interests are such that they would like to elect this course should discuss the matter with a counselor before making the election. Economics 201 is the first part of a two-term introduction to economics. Both 201 and 202 are required as prerequisites to the concentration and to upper level courses in economics. In Economics 201, the fundamental theories and concepts of microeconomics are described and are used to analyze problems of current interest. Among the major topics discussed are how consumer and producer preferences interact to determine the price and quantity offered of individual products and resources, the different types of markets within which firms operate, the causes and remedies of such market failures as monopoly and spillover costs, and problems related to the distribution of income. The course format consists of one hour of lecture (either section 001 or 002) each week given by the professor and three hours of section meetings (sections 003 to 033) given by a teaching assistant each week. There are two hour exams scheduled for October 11 and November 15 at 4:00 pm. Students must reserve these times and dates. (Barlow)

Section 022: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of economic principles, are highly prepared for Economics 202, and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in this CSP section will require additional time and effort for problem-solving and review.

202. Principles of Economics II. Econ. 201. No credit granted to those who have completed Econ. 400. (4). (SS).

Economics 202 is only open to students who have taken Economics 201 in Fall, 1982 or thereafter. Both 201 and 202 are required as prerequisites to the concentration and to upper-level courses in Economics. In Economics 202, the fundamental concepts and theories of macroeconomics are developed and used to analyze problems of current interest. The major concerns of this course are the determinants of GNP, unemployment, inflation, and growth. The course format consists of one hour of lecture (either 001 or 002) each week by the professor and three hours of section meetings (003 to 023) each week by a teaching assistant. The section meetings are limited to 35 students. (Gramlich)

400. Modern Economic Society. For upperclass and graduate students without prior credit for principles of economics. (4). (SS).

A one-semester course which covers the basic principles of economics, including both microeconomic and macroeconomic analysis, the theory of production and cost, industrial organization, and input markets. Macroeconomic topics include the determination of national income, inflation and unemployment, money and banking, and stabilization policy. The course is aimed at upperclass and graduate students who are not majoring in economics. Students who wish to retain the options of further courses in economics or of economics as a possible major should take the two-semester introductory course, Economics 201 and 202. (Crafton)

401. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory. Econ. 201 and 202, and Math. 115. (3). (SS).

This course in microeconomics deals with the theoretical analysis of consumers, firms, markets, and price determination. The analysis is rigorous, using the tools of algebra, geometry, and elementary calculus in constructing models. Prerequisites include one term of calculus. Economics 401 is a prerequisite for many other courses offered in Economics. Concentrators are required to elect this course and are encouraged to complete it early in their concentration program. It is not recommended that 401 and 402 be taken in the same term. It is predominantly a lecture course, with grades based on hour test(s) and final exam. (Borenstein, Varian, Feldstein, Blume) Borenstein (001) uses some calculus; Varian (003) emphasizes analysis, uses some calculus, and assigns weekly problem sets; Feldstein (004) uses less math, emphasizes application; and Blume (005) emphasizes analysis, uses some calculus, and assigns some problem sets.

402. Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory. Econ. 201 and 202, and Math. 115. (3). (SS).

This course in macroeconomics deals with the theory, measurement, and control of broad economic aggregates such as national income, employment, and the price level. Rigorous analysis is used to understand the forces that determine the level of economic activity, inflation, unemployment, and public policies related to those economic variables. Prerequisites include one term of calculus. Economics 402 is a prerequisite for many other courses offered in Economics. Concentrators are required to elect this course and are encouraged to complete it early in their concentration program. It is not recommended that Economics 401 and 402 be elected during the same term. It is predominantly a lecture course, with grades based on hour test(s) and final exam. (Aschauer, Teigen, Weisskopf, Gerson, Mueller). Specific section information follows: Aschauer (001) no section information; Teigen (002) uses some algebra and calculus and assigns occasional problem sets which count in the final grade; Weisskopf (003) is not too math-intensive and includes some consideration of alternative perspectives; Gerson (004) stresses the graphical and algebraic; and Mueller (005) is not math-intensive.

405/Statistics 405. Introduction to Statistics. Math. 115 or permission of instructor. Juniors and seniors may elect this course concurrently with Econ. 201 or 202. No credit granted to those who have completed 404. (4). (SS).

This course has originally been designed for economics concentrators but the discussion is sufficiently general to serve noneconomics concentrators just as well. The emphasis is on understanding rather than on "cookbook" applications. Students are expected to know basic algebra and to have some understanding of the concept of derivatives and integrals. Since the content of the course does not extend much beyond establishing the foundations of statistical inference, it is recommended that after finishing the course students elect to take Economics 406 or a similar course in the Statistics Department to learn some applications and get some experience with computer work. While Economics 405 is not required for an economics concentration, it is difficult to see how anyone today can be regarded as an economist without some knowledge of statistics. Employers typically ask for some training in statistics, and letters from graduates often express regret for not having had more statistics. (Kmenta)

407. Marxist Economics. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

The course surveys major themes in Marxist economic and social analysis: the philosophy of historical materialism, capitalist production, accumulation, class structure, women and capitalism, organization of work, and working class life. Readings are drawn from the works of Marx and Engels as well as modern Marxist sources. Grades will be based on a journal and, when the course is offered as an ECB course, a term paper. The written assignments will encourage critical thinking about capitalist society, conventional economic and social theory, and Marxism. Class format will be mixed lecture and discussion. Does not fulfill departmental sequence requirement. (L. Anderson)

D. Economic Stability and Growth

411. Money and Banking. Econ. 402 or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 410. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on monetary theory and the structure of the banking and financial systems of the United States. The course uses a combined lecture and discussion format. There is a midterm, a final examination, homework assignments, and reading assignments from a text and other selected readings. (Holbrook)

E. Labor Economics

420. Survey of Labor Economics. Econ. 201 and 202. Not open to those who have taken Econ. 421 and/or 422. (3). (SS).

This course surveys contemporary, classical and radical perspectives on the operation of labor markets. Topics discussed include the economic aspects of education, job search, union activity, migration, discrimination, unemployment, internal labor markets and family life. The latter portion of the course will utilize these perspectives in an analysis of the history of laboring life in America. A midterm and final are required. Lecture-discussion format. (Whatley)

421. Labor Economics I. Econ. 401. Not open to students who have taken 420. (3). (SS).

This course deals with the economics of labor supply and demand, wage and employment determination, investment in education and training, and unemployment. The course develops microeconomic models of the labor market, presents relevant empirical evidence, and discusses applications to such policy issues as the work incentive effects of income maintenance programs and the employment effects of minimum wage legislation. Grades are bases on midterm and final examinations. (Solon)

423/Women's Studies 423. The Economic Status of Women. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on the changing economic role and status of American women within the context of both the family and the larger economic society. One major focus of the course is the changing pattern in labor force participation of women including the historical trends which underlie the great increase in the number and proportion of working women. Related issues include some possible explanations for the heavy concentration of women workers in a few predominantly female occupations and the possible determinants of current unfavorable male/female wage ratios. In each case, the extent to which discrimination might be an explanation is considered. Another major focus of the course is the impact that contemporary changes in family life have had on the economic status of women. Some of the changes considered are changes in fertility, in marriage patterns, in divorce rates, and in sex role patterns within the family. The economic issues associated with different family life styles are examined, and some attention is given to the economic problems of families with female family heads and to the economic problems experienced by dual career families. Other course topics include the problem of time allocation for women combining family life with full time work, the need for some flexibility in working conditions for married women, and the extent to which women are treated differently from men in such matters as pension rights, social security benefits, and access to credit. Public policies such as affirmative action and the equal rights amendment which are designed to improve the economic status of women are also discussed. Some consideration is given to the comparative economic status of women in other countries. The course format includes lectures on selected topics with considerable time allowed for discussion. (Freedman)

425/Amer. Inst. 439/Poli. Sci. 439. Inequality in the United States. Econ.. 201 or Poli. Sci. 111. (3). (SS).

See American Institutions 439. (Corcoran & Courant)

426/Amer. Inst. 426. The Development of the American Labor Market Institutions. Econ. 201 or the equivalent. Not open to students who have taken or are taking Econ. 421 or 422. (3). (SS).

See American Institutions 426. (Johnson)

430. Industrial Performance and Government Policy. Econ. 201 and 202. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 431 or 432. (3). (SS).

This course offers a general introductory survey of the field of industrial organization and public policies. The topics covered include: (1) how markets are organized and how the organization affects the market's performance, and, (2) how government policy, antitrust law and regulation affects both the organization of the market and its performance. In other words, it deals with the problem of corporate power and what to do about it. This course cannot be used as part of the two-course industrial organization sequence. A lecture/discussion format is used.

431. Industrial Organization and Performance. Econ. 401. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 430. (3). (SS).

An analysis of the behavior and social performance of firms. Emphasis is placed on understanding how firms compete with one another. Topics include why firms exist, oligopoly theory, differentiated products, entry deterrence, collusion, advertising and trademarks, mergers and expenditures on research and development. There will be two exams and a cumulative final exam. (Bagnoli)

432. Government Regulation of Industry. Econ. 401. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 430. (3). (SS).

This course studies government policies toward business. Government intervention in private business takes three forms in the U.S.: antitrust laws, direct regulation of prices and outputs, and safety and information regulation. In antitrust, we look at the laws and their enforcement on issues of monopolization, price fixing, mergers and other market restrictions. Direct economic regulation of specific industries is then examined. We will study the electric power, airline, securities brokerage, and telecommunication industries. Finally, we look at issues of unfair or deceptive advertising, health and safety standards for products and work places, and environmental protection. This course is the second part of the 431-432 sequence, but can be taken first with a moderate amount of extra work. Instruction: lecture/discussion. Evaluation: two 50-minute midterms and a two-hour final. (Borenstein)

G. International Economics

441. International Trade Theory. Econ. 401 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 440. (3). (SS).

Static and dynamic determinants of comparative advantage; trade policy and economic welfare; selected topics. Two lectures and one required section meeting weekly. (Stern)

H. Comparative Economic Systems

450. Comparative Economic Systems. Econ. 201 and 202. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 451. (3). (SS).

Theoretical models and case studies of selected aspects of different economic systems, including (1) capitalist regulated market economies, (2) socialist regulated market economies, and (3) socialist centrally planned economies. Assigned readings and lectures. Two examinations. A demanding course suitable for students with above-average grades in prerequisite course. Not in Departmental concentration sequence in Comparative Economic Systems. (Bornstein)

456. The Soviet Economy. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

A comprehensive and intensive analysis of the Soviet economy, including (1) development since 1917; (2) operation and problems in regard to planning, pricing, finance, management, labor, agriculture, and foreign economic relations; and (3) assessment of economic performance. Assigned readings and lectures. Texts include Marx, Engels, and Lenin, The Essential Left; Gregory and Stuart, Soviet Economic Structure and Performance, second edition (1981); and Bornstein, The Soviet Economy: Continuity and Change (1981). Two examinations. A demanding course suitable for students with above-average grades in prerequisite courses. May be used (along with Econ. 451) for departmental concentration sequence in Comparative Economic Systems. (Bornstein)

460. The Underdeveloped Economies. Econ. 201 and 202. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 461. (3). (SS).

This course is an introduction to the study of problems of development and underdevelopment in the economies of the "Third World", for students who have had elementary economics but not necessarily any background in economic development. Alternative theoretical approaches to the analysis of economic development will be examined, as well as several case studies of Third World development experiences. The course may be combined with Economics 462 to form a departmental sequence in economic development. It is predominantly a lecture course, with grades based on a midterm and a final exam. (Weisskopf)

461. The Economics of Development I. Econ. 402 or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 460. (3). (SS).

This is the first course in a two-term sequence on economic development, intended primarily for upper division undergraduates from all fields and graduate students from outside economics. The second course in the sequence, Economics 462, need not be taken after this one but it is generally recommended. Economics 461 will involve a general introduction to the subject of economic development (and underdevelopment) that includes theoretical institutional, and historical perspectives. We will discuss problems of human resources, agricultural development, industrialization and trade, income distribution as well as development planning and other policy issues. The requirements of the course will include a midterm and final examination, as well as an optional paper. (Mueller)

K. Public Finance

481. Government Expenditures. Econ. 401. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 480. (3). (SS).

Economics 481 is intended primarily for economics concentrators. It makes extensive use of elementary calculus and intermediate microeconomics. A strong background in both of these areas is essential for understanding the material. Students may take this course in conjunction with Economics 482 to fulfill departmental concentration requirements for advanced courses in a field. This course is concerned with non-market solutions to allocation problems arising from social interaction. In addition to studying government expenditures and interventions, we examine the theory of decisions in such groups as voluntary organizations, firms and families. Specific topics to be treated include the theory of public goods, externalities and legal liability, formal models of voting systems, benefit-cost analysis, preference revelation, measurement of demand for public goods, the theory of marriage, the theory of clubs, and applications of game theory to public choice. Emphasis will be theoretical rather than institutional. (Brazer)

482. Government Revenues. Econ. 401. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 480. (3). (SS).

Economic analysis of the equity and efficiency effects of major U.S. taxes, including the personal income tax, the corporate income tax, the social security tax, and the property tax. Examination of commonly proposed tax changes. Effects of debt and inflationary finance. Lecture method; midterm and final exams; no term paper. Text: R.W. Boadway, Public Sector Economics. (Gordon)

491/Hist. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

This course surveys the economic development of the United States from colonial times to the present. Includes an evaluation of the use of economic analysis in the study of history. Attention is also given to topics in political economy, such as the causes and effects of the Civil War, the basis of farmer and worker discontent, and government intervention in the Progressive and New Deal periods. The course requires a knowledge of economics on the level of Economics 201. Midterm and final, and several moderate-length term papers, are required. Lecture. (Whatley)

493/Hist. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

This course surveys the economic development of Europe from the eve of the industrial revolution through the formation of the Common Market. Topics include models of industrialization, agricultural development, population and labor supply, improvements in industrial technology, imperialism, and economic conflict and cooperation since 1918. Economics 493 is part of the economic history sequence for economics majors. Midterm, final, and several short papers are required. Lecture. (Webb)

496. History of Economic Thought. Economics 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to give the student an overview of the development of economics in the era of modern industrial capitalism, from Adam Smith to the present day. It will focus on three chief periods, defined by the dominant economic systems: (1) classical economics, from Adam Smith through Karl Marx; (2) neo-classical economics, from Jevons, Menger and Walras through Marshall and his followers; (3) critiques of the mainstream, especially the institutionalists and historical school; and (4) Keynesian economics and the neoclassical synthesis. Each of the major systems will be developed in a fourfold analytic schema, in terms of world view, method of analysis, dominant paradigm, and implications for social policy. Each will also be treated in a time dimension involving origins, development and breakup. Finally, each will be placed in the context of its historical era, related to economic, political, social, philosophical and ideological currents and changes. I plan to use one of the major current textbooks, such as Blaug, Rima, Bell, Roll, or Ekelund and Hebert. (Fusfeld)

497. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to seniors admitted to the Honors concentration in economics. (3). (SS).

This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence (Economics 497-498) in which Honors students formulate and carry out a substantial research project culminating in a thesis. Students are expected to complete a detailed thesis proposal, including an annotated bibliography, by the end of the first semester. Each student will also be expected to make an oral presentation based on work in progress. Credit is given separately for Economics 497 and Economics 498. (Stafford)

P. Interdisciplinary Survey Courses

395/Hist. 332/Pol. Sci. 395/REES 395/Slavic 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. May not be included in the minimum 24 credits required for a concentration in economics. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

Q. Accounting

271/Accounting 271 (Business Administration). Accounting. Not open to freshmen. May not be included in the minimum 24 credits required for a concentration in economics. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the concepts and procedures of accounting for financial transactions of business enterprises. Attention is given to the central problems of income determination and asset valuation. The final weeks of the course are devoted to financial reports and their interpretation. The format of the course is lecture and discussion. The course includes textbook readings and a series of problems for daily preparation. This course and Economics 272 serves the dual purpose of providing a foundation for students planning to take additional work in accounting and of providing a survey for those who plan no further work in this field.

Section 008 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of accounting principles and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in Comprehensive Studies Program discussion sections will require additional time and effort for problem- solving and review. The meeting time is scheduled for Tuesday and Thursday, 1:00 2:30 p.m.

272/Accounting 272 (Business Administration). Accounting. Economics 271. Not open to freshmen. May not be included in the minimum 24 credits required for a concentration in economics. (3). (Excl).

Continuation of Economics 271. This course examines the concepts and procedures of accounting for financial transactions of business enterprises. Attention is given to the central problems of income determination and asset valuation. The final weeks of the course are devoted to financial reports and their interpretation. The format of the course is lecture and discussion. The course includes textbook readings and a series of problems for daily preparation. This course serves the dual purpose of providing a foundation for students planning to take additional work in accounting and of providing a survey for those who plan no further work in this field.

English Composition Board (Division 360)

Placement in ECB Introductory Tutorial or Transfer Tutorial is determined by the ECB Writing Assessment given during Orientation to all entering LS&A students and all students required by their programs to take Introductory Composition. The writing assessment is administered during Orientation; the ECB notifies academic units of their students' placements, and academic unit counselors convey the information to their students. Those placed in ECB tutorials must enroll in an ECB course as the first part of their writing requirement. No substitute for the ECB placement will satisfy the College writing requirement.

To enroll in an ECB course, students select a section compatible with their schedule from the LS&A Time Schedule, from updated course lists at department counseling offices, or from the corrected LS&A Time Schedule outside 1213 Angell Hall. Students then proceed to CRISP for registration.

NOTE: Transfer students may receive placement into either Introductory Tutorial, Transfer Tutorial, or English 220, or they may exempt from Introductory Composition; therefore, a transfer student may enroll in a Transfer Tutorial only if that is his/her placement.

Students must attend the first class meeting to maintain their place in the class. If a student must miss the first class meeting, she/he must notify the ECB (in writing) of the intended absence prior to the first day of classes.

Students who receive a designation of Exemption with Writing Workshop MUST come to the ECB Writing Workshop, 1025 Angell Hall, before the fifth week of the Fall Term to receive writing instruction before being certified for Exemption. Otherwise, they will be re-classified into Introductory Composition.

Students are welcome to visit the ECB office at 1025 Angell Hall to discuss their writing assessment or to ask for course information.

See the introduction to this Course Guide for information about the LS&A Junior/Senior Writing Requirement and for a list of those courses approved by the ECB for satisfaction of that requirement.

Courses in English (Division 361)

125. Introductory Composition. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Introductory Composition prepares students for the various kinds of academic writing required of them as undergraduates in LS&A. Students can expect to write six or more formal papers, as well as numerous informal exercises or impromptu essays.

Section 014, 024, 041: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). These CSP sections are designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for writing assignments of all kinds and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. These sections will highlight reading materials devoted to minority cultures and experiences and include periodic peer group editing sessions of student compositions.

167. Introductory Composition, Shakespeare. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Because this course satisfies the introductory composition requirement, writing is the main work of the course. There will be short assignments, five or six more formal papers, a final examination, and perhaps a midterm. Five or six of Shakespeare's plays are what you write about, the topics arising from discussion of the plays. The plays will be Henry IV, part 1, Hamlet, Othello, The Tempest, and one or two others. (Lenaghan) only after the Introductory Composition requirement has been completed.

223. Creative Writing. English 125 or 167 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

All sections of 223 teach the writing of fiction (including personal narrative), drama, poetry, techniques of characterization, dialogue, and plot. Different sections will emphasize the individual areas to varying degrees. Classwork involves the discussion of the process of writing and the fiction of a few published authors. Students will do exercises meant to develop a sensitivity to language and a facility with evocative detail, voice, form and so forth. Most classroom time, however, is devoted to reading and discussion of student writing. A final portfolio of revised finished work of 35-50 manuscript pages is required.

Section 002. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 003 Poetry, Fiction and Drama. Course description available in August from the department office, 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 004. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 005 Fiction. This section is for those who wish to write from experience and imagination. Students will be encouraged to experiment and take risks in their writing as well as to practice fundamentals. No special background is required for this course, which is a beginning course in fiction writing. The process of writing will be examined through reading and discussion, and much of the classwork will focus on student writing. Evaluation will take into account improvement in writing, amount of work turned in, and participation. There will be no exam. We will work with Elbow's Writing Without Teachers, and with one or two fiction anthologies. Our main business, however, will be to write. (Holinger)

Section 006. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 007 Poetry and Fiction. Each student will be asked to write a full-length short story and fifty or sixty lines of poetry in traditional forms and will then be encouraged to specialize either in fiction or verse for the rest of the term. A specialization in poetry will be allowed only if the instructor is convinced you have talent. A thousand words per week of fiction, twenty-five lines of verse is the minimum quantity. No text, no exams. A largely unstructured course: if you need the support of regular assignments, exercises, etc., choose another section. You must come up with the ideas. The instructor will not play Muse. (Creeth)

Section 008. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 009. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 010. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 011 Fiction. See description for Section 005 above. (Holinger)

Section 012. Course description available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

225. Argumentative Writing. English 125 or 167 or equivalent. (4). (HU).

This course will explore ways of making the style and logic of your writing more effective as you explain or argue. The questions of connotative language and slanting, understatement, surprise, selection of evidence, tonal and organizational variation, and logical fallacies will be considered - in the context of writing to a specific audience for a specific purpose. Class will probably be run on a discussion-workshop basis, with students meeting often in small groups to share drafts of papers or to examine writing examples from periodicals and/or from a textbook of collected essays.

Sections 003-008, 010, 012, 013, and 016-019. Course descriptions available after March 26 in 444 Mason Hall.

Section 009. Our aim will be to find a personal voice in our writing, so that our argumentative or persuasive prose will have the stamp of individuality about it instead of sounding machine-produced. We will be our own audience, and will read and comment upon one another's written work not some of it but all of it. Hence, both regular writing and regular attendance are mandatory. There are no textbooks; there will be no exam. Writing and talking intelligently about our writing will be our only activity. (Ingram)

Section 011 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of argumentation and logical fallacies and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. The section will highlight reading materials devoted to minority cultures and experiences and include periodic peer group editing sessions of student compositions.

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).

For sections 001, 005, 007, 008 and 010 of English 230, course descriptions available in 444 Mason after March 26, 1984.

Section 002. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 003. Mr. Micawber says that he reads David Copperfield's novels "with delight, with entertainment, with instruction." We will attempt to do the same thing as we read seven great novels including David's autobiography and a volume of short stories. Our aim will be to learn to read fiction critically and intelligently. We will concern ourselves with such things as the novelist's understanding of the world around him, and how he deals with it; the role of the artist in society; selfishness and selflessness; and the meaning of happiness. Our reading list will be made up of eight of the following books: Dostoievski's Crime and Punishment, Solzhenitsyn's One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbervilles, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights, Jane Austen's Emma, James Joyce's Dubliners, Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, Evelyn Waugh's Decline and Fall, and Charles Dickens' David Copperfield. Three papers, daily scribbles, group reports on Decline and Fall, and a final exam. Optional free discussion meetings at my home each Wednesday evening. (Hornback)

Section 004. This will be a course in the appreciation of fiction, with emphasis heavily on the novel. There will be little lecturing, much discussion, the teacher trying to define only areas for discussion: story-line, character, theme or meaning, the personality projected by the author, his world view. There will be daily 10-minute quizzes on the day's assignment, and course grade will rest mainly on them, so that students know where they stand all the time and face no existential moments. Midterm and final will serve only to compensate for weak or missed quizzes. There will be opportunity for those who wish to try imitating our authors in short fictions of their own. Flaubert, Madame Bovary; Dickens, Great Expectations; Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment; James, The American; Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury. (Creeth)

Section 006. We will be reading a variety of kinds of fiction and grappling with very diverse perspectives on and ways of shaping the human experience. We will test with each other our individual reactions to form and ideas, thus learning together to read and to talk about our reading with increased sensitivity. We will try to understand what importance and use fiction has, if any, in a difficult world. We will read stories by Doris Lessing and several other authors, Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Sembene's "The Promised Land" (and see the film, Black Girl, based on it), Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians, Morrison's The Bluest Eye, Kafka's The Trial, Silko's Ceremony, Faulkner's As I Lay Dying, and a couple more novels. Emphasis will be on discussion, both large and small group. The nature and timing of papers and exams will be decided together by the class and the teacher. There will be opportunities for group projects and creative projects. (Alexander)

Section 009. An introduction to the basic elements of prose fiction, such as plot, character, structure, and imagery, through a method of close reading and analysis of a wide variety of 19th and 20th century short stories and novels, primarily English and American. We shall begin with short stories and move through longer and more complex examples to novels. Among the writers considered will be Henry James, Joyce, Conrad, D.H. Lawrence, Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald, Flannery O'Connor, and selected contemporary writers. Classes will be primarily discussion sessions. There will be a sequence of short analytical papers, an hour test, and a final exam. (Coles)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
We shall study the traditional and modern forms of English and American poetry, with special attention to the close reading of great examples of the principal forms. We shall proceed chiefly by discussion, supported by short papers, quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. A major object of the course is to bring students to the point of being able to read and appreciate poems written from points of view and with purposes not immediately obvious or even sympathetic to an unskilled modern reader. English 240 is a prerequisite for English concentrators but it is open to all University undergraduates. (Cloyd)

Section 002. This course is for anyone who wants to learn to read poetry with understanding and enjoyment. We will read widely in lyric poetry, English and American, from the Renaissance to the present. One of the aims of the course will be to help students to develop the critical skills necessary to read any kind of poetry well, another to encourage some awareness of how poetry written in English has evolved and of how poetic aims and possibilities have varied in different historical periods. We will look at how some basic poetic forms (ballad, sonnet, ode) have been adapted to serve various purposes. While the organization of the course will not be strictly chronological, we will look at a succession of major poets from different periods in some depth, ending with a more intensive study of one modern poet. The work of the course will consist of exercises, several short papers, a midterm, and a final exam. The basic text will be The Norton Anthology of Poetry (3rd edition). (Knott)

Section 003. This is a course in the close reading of poetry. We shall read English and American poems in the Norton Anthology of Poetry and study them from two principal points of view. One will be the relationship between content and form, the other that between the poem as a timeless work of art and as a product of an author in a particular poetic tradition and historical situation. Though the poems (from the Renaissance to the present time) will not necessarily be read in chronological order, an idea of the development of English poetry should emerge. Towards the end we may concentrate on the work of one particular poet. Paul Fussell's Poetic Meter and Poetic Form will be studied in addition. Form: discussion, individual and group presentations. Requirements: active participation, several brief papers and a final exam. (Fischer)

Section 004. The aim of this course is simple. It is designed to provide an introduction to the reading, understanding, and appreciation of poetry. Achieving that aim is not always so simple however, and much of our work in this term shall be devoted to cultivating a critical vocabulary which will enable us to respond intelligently to as many different forms of poetry as possible. Since our approach will be through close readings of particular poems, no chronological order will be followed. Instead, I will be grouping poems of various periods on the basis of formal and thematic affinities (for example, sonnets, love poetry, the elegy, etc.). Assignments include several short papers and occasional exercises. Primary text: Norton Anthology of Poetry. (Larson)

Section 005. We will read together poems that please me and are likely to please you. We will read poems of the fifteenth through the twentieth century, we will read them slowly, and we will try to discover both what and how they mean. As we read, we will pause longest in the poetry of John Donne, Emily Dickinson, and Dylan Thomas. The sole requirement for this course is that you take much pleasure in the English language. (Fader)

Section 006. The aim here will be to enhance students' enjoyment of poetry through an understanding of its nature and how it achieves its particular effects. What is poetic language, for example, what is the function of meter how does it interplay with the natural rhythms of speech? What is the nature and meaning of metaphor and of other kinds of figurative language? How does a poem mean one thing by saying another (irony)? The emphasis will be on informed, close reading of poetry from different periods of English and American literature. To encourage a feeling for the oral nature of poetry, students will occasionally be asked to learn and say poems aloud. Several short papers and one long paper will be required, as well as a midterm and a final exam. Textbooks: An Introduction to Poetry, by X.J. Kennedy, (Little Brown, ISBN 0-316-488690, 4th ed. paperback, $9.95); Poems 1965-1975, by Seamus Heany, (FSG, ISBN 374-51652-910700, paperback). (Tillinghast)

Section 007. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 009. This course is a reading workshop, in which we will practice the kinds of reading which poetry invites. We will read a range of poems from different periods and consider different aspects of the poet's craft: the uses of meter to give rhythm to speech, rhyme and alliteration, metaphor and other forms of figurative language. We will also explore ways in which poets create individual voices for individual poems, as well as ways in which they control tone. The final weeks of the term will be devoted to the work of a single poet. Although this course is a prerequisite for the English major, non-majors are welcome and appreciated. Classes will be conducted as discussions, with brief lectures to provide background information. Requirements for the course include regular attendance and participation, three or four short papers, and regular brief assignments. (Garner)

Section 010. Questions of very different kinds can be asked about a poem (What does this word mean? Does line one rime with line four? Why does the poet talk funny?), and what is useful to ask about one poem may offer little help with another. We will try to develop both a versatile repertory of good questions and skill in choosing and answering the ones that will be fruitful with a given poem. The aim will be to experience the poem as it was intended, having refined that experience through close examination of its causes; to "read each work of wit," as Pope puts it, "With the same spirit that its author writ." The poems will be drawn from the last four centuries and will be of many kinds. We will work primarily through close reading and discussion of particular poems; from time to time we will try to view matters from the poet's perspective by composing short passages of verse of various types. There will be several short papers and exercises, a midterm, and a final exam. (English)

Section 011. This course is intended for anyone wishing to increase his or her enjoyment and understanding of poetry. Through a wide range of poems we will explore both the ways in which poems work and the ways we can understand and improve our responses to them. After an introduction to poetic analysis we will progress chronologically from Shakespeare to the present, emphasizing particularly the last two centuries and ending with in-depth study of one modern poet (W.B. Yeats). Class discussion and occasional informal lectures will focus primarily on close reading of individual texts, but students should also emerge from the course with some grasp of the historical development of English poetry. Frequent short papers, the last of which will serve as a final exam; no prerequisites. The text will be The Norton Anthology of Poetry, Third Edition. (Bornstein)

Section 012. An introductory course in the close reading of literary texts, English 240 is prerequisite to concentration in English. It can also be a good course for non-majors who want to know more about poetry. Proceeding by discussion, we plan to invite familiarity with the major manifestations of English and American lyric verse through the reading of a large number of poems as well as through the close study of a selected few. Toward the close of the course we will study the work of one of the major poets: Robert Frost, Emily Dickinson, or W.B. Yeats. There will be a number of written exercises, two papers, one hour exam and one final exam. (McNamara)

245/Res. College Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to drama. It will look to the texts of about a dozen plays, from ancient Greece to modern Europe and America. We will want to study the basic things about how drama works, both as literature and as theatre. The lectures will set the plays and their appropriate theatres into their historical and intellectual traditions, and will explore the plays as works of literature. The sections will offer opportunities to discuss and work with the plays as scripts for performance. Active participation of students will be encouraged in the course. Also, two or three papers, one hour exam and one final examination will be written. (McNamara)

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 002.
An introduction to American literature, culture, and ideas through the close reading of major works of fiction, with particular emphasis upon the short story form. Novels by Twain, Hemingway, Fitzgerald (or Faulkner), and one current American writer. After positioning lectures to establish themes and directions, the instructor will encourage class participation through discussion. Dual purpose to hold the mirror of American experience, reflected by significant image-makers (writers), up to ourselves; to learn how to use (and enjoy) literature as a tool for interpreting that experience. Midterm, final, and two short papers. (Eby)

Section 003. This course will help students cultivate an ability to creatively analyze literature in its social context. Through reading, contemplation, discussion, writing, and lectures, it is hoped that students will develop a consciousness, method, and point of view enabling them to approach literary problems with confidence, imagination, and scholarship. Our unifying theme concerning the social implications of writing in the United States is not meant to be employed reductively. The selection of readings will be made with an eye to varieties of form (from traditional to experimental). The works chosen range from those by writers identified with a political outlook on social problems, to several whose orientations are distinctly philosophical, moral, and psychological. The course will also give a special emphasis to writings by women, racial minorities, and authors interested in working-class life. Some of the likely readings: short stories and poems by Herman Melville; poetry by Emily Dickinson; Kate Chopin's The Awakening; Stephen Crane's Maggie: A Girl of the Streets; N. Scott Momaday's House Made of Dawn; Marge Piercy's Women on the Edge of Time; Saul Bellow's The Dean's December; Paule Marshall, Brown Girl, Brownstones; Richard Wright, Native Son; William Faulkner, Light in August. Requirements will include several papers, exams, and possibly participation in a group presentation. (Wald)

Section 004. We will consider in detail some of the works of five great American writers: Hawthorne, Whitman, James, Stevens and Faulkner. Class discussion will be vital. There will be two papers, a midterm, and a final examination. (Schulze)

Section 005. To introduce participants to both the rebellious and the aesthetic strains in American literature, the instructor will attempt to balance the reading list accordingly, working from the east coast to the west for ethnic or regional attitudes. Authors primary to the literary national experience (Thoreau, James, Wharton, Twain, Faulkner, Hemingway and so on) will naturally take precedence, but that leaves several weeks' sessions for the raucous, the bawdy, and the disaffected. The class format is primarily discussion; there will be several in-class writings, a major paper, and a final exam. (Depree)

Section 006. We concentrate on reading a limited number of works by four American writers, R.W. Emerson, Ernest Hemingway, Robert Frost and Eugene O'Neill. The course attempts to enlarge the student's human understanding through analysis of imaginative writing in four literary genres: expository essay, prose fiction, poetry and drama. Throughout the term, an important overall course objective is that the student formulate and justify his/her own judgments about these works and their impact on his/her life. Class attendance is essential, since class discussion of the reading is the principal vehicle for exploring the authors' writing. Each student will keep a journal, writing regularly in it so as to develop ideas, judgments and questions. Two essays will be written outside of class; and a two-hour essay-type final examination covering all the course material will conclude the term. (Heydon)

285. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Literature. (3). (HU).

We will consider how a variety of writers reflect and respond to the major historical, social, political, philosophical, and moral issues and preoccupations of this century. We will place equal emphasis on what these writers say and how they say it. Our purpose is to sharpen the insight and intelligence with which we read some of the probing "documents" of our time. Reading: some standard authors and works for such a course; some idiosyncratic selections. Leading candidates for the reading list (not all will appear): Kafka, Camus, Bellow, K. Mann, P. Roth, Malamud, D.M. Thomas, Nabokov, Durrenmatt, Grass, and several others, including a selection of modern poems. Some lecture; some discussion. Two papers and an essay final. (Bauland)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

302. Writing About Good Books. (4). (HU).

English 302 intends to assure that its students will graduate from this College knowing how to write lucid, persuasive, analytical, mature, articulate and maybe even illuminatingly graceful prose in their chosen disciplines. We will read six or seven books demonstrating varieties of good contemporary prose in several fields, which may include short fiction, a thriller, science, current issues, the mass media, language, memoir, sports, humor. Lectures will focus on the issues raised by our reading, with the emphasis on how these texts say what they say effectively. Each student will produce approximately 35 pages of writing (including revision). The papers should provide practice in writing and re-writing essays of different length and for different audiences. The writing will be subject oriented; our objective will be solid conception translated into sound execution. The reading and classes should be fun; the writing will (as it must) be hard work. A cadre of experts will assist the lecturer. The class, dealing with the broader issues, is large, but the writing instruction specific to student papers will be more personal: conferences and section meetings insure the individual writer's progress with his/her own work. No classroom examinations. Whether or not you can write good expository prose by the end of the course is your examination. English 302 fulfills the ECB upper-level writing requirement. Two one and one-half hour lectures and one hour of discussion per week. (Bauland)

305(405). Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3). (HU).

English 305 surveys the grammar of contemporary English and explores some dimensions of language variety including differences in gender role, geography, social class, and ethnic background. Since the course is a requirement for prospective high school teachers, we discuss some of the ways in which language is treated in the classroom, though we do so in light of other institutions that influence the shape of our English: the media, advertising, and popular culture. Students who are curious about how American English works are especially invited to enroll. A midterm, a final exam, and several quizzes provide the basis for grading, supplemented by "language diaries" and a short field research project. (Bailey)

309(409). American English. (3). (HU).

We shall begin the course by discussing what there is about American English worth serious study. This will entail, initially, indicating how distinct our spoken idiom is from British English past and present, what is and what is not "colonial" about how we speak, and what impact socio-political history has had on our speech. We shall then turn to the lexicon and its peculiar flexibility and inventiveness, to dialects and regionalisms, to the idiom of social and ethnic groups, and to popular and academic conceptions about our language. We shall learn, where necessary, how to describe our pronunciations by the use of symbols, how lexemes are caught and recorded, and where the course materials of the topics to be treated may be found. There will be several exercises (as in the use of phonetic symbols, for example, and in the use of lexical sources). There will be many handouts (perhaps a course pack or two), a midterm and a final. I shall have as many outside speakers as I can on BEV, on creoles, on Hispanicized American English, on Canadian English. There will be probably only two required texts both paperbacks. Open to any student curious about how we speak and write. (Sands)

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

What is "feminism?" What is "criticism?" We will attempt to answer these and other questions raised by women's writing and by writing about women. Topics to be investigated include: romance (the one great "female" adventure?); women as objects; women as subjects (authors and readers); differences between American, British, and French feminism; feminist fiction as radical critical and social practice; the functions of race and class in women's literary production and reception. Readings will include: Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Defoe's Moll Flanders, "Gothics," Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey , Virginia Woolf's Orlando, Alice Walker's The Color Purple, Angela Carter's Heroes and Villains, Monique Wittig's Les Guerilleres, and work by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Juliet Mitchell, Sheila Rowbotham, Helene Cixous, Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, and others. Classes will combine brief lectures (to introduce topics and contexts) with active discussion. Students will keep a journal to be handed in several times during the course and write two essays. (Landry)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Jewish American Literature.
In what sense can we say that a distinctly Jewish-American literature exists? What are the images of both Jews and America in this literature? What thematic concerns are central to it? Why and how are such images and themes expressed? In this course, we will attempt to answer these and other questions by considering some of the poetry, short stories, and novels written in both Yiddish and English by twentieth century Jews in America. (All works will, of course, be read in English.) We will read works by Henry Roth, Anzia Yezierska, Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, Philip Roth, Cynthia Ozick, I.B. Singer, Delmore Schwartz, and others. Two papers and a final exam are required. (Norich)

Section 002 Novels of Initiation. We will read nine novels which focus on different stages as the young person moves through crucial experiences on the path from childhood through adolescence toward adulthood. They involve the impact of love and death, the growing awareness of good and evil, and the movement toward the formation of the adult personality. The study of each book will begin with an introductory lecture followed by the use of the discussion method. The work will probably include two tests, a term paper, and a final examination. We will probably read Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Faulkner's The Reivers, Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, and Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye, among others. (Blotner)

Section 003 Tragedy. My course in the Fall will be concerned with the genre of tragedy. We will read plays by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripedes, Shakespeare and, perhaps, more recent playwrights. We will also look at some of the major theorists of tragic drama Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Freud and others. Classes will proceed by lecture and discussion. There will be a final and a long paper. (Goodhart)

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Literature of Oppressed Minorities: Black, Chicano, Asian American, Native American Indian, and Puerto Rican.
This course will concentrate primarily on 20th century literature expressing the unique cultures and life experiences of a number of oppressed racial minorities in the U.S. While there are some features common to all minority groups that suffer discrimination within our larger culture, the diversity of responses through literary forms will also be emphasized. In considering the literature of each minority, we will attempt to include writers who hold different points of view and employ different literary techniques. There is an implicit interdisciplinary thrust to this course, and history, sociology, and political theory will be especially important in uniting with literary criticism as useful analytical tools. Requirements will include several papers, exams, and participation in a group presentation. The reading will probably include many of the following: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life; Jean Toomer, Cane; Richard Wright, Black Boy, Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man; Alice Walker, The Color Purple; Maxine Hong Kingston, Woman Warrior; Rudolfo Anaya, Bless Me, Ultima; Corky Gonzales, I am Joaquin; James Welch, The Death of Jim Loney; John Neihardt, Black El Speaks; Piri Thomas, Down These Mean Streets. There will be both lectures and discussion. (Wald)

320/CAAS 338. Literature in Afro-American Culture. (3). (HU).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 338.

323 Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once with permission of the undergraduate chairman.
Section 001.
Creative writing: a course in mixed-media composition, especially combinations of poetry, short drama, short fiction, graphic art, painting, music, dance, photography. Prerequisites: experience with one or more of these art forms and interest in exploring their relations with other forms. (Wright)

Section 002 Fiction. This is an intermediate workshop for students with experience writing fiction. Your main task will be to write. In class we will discuss writing by class members and writing found in contemporary periodicals. No exams; no textbook. You will incur some copying costs. Evaluation will take into account participation, as well as quantity, quality, and improvement of writing. For admission, please submit a sample of your writing to the instructor at 2623 Haven Hall. (Holinger)

325. Intermediate Exposition. (4). (HU).

For sections 002, 003, 004, 005, and 008 of English 325, course descriptions will be available in 444 Mason Hall after March 26, 1984.

Section 001. This class will explore different types of narrative, argumentative, and expository writing. We will experiment with several kinds of composition: fable, anecdote, refutation, confirmation, moral argument, encomium, invective, comparison, description, narrative, and dialogue. Within basic formal guidelines, students may chose their own topics. (Shuger)

Section 013. Reserved for Professional Semester participants. See description at the beginning of the English Department listings. (Howes)

355. Core I (Great English Books). (4). (HU).
Section 001.
This section will highlight some of the great poetic works of English literature though the seventeenth century: the Old English Beowulf (in translation), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (selections), Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Spenser's Faerie Queen (selections), and Milton's Paradise Lost. We will also read sonnets and other short lyrics by Shakespeare, Donne and Milton, and at least one Elizabeth play. The focus will be on the enjoyment and appreciation of poetry, but we will spend much class time interpreting these often difficult works. Their themes are not so different from ours (love, death, morality, truth, folly, man and God); but their cultural presuppositions are very different, and will necessitate some lecturing. Requirements: three short papers, memorization of a passage from Chaucer, and a final exam. (Smith)

Section 002. This course is the first of the required Core sequence for English majors, although it is open to all LS&A upperclass students. It covers, in one way or another, the continuum of English literature from Old English times to the completion of Paradise Lost. Much is read and much is slighted. Old English coverage will see us doing the lyrics in translation, overlooking as we do so the complexities of Beowulf. We will come down rather heavy on Chaucer and Sir Gawain (the latter in translation) and talk about but generally ignore Piers. The third quarter of the term will see us concentrating emphatically on the lyric and on drama. (There will be several prosodic exercises on both Chaucerian and Elizabethan verse.) We shall end up with close readings of carefully selected segments of Paradise Lost. The course is considered to be also a writing course and for this aspect of it, we shall have the aid of a competent course assistant provided us by the ECB Board. He/she will hold numerous conferences with individual students and may aid in correction - may even give a lecture or two. There will be two essays, two or three prosodic exercises, a formidable midterm and a final the latter, one of the take-home variety. (Sands)

Section 003. This course will consider the development of English literature from the Middle Ages through Milton. We shall examine the great works of this period in all genres, with particular emphasis on non-dramatic poetry. The readings will include Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, The Canterbury Tales (selections), a play by Marlowe and Jonson, The Faerie Queene (selections), short poems by Sidney, Spenser, Raleigh, Greville, Donne, and Herbert, and Paradise Lost (selections). Class time will be divided between lecture and discussion. Required: three short papers and midterm and final examinations. Text: The Norton Anthology of English Literature (4th edition) ed. Abrams, et al. (Shuger)

Section 004. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 006. Works written in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance will appear foreign to a modern audience, not only because the language causes difficulties, but because they were written in a world substantially different from ours. At the same time the really great books have qualities that appeal directly to the modern reader. It will be the aim of this course to work out the historical contexts and significance of these works as well as their possible meaning for a modern audience. Works will include: (1) the Old English Beowulf and some other Old English and early Middle English poems in translation, (2) the major works of the fourteenth century (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Langland's Piers Plowman and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales ); and (3) poetry of the Renaissance period (Sidney, Spenser, Donne, Marvell, Shakespeare and Milton's Paradise Lost ). If time permits specimens from Medieval and Elizabethan drama will also be discussed. Form: lectures, discussions and student reports. Requirements: several brief papers and a final exam. (Fischer)

Section 007. A selection of works from the late Middle Ages through the Renaissance, e.g., Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, "The Second Shepherds' Play," Everyman, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Spenser's Faerie Queene, Marlowe's Dr. Faustus, poems by John Donne and George Herbert, Jonson's Volpone, Webster's Duchess of Malfi, Milton's Paradise Lost. Mostly discussion, occasional lecturing. Three papers, a variety of short written exercises, modest attempts at staging one or two of the plays. A midterm exam; a final exam. (English)

356. Core II (Great English and American Books). (4). (HU).
Section 001.
This course, the second in the series designed for English concentrators but open to other students as well, examines major works and traditions in English and American literature from 1660 to 1850. The texts we will read can be grouped, very roughly, in four categories: Restoration drama and neo-classical poetry and prose (Wycherley, Swift or Johnson, and Pope), the rise of the novel (Fielding, Austen), English Romantic poetry (primarily Blake, Wordsworth, Keats) and nineteenth century American literature (Hawthorne, Melville). In discussing these texts we will ask, among other things, how they imagine the world, man's and woman's place in it, and the relation of literature to that world. The class will be primarily discussion, with some lectures usually directed to placing works in their historical and intellectual context. Evaluation will be based on frequent brief writing assignments, one short analytical paper or perhaps a take-home midterm, and a term paper. (Howard)

Section 002. The course, the second of a three part sequence required of English concentrators, will attempt to combine close reading of major works with attention to the major cultural developments between the late 17th and mid-19th centuries. We will read the poetry of Dryden, Pope, Wordsworth and Keats, Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Fielding's Tom Jones, Austen's Emma and Melville's Moby Dick. There will be two papers, a midterm and a final examination. (Schulze)

Section 003. Although the scope of this course dictates a small section of representative works rather than a full scale survey, we shall try to understand some of the important religious, political, esthetic, and literary differences between the three periods we study: England in the later 17th and early 18th century, England during the Romantic upheaval; America before the Civil War. In the first period, we shall consider selected works by Dryden, Pope, and Swift along with Dr. Johnson's lives of those poets. In the second, we shall begin with two transitional figures, Blake and Austen; then consider the theory of Romanticism announced by Wordsworth and Coleridge in the preface to the Lyrical Ballads in relation to their poetry and that of Keats' and Byron's. Finally, we shall consider how English styles and ideas from both periods underwent a different development in America, moving from brief selections from early American authors toward a fuller consideration of Hawthorne and Melville. Lectures will stress the cultural context in which this literature was written; class discussions will be exercises in close reading. Three 5-8 page papers, one on each period. A midterm hour test, and a two-hour final. (Winn)

Section 004. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 006. We will read "major" writers of the late seventeenth, the eighteenth, and the early nineteenth centuries. The course will attempt to combine close readings of texts with historical and cultural analysis. Questions to be addressed include: what makes a literary work "major" or canonical? Why are women's writing and popular or plebeian writing often considered "marginal?" What connections can be made between political and social history and literary modes and movements? In these works, how do race, sex, and class function as categories of analysis and control? What is "Augustanism?" What is "Romanticism"? How do American "frontier" literature and culture grow out of conflicting Enlightenment and Romantic politics and literary policies? Readings will include works by Dryden, Pope, Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Johnson's Rasselas, poetry by Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, and prose by Emerson and Melville. There will be one two-page essay, two 5-6 page essays, an emphasis on active class discussion, and a final exam. (Landry)

357. Core III (Great English and American Books). (4). (HU).
Section 001.
A survey of major British and American writers from 1830 to about 1930. The course concludes the departmental core sequence. We shall examine a number of the leading poets, novelists, and prose writers of the period with attention to the historical, cultural, and intellectual background of their work. Instruction will be by lecture with some discussion. Among writers considered will be Carlyle, Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, Henry James, Rossetti, Oscar Wilde, Dickens, George Eliot, Pater, Hardy, Yeats, T.S. Eliot, and Ezra Pound. There will be a sequence of short tests, papers, and a final exam. (Coles)

Section 002. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 003. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 004. Our readings for this course will take us from about the 1880's to 1970's a century or so of enormous philosophical, cultural, political, and racial consequence. To be "American" and "British," to write "American" and "British" and, finally, to be "Great" involve considerations about the relationship between literature, artist, and a complex series of interactions. We will look at the Britain of Hardy, Conrad, Forster (of island and empire); at the America of Melville, Whitman, and Fitzgerald, and of Hong, Kingston, Walker, and Silko. Joyce, Eliot, and Yeats will add other dimensions to our consideration of the modernist temperament. There will be a final 10-15 page project; also one five-page paper, and individual reports on the texts and issues. These last will form the basis of class discussions. Lectures will be used to introduce and to summarize issues. (Johnson)

Section 005. This course will examine works by American and British writers from the Victorian period to the present. Texts by male and female authors will be read in pairs, chosen according to direct personal and/or literary influence, as representatives of a similar tradition or cultural context. Questions will be raised about the formation of a literary canon, the impact of history on literary production and the evolution of literary styles. Novels will include Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Hardy's Jude the Obscure; Jude the Obscure; Forster's Howard's End and Woolf's Between the Acts; Faulkner's Absolom, Absolom and Morrison's The Bluest Eye , in addition to Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession and Churchill's Top Girls, stories by James and Wharton and poetry by Tennyson and Christina Rossetti, Frost and Bishop. There will be three essays and a final exam. (Herrmann)

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course is designed to introduce students to Shakespeare's major achievements in the drama. We shall read twelve plays, chosen to illustrate the range of Shakespeare's accomplishment and his work in various dramatic kinds comedy, history, tragedy, and romance. Most class periods will be devoted to lecture, supplemented from time to time by class discussion, oral reports from students, and the presentation of selected scenes. The emphasis in all of this will be on Shakespeare as a writer for the theatre, though students will also be introduced to a variety of critical approaches to the plays that consider them chiefly as literary documents. Work for the course will include two short papers, a midterm, a brief quiz or two and perhaps an oral report, and a final examination. I have not yet settled on the plays for this term, but they will in all likelihood include Twelfth Night, King Lear, Antony and Cleopatra, Richard III, The Winter's Tale, Measure for Measure, and Othello. (Jensen)

Section 002. We will read slowly through six of Shakespeare's most interesting plays: Hamlet, Merchant of Venice, Othello, Macbeth, King Lear, and The Tempest. During our reading and discussion we will attempt to reconstruct enough of the era in which the plays were written to understand Shakespeare's accomplishment in the context of his time. Two papers, one at midterm and one at the end of the course. (Fader)

391. Honors Survey: Medieval English Literature. (3). (Excl).

This course offers you a chance to work closely with some of the finest literary works produced in England in the Middle Ages. The texts we will concentrate on (Beowulf, parts of the Canterbury Tales, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, Malory's Morte Darthure, Piers Plowman, and a selection of medieval plays) are splendid in themselves and illustrate various favored genres and modes such as epic, romance, dream-vision, allegory and typology. Students will examine not only the works themselves, but also the intellectual and cultural environment which shaped them. Requirements for the course are two papers, a final examination (and, possibly, a midterm) and active and informed participation in class. (McSparran)

392. Honors Survey: Renaissance English Literature. (3). (Excl).

The course aspires to an examination in depth of the foremost literary achievements of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in England. Spenser will be studied first (Four Hymns, The Faerie Queene : Book I and the Mutability Cantos), followed by Marlowe (Dr. Faustus and Edward II), Shakespeare (Richard II, Henry IV : Parts 1 and 2, Henry V, Hamlet, The Tempest), Donne (Songs and Sonnets, Divine Poems), Herbert (The Temple), Marvell (select poems), and Milton (Comus, Paradise Lost in its entirety). The historical and intellectual background will be kept firmly in view, but the primary emphasis will be on the literature as literature. The standards of the course are very exacting, as befits an Honors course. Two essays and a final examination will be supplemented by discussion to which all students will be expected to participate without fail. (Students who have had my Core I will not be admitted). (Patrides)

411. Art of the Film. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Vietnam and the Artist.
A study of efforts by artists, primarily filmmakers, to understand and, in some cases, to prevent recurrence of such events as the war in Vietnam. Films will include: In the Year of the Pig, Hearts and Minds, Ashes and Embers, The War at Home, Interviews With My Lai Veterans, Coming Home, The Deerhunter, Apocalypse Now, Breaker Morant, Jonah Who Will Be 25 in the Year 2000, The Passion of Anna, and films made by the South Vietnamese National Liberation Front. Writers will include Denise Levertov, Jonathan Kozol, Philip Caputo, David Rabe, and Susan George. This year we will, using films and readings, also make comparisons to the nuclear arms race and artist and citizen response to it, with some emphasis on civil disobedience. Much emphasis will be placed on discussion, both large and small group, and discussion and lecture will focus not only on the works, but also on their implications about personal attitudes and behavior and about social institutions. Final projects may be studies of individual artists, may be studies of large problems raised in the course, or may be relevant works of art or other forms of direct statement and communication about Vietnam and related issues. (Alexander)

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. (3). (Excl).

English 417 along with the Core courses meets the Junior-Senior writing requirements for English concentrators only. Please add the ECB modification for 417 at CRISP.

Section 001 William Blake's Illuminated Books. In this seminar we will study William Blake's Illuminated Books together with some of his other writing and art work. The principal Illuminated Books will be facsimile editions of Songs of Innocence and of Experience, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, The Book of Urizen, and, time permitting, Milton. I will provide copies of Urizen and Milton for course use along with other materials in course pack format. Written work for the seminar will include short reports, scripts, and a longer paper. English 417 should be elected by Senior English Concentrators only. (Wright)

Section 003 Modern Women Writers. This course will examine a wide range of novels written by modern women writers, with a particular focus on the experimental narrative forms which emerged under the influence of Modernism, as well as those generated by cross-cultural experiences of gender. It will also address issues raised by feminist literary criticism and theory in both the Anglo-American and French traditions. The reading will include Collette's The Vagabond, Woolf's To the Lighthouse, Stein's Ida, Christa Wolf's The Quest for Christa T., H.D.'s Hermione and Wittig's The Lesbian Body. It will also examine the relationship between gender and race through Morrison's The Bluest Eye, Walker's The Color Purple, Kingston's The Woman Warrior and Cha's Dictee. There will be an oral presentation, two brief essays and a final paper. English 417 should be elected by Senior English Concentrators only. (Herrmann)

Section 004 Satire. This section will focus on the critical and theoretical issues surrounding the design, methods, and purposes of satire. The first half of the course will be given over to a sampling of major works of satire and a survey of the major critical works dealing with the satiric (in the visual arts and film as well as in literature) and with the most prominent satirists. The second half of the course will be devoted to a study of specific works and writers chosen by the class. Requirements for the course include regular class attendance and participation in discussion, two or three oral reports, and a major paper (20-25 pp.). English 417 should be elected by Senior English Concentrators only. (Jensen)

Section 005 Tragedy. Nietzsche' famous aphorism in The Gay Science pulls the rug out from under a certain tradition of philosophic and humanist thinking and this gesture has led to a frenzied activity in theoretical discussions throughout the humanities. In this course I would like to study some of the ways in which Greek tragedy already engages in full (and before the fact, as it were) this same nihilist critique of Platonism in which today we are so embroiled, an engagement which succeeding traditions of philosophical and literary critical thinking (as they emanate from Plato and Aristotle) have worked strenuously to subvert. I will try to show that this tragic engagement is a version of prophetic thinking and akin to the mode of thinking of the great religious texts of our culture. Readings: Plato and Aristotle on mimesis, Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus, Aeschylus' Agamemnon, Sophocles' Antigone, Euripides' Medea, and The Bacchae, Shakespeare's Hamlet, Beckett's Waiting for Godot, and Miller's Death of a Salesman in an attempt to assess the possibility of a persistence of this engagement in modern drama. We will also look at some of the major theorists of the tragic (Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger) as well as some of the classical critics (Knox, Vernant, Bradley) and some more recent theorists Girard, Goldman, Foucault, among others. Lecture and discussion. There will be a paper and a series of brief quizzes. English 417 should be elected by Senior English Concentrators only. (Goodhart)

Section 006. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 007. Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

Section 008 Narrative Theory. This course will study narrative theory by first examining a few short works of fiction and then relating to them ideas developed from reading some seminal works in the various schools of critical theory. The class itself will decide what works of fiction to read; but the instructor will determine the theoretical material. The class will read texts by writers in the "realistic" school of criticism, by Henry James and his followers, by the Russian Formalists, by structuralists and post-structuralists, and by reader-response critics. Students will develop their own critical and theoretical abilities by working throughout the term on a single paper of 15-20 pages. English 417 should be elected by Senior English Concentrators only. (Konigsberg)

Section 013. Reserved for Professional Semester participants. See description at the beginning of the English Department listings. (Howes)

423 The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of the undergraduate chairman.

Course description will be available in August from 7607 Haven Hall. (Jones)

427. Playwriting. Permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The craft of professional playwriting is taught through lectures on dramatic structure and basic outlining, the reading and analysis of plays, writing exercises, attendance at productions, and the writing of at least two one-act plays for the company of student actors attached to the class. A selection of the plays is performed for the public at the end of the term. Grades are based on attendance, level of participation, papers, and the mastery of basic playwriting craft as demonstrated in plays and criticism. Admission by permission of instructor. No writing samples will be requested. A sign-up sheet will be available outside of 2527A Haven Hall beginning on September 5th. Sign up for a 15 minute appointment to see Professor Stitt on September 7th. He will be seeing students beginning at 10 a.m. and throughout the day at the same location. Overrides will be available from Professor Stitt at the time of your interview. (Stitt)

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (HU).

Course description available in August from 7607 Haven Hall.

431. The English Novel from Dickens to Conrad. (3). (HU).

We will read seven major Victorian novels: David Copperfield, Barchester Towers, Our Mutual Friend, Middlemarch, The Princess Casamassima, The Mayor of Casterbridge, and The Secret Agent. Our aim will be to enjoy these great works of fiction, to analyse the themes and values with which they are concerned, and to learn from them. We will pay particular attention to such themes as reform, social and personal responsibility, and the artist as social critic. In our work with these novels we will use all the tools of analysis that we can, in order to understand them and articulate our understanding. We will not, however, concern ourselves with critical theory; this is a literature course. Hard work (the reading load is about 4,000 pages), serious thinking, intelligent discussion are expected. There will be three papers, daily scribbles, and a final exam. Optional free discussion meetings will be held at my home on Tuesdays. (Hornback)

432. The American Novel. (3). (HU).

Must have elected Introductory Composition; intended primarily for juniors and seniors. A prerequisite for admission is the prior successful completion of at least two 200-, 300-, or 400-level English courses or the equivalent. This course is intended to reveal the growth of the American novel through a study of major works of some of its foremost artists: Hawthorne, Melville, Twain, Dreiser, Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, and Ellison. We will read The Scarlet Letter, Moby Dick, Huckleberry Finn, Sister Carrie, Winesburg, Ohio, The Sun Also Rises, The Great Gatsby, Light in August, and Invisible Man. One of the aims of the course will be to trace recurrent themes in the American experience as they are treated in fiction. The instructor will present background material on the author and the work to provide an additional basis for class discussion and analysis of the works and issues raised by them. There will be three one-hour tests and an optional term paper. (Blotner)

433. The Modern Novel. (3). (HU).

The class will study some of the major novels written in England, America, and on the continent during the past 100 years. We shall begin with Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov and try to understand the major breakthrough that the author made in fiction and the impact he was to have on future novels and modern thought. The class will then examine the nightmare world of Kafka's The Trial and the psychic eroticism of Lawrence's Women in Love. We shall spend a number of weeks on Joyce's Ulysses, trying to understand the full dimension of the work and its relations both to the history of the novel and twentieth century civilization. Sartre's Nausea will lead us to problems concerning existence and action, and Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! will force us to confront our own American dilemma, while allowing us to make a final assessment of the variability and possibilities of the modern novel. The course will proceed as a series of discussions between students and the instructor, except when brief lectures are necessary to clarify difficult points, give background information or simply prod conversation. Each student will be required to write two short papers as well as midterm and final examination. (Konigsberg)

434. The Contemporary Novel. (3). (HU).

A reading and discussion of fiction since 1945, probably including one novel each by writers such as Sartre, Camus, Beckett, Robbe-Grillet, Grass, Barth, Bellow, Heller, Iris Murdock, Doris Lessing, Angus Wilson, Fowles, Updike, Pynchon, and Mailer. Perhaps not all of these will be included - or students will have options. General method is the interruptible lecture, as well as discussion. Two papers, a midterm, and a final. (Gindin)

440. Modern Poetry. (3). (HU).

We shall read the work of selected British and American poets of the first half of the century: Hardy, Yeats, Frost, Stevens, Eliot, Pound, Williams, and others. Most of our attention will go to ten or twelve poets, and one poet's career will be studied in depth. The objective of the course is a sympathetic understanding and enjoyment of the individual poems, but we will also consider some of the ideas, events, and historical developments that helped to give modern poetry its distinct character. Lecture-discussion. Two short papers and one long paper; midterm and a final examination. (Goldstein)

442. History of Poetry. (3). (HU).

In this course we will read a substantial amount of poetry by most of the major makers of the short poem in English from the early Renaissance roughly to the present. Take the definition of the short poem as elastic, and as encompassing the four lines of 'O Western Wind' as well as longish poems like 'Lycidas,' 'The Rape of the Lock,' and 'Sunday Morning.' The aim of the course is pleasure, broadly construed. The informing principle is that poetry gives the highest pleasure. If you endorse this principle, you are a good candidate for the course. It might be useful were you to have had 240 or a comparable introduction. Anyway, you ought to show some conversance with poetry. The course will differ from 240 (as I teach it) in that progression will be chronological. By the end of the term you should have a pretty fair knowledge of lyric poetry in English from its beginnings. I will teach from the open book no formal lectures and will encourage and in fact insist on give and take between me and the class. We will use the five volume Auden-Pearson Poets of the English Language, and possibly the shorter Norton anthology for the modern period. There will be probably two short papers, a midterm and a final. The tests will be like the papers: essays in criticism. (Fraser)

443/Theatre 421. History of Theatre: I. (4). (HU).

This is primarily a course in the art of the theatre rather than a course in drama. A play as realized in the theatre represents the playwright's feelings and ideas given form through an actor in an environment enhanced by scenery, lighting, and costume designers under the creative eye of a director. Thus, the focus is not just on the play itself but also on the audience, the theatre architecture, the conventions of scenery and costuming, and approaches to acting. These aspects of theatre are all examined from the time of the Greeks to 1700 in an attempt to relate the plays to their theatrical environment. After ancient Greece, the class studies the theatres of Rome, the Middle Ages, Renaissance Italy, the Golden Age of Spain, Elizabethan and Restoration England, and 17th century France. The class notes the influence of previous ages and distinct characteristics of the new age. There are three one hour examinations, a final examination, and a research paper. (Bender)

447. Modern Drama. (3). (HU).

A course covering European drama between the final decades of the nineteenth century and the second World War. We will read plays by the following dramatists: Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, Synge, Shaw, Pirandello, Brecht, and playwrights of the French avant-garde. We will explore a number of issues: the play of ideas; the impact on drama of different theories of the theatre and theories of acting; modes of addressing (or confronting) the audience; the tension between naturalism and more stylized modes such as the dream play, opera, and the play-within-a-play; dramatic responses to World War I and collapse of values; modern conceptions of the self and its masks. More broadly, our study will trace the development of new dramatic forms as these dramatists make unprecedented and often impassioned use of the stage to address social, psychological, and metaphysical questions. Lectures will be combined with the discussion; participation in the course will include a reading journal, one paper, and a final exam. (Garner)

465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. (3). (HU).

We will read most of the Canterbury Tales and some of Chaucer's other work. Class time will be largely devoted to discussion of these texts, which will of course be read in Chaucer's Middle English. There will be a final examination at the scheduled time. Undergraduates will do two or three shorter papers and graduate students will write one longer paper. The Canterbury Tales are, among other things, a dramatic anthology of various literary types. So, as an anthology, they point rather precisely out from Chaucer into late medieval literature, and as drama they point to the social life of 14th century England. It will be an important effort in the course to keep these two contexts actively in mind, while we keep the poem in central focus. (Lenaghan)

471. Nineteenth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (HU).

This course will survey nineteenth century American fiction, non-fiction, and poetry, examining closely the individual texts as well as their relation to cultural and literary traditions at large. Readings will include Emerson's essays, Thoreau's Walden, stories by Poe and Hawthorne, Melville's Moby Dick, poetry by Whitman and Dickinson, and, lastly, The Education of Henry Adams. Requirements: attendance, one short essay, a longer term paper, and a final exam. (Larson)

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (HU).

This course in American literature of the twentieth century will focus on significant technical developments in fiction and drama. The writers included are important, fascinating, and challenging. While their work is interesting in technique, what they have to say about the human condition is also well worth our careful attention. We will read eight novels: James' The Awkward Age, Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio, Hemingway's In Our Time, Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, O'Connors' Wise Blood, Baldwin's Another Country, Laurence's The Diviners, and Wilder's Theophilus North; and two plays O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra and Miller's Death of a Salesman. The conduct of the course will depend on introductory lectures and as much discussion as possible. There will be two or three short exercises and a more substantial term paper. There may be a final examination. (Powers)

478/CAAS 476. Contemporary Afroamerican Literature. (3). (HU).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 476. (G. Jones)

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 James Joyce and Joseph Conrad.
James Joyce and Joseph Conrad will be viewed primarily as great pioneers of modernism in the novel. The class will examine the various ways in which their treatment of character and society, the form and style of their novels, and their major thematic preoccupations have contributed to the distinctive approaches of novelists in the modern age. Joyce and Conrad, along with Flaubert, Dostoevskii, and Henry James, provided the formal foundations as well as the ideological premises on which the modern novel has been created. A study of their work is, therefore, a valuable preparation for further studies in 20th century literature. Texts will include some of the major works of the two authors, including Conrad's Lord Jim and Joyce's Ulysses. Two papers will be required. (Aldridge)

Section 002 George Orwell. Blotting out the current MediaGaggle debate over how conditions described in 1984 have or have not - come true in WesternCiv, we will examine Orwell's work as literature rather than as PoliProphecy. This includes Burmese Days, Down and Out in London and Paris, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Coming Up for Air, Road to Wigan Pier, Homage to Catalonia, Animal Farm, and his fine essays, political and literary. Our approach to 1984 will be by way of other utopia-dystopia writers More, Bellamy, Huxley, and Zamyatin. Midterm, final papers. (Eby)

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit if different works are studied.
Section 002 D.H. Lawrence.
A study of some of the major works of D.H. Lawrence including some of his novels (Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love, Aaron's Rod perhaps another, if time), some essays, and some poetry. One paper, no exams. (Gindin)

489/Educ. D 440 (School of Education). Teaching of English. Engl. 305 is prerequisite, and concurrent election of Educ. D 592 is required. (3). (HU).
Section 063.
Reserved for Professional Semester participants. See description at beginning of English Department listings. (Howes)

493. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Poetry. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

We will study three successive generations of 19th century poets first Coleridge and Wordsworth; then Keats, Shelley, and Byron; and finally Browning, Tennyson, and Arnold. We will read widely in the major poetry and related prose of those writers, but focus on a smaller number of works. Students should emerge with a deepened appreciation of individual poems and authors, and with a sense of the development of 19th century poetry and of the nature of poetic influence. Primarily for seniors in the Honors program; one short essay or midterm; a longer essay and a final exam. Texts will be David Perkins' English Romantic Writers and Buckley/Woods' Poetry of the Victorian Period. Lecture and discussion. (Ellison)

494. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Fiction. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

We will read a number of classic nineteenth century English novels, and consider them from various points of view thematic, stylistic, literary, historical. But we will focus most of our attention on two questions central to the fiction of this period: what does it mean, for both writer and character, to be related to a community? and how does repression serve the interests of those who devote themselves to it? Novels by Charlotte Brontë, Dickens, George Eliot, Thackeray, Gissing, Hardy; and Richard Sennett's The Fall of Public Man. Two papers, final. (Kucich)

Environmental Studies Courses (Division 366)

The Environmental Studies Program is designed to complement a student's training in a particular discipline. It is not a concentration program although it is possible for a student to work out the equivalent of a major in environmental studies through the College's Individual Concentration Program. Interested students may contact Professor Stephen Kaplan, Director, 3418 Mason Hall (764-0426). The Environmental Studies Program currently consists of several environmental studies courses, providing three different levels of educational experience, plus a number of regular departmental courses cross-listed as Environmental Studies courses.

The first course level within the program consists of Environmental Studies 320. This lecture/discussion course is not so much concerned with particular environmental problems and solutions but instead is designed to provide an understanding of why such problems exist and what contributions the several disciplines can make toward the solution of the complex issues which these problems raise. It thus provides a rational view of the environmental concerns of the day. Environmental Studies 320 is not generally recommended to Freshmen.

The second level of courses in the program provides a variety of perspectives from which to view and analyze areas of environmental concern. The exact nature of the courses offered on this level depends upon the individual or group of individuals teaching each course, and the topics vary from term to term.

The third level of course work includes Environmental Studies 420 and 421 and is designed to provide the student, who has acquired a sound background in environmental studies through course work from the two lower levels of courses and through work in other departments and schools, with an opportunity to study, a particular environmental issue. It is the responsibility of the student to consider carefully a plan of study, to find others who might wish to work with him or her, and to attempt to find a faculty member to supervise the work.

320. Introduction to Environmental Studies. (4). (Excl).

This course does not focus on specific environmental problems, but instead emphasizes the basics that underlie such problems. It provides a broad, systematic introduction to this area, and students from diverse backgrounds are welcome. The course is organized around a series of lectures presented by faculty from many different departments and schools. Issues raised by these diverse lectures are discussed in the section meetings. Students are expected to prepare reading logs containing critical comments on course related material selected from the library. The course surveys the contributions made by various disciplines toward an understanding of the environment and its problems. Thus there is a consideration of earth, air, fire and water; plants and animals; and of humans and human institutions. Man is not an isolated phenomenon. He is a member of that larger class of living things that gradually emerged out of the chemistry of the earth, and man is still tied to and reflects that origin. Man has appeared rather recently on the evolutionary scene and has intimate ties not only with the earth but also with other organisms that share his environment. He, like other animals, depends on plants for his very existence and is dependent on other animals in many ways. He even achieves some insight into his own nature by observing the way other animals behave. Yet he has developed new forms of organization and technology that have brought him problems never before faced by an organism on earth. (Eschman)

349/Geol. 282. Environmental Geology. (3). (NS).

See Geological Sciences 282. (Dorr)

350/Geol. 281. Environmental Geology. (4). (NS).

See Geological Sciences 281. (Dorr)

355/Psych. 476. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

See Psychology 476. (S. Kaplan)

Far Eastern Languages and Literatures

Courses in Buddhist Studies (Division 332)

320(Chinese 320/Japanese 320)/Asian Studies 320/Phil. 335/Rel. 320. Introduction to Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 220 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to introduce the student to the basic doctrinal conceptions of Buddhism in their historical evolution. The history of Buddhist ideas and practices will be presented primarily through the critical analysis of Buddhist scriptures (in English translation). The main topics to be discussed are: the life of the Buddha, the Early Community, the nature of Buddhist meditation, the development of sectarian and scholastic movements, and the spread of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. No previous knowledge of the subject is required, although Religion 202 (Buddhist Studies 220) or the equivalent is recommended as background for this course. (Gomez, Staff)

Courses in Chinese (Division 339)

101 Beginning Chinese. (5). (FL).

This is the first half of an introductory course in speaking, understanding, reading, and writing standard Mandarin Chinese. The course begins with intensive pronunciation drill accompanied by presentation of the pinyin romanization system. From the second week of the term, classroom lessons are aimed toward achieving a mastery of basic patterns of the spoken language and developing a gradual accumulation of basic vocabulary. Chinese characters are introduced in the seventh week of the term with increasing amounts of time outside the classroom devoted to preparation of readings. The texts for the course are DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese and DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese Reader. The entire class meets two hours each week for lecture, discussion, and a limited amount of drill; the class is then divided into smaller drill sections each of which meets three hours a week. Students are expected to make full use of the large quantity of material on tape in the Language Laboratory (2003 Modern Language Building). (Tao)

201 Second-Year Chinese. Chinese 102 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

This course is a continuation of work begun in Chinese 101-102. Students electing the course should have mastered the spoken language material presented in DeFrancis' Beginning Chinese or a similar introductory text and should be able to recognize and write about 400 characters and 1200 combinations. The primary goal of the course is achievement of a basic level of reading competence within a vocabulary of 800 characters and accompanying combinations. A closely integrated secondary goal is continued improvement of aural understanding and speaking competence. These goals are approached through classroom drill and recitation, out-of-class exercises, and work in the language laboratory. Daily class attendance is required. Students are graded on the basis of daily classroom performance, periodic quizzes and tests, homework assignments, and a final exam. The texts, both by DeFrancis, are Intermediate Chinese Reader, Parts I and II, and Intermediate Chinese. (Ma)

378. Advanced Spoken Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

This course is designed as a spoken language supplement to the post-second year Chinese reading courses. The prerequisite is two years of modern Chinese (UM courses 101 through 202, or equivalent courses at another institution), and students enrolled in the course should also be enrolled in a third year, fourth year, or classical Chinese course. The purpose of the course is to continue building on the foundation of spoken competence laid down in first and second year Chinese. This is done through classroom drill and conversation, presentation of brief speeches and stories, discussion of materials read and of fellow students' presentations, and through out-of-class preparation for these activities, including required use of the language laboratory. Though some attention is paid to character writing, the emphasis is very strongly on the aural-oral skills (supported by thorough control of the pinyin romanization system), and it is on the development of these aural-oral skills that the student is graded. The required text for the course is DeFrancis, Advanced Chinese. Character Text for Advanced Chinese is also suggested, and a limited amount of other materials may be introduced in class. (Ma)

451 Literary Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (4). (HU).

This is a course for specialists, requiring knowledge of modern Chinese at least through the Second Year level. Using Shadick's A First Course in Literary Chinese as a text, supplemented with locally prepared handouts, we treat selectively the styles of Chinese (poetry as well as prose) that were written in traditional times, from the Chou classical age into the Ch'ing dynasty. Classes are in small recitation groups, requiring steady application measured in weekly tests and regular hand-in exercises, and a two-hour final exam. Emphasis is always given understanding, and rendering clearly into English. The course is the first half of a two-term sequence that is prerequisite to more advanced Chinese courses. (Crump)

468/Phil. 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220) Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

See Philosophy 468. (Munro)

471. Classical Chinese Literature in Translation. No knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

A general survey of the highlights of early Chinese literature in English translation from the earliest times to the 13th century. We will begin with a brief look at China's unique world view (as presented in the ancient I Ching or The Book of Changes), which contrasts sharply with virtually all other world conceptions, and then extends to the various forms of poetry, fiction, and philosophical and historical prose. The principal aim is to enable students to become familiar with those masterpieces of literature that illustrate the range and depth of the Chinese imagination, the inner life of the individual as well as the outer social and political life of China through the centuries. Classes consist of a series of "mini-lectures" introducing the background and contexts, and of in-depth discussions of particular works. There will be two brief papers and a final exam. Sample readings include Cyril Birch, ed., Anthology of Chinese Literature, Vol. I; D.C. Lau, tr., Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching; Lin Yutang, ed., The Wisdom of China and India; A.C. Graham, tr., Poems of the Late T'ang; Burton Watson, tr., The Basic Writings of Chuang Tzu; Burton Watson, Chinese Lyricism; and other materials in a Course Pack. (Lin)

Courses in Japanese (Division 401)

101 Beginning Japanese. (5). (FL).

The course aims at the acquisition of four basic language skills reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension in Japanese. The emphasis is on thorough mastery of the fundamental structure of Japanese through aural-oral exercises and practice to the extent that fluency in both spoken and written Japanese is achieved. In Term I (Fall) the basic rules of the Japanese writing system are presented. Hiragana is used from the very beginning and later Katakana and 70 Kanji are introduced. In Term II (Winter) an additional 130 Kanji are introduced. It is highly recommended that students make use of the taped exercises daily in the Language Laboratory or at home with the aid of the textbook. Student's grade will be based on: 1) attendance; 2) performance in the classroom and on homework; and 3) results of quizzes, tests, and a final examination. (Endo)

201 Second-Year Japanese. Japanese 102 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Designed for students who have finished an introductory text, the course will help students acquire more proficiency in modern Japanese. Although increasing emphasis will be given to reading and writing, listening and speaking will constitute an integral part of the course, and the course will be conducted primarily in Japanese. Approximately 500 (cumulative) kanji will be introduced in Japanese 201 and 800 (cumulative) in Japanese 202. The dialog section of each lesson will help students learn important styles of spoken Japanese in various social and cultural contexts. Evaluation will be based on quizzes, tests, exams and daily performance as well. (Kato)

401. Japanese Literature in Translation: Classical Periods to 1600. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (HU).

A survey of Japanese literature from the eighth century through the sixteenth. All assigned readings are in English translation, and no previous knowledge of Japan or the Japanese language is required. Special attention is given to the greatest works of the pre-modern Japanese literary tradition, including the Man'yoshu (ca.759), the first great anthology of native poetry; The Tale of Genji, the great psychological novel of court life from the early eleventh century; diaries and essays from the Heian period (ca.800-1200); selections from the epic war tales of the thirteenth century; and some of the great noh plays of the 14th and 15th centuries. This course, together with Japanese 402, its sequel, are recommended to all students with a general interest in Japanese culture and civilization. Classes are primarily devoted to lectures, with occasional discussion periods and ample opportunity for questions from students. There are a midterm examination and a final examination, emphasizing essay questions. Also one short paper of some 10 to 15 pages is required. Students are graded on the basis of this written work, together with their class attendance and participation in discussions. In addition to a course pack, required texts include: D. Keene, ed., Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Nineteenth Century; E.G. Seidensticker, trans., The Tale of Genji; and D. Keene, trans., Yoshida Kenko's Essays in Idleness. The course is required for concentrators in Japanese.

405 Third-Year Japanese. Japanese 202 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

The course aims at further development of overall language proficiency through reading of modern texts in various fields, discussion and composition. Classes will be mostly conducted in Japanese, and drills and homework assignments will be aimed at improving the students' command of grammar and more advanced vocabulary as well as developing translation techniques. The students will be given assignments to translate some pages of Japanese writings that are in the students' fields of specialization.

407 Advanced Readings in Modern Japanese Literature. Japanese 406 or concurrent enrollment in Japanese 406. (4). (HU).

Through close readings of works in a variety of styles in modern Japanese literature, the course aims to facilitate the student's progress in reading Japanese, to move beyond the level of deciphering and to help the student increase both his speed and accuracy of reading. The emphasis of the course is on close translation, in class, of the Japanese text. The course will also teach the student how to use dictionaries and other basic research aids effectively, and will help him begin to develop some critical sensitivity to Japanese literature.

461. Social Science Readings in Japanese. Japanese 406. (4 each). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This is a course designed to give the students who have completed three years of the Japanese language studies the opportunity to read the Japanese writing in various disciplines of social science. In the sense that Japanese 405-406 or Japanese 411 are prerequisite to this course, it is a part of the departmental sequence. The grades for the course are determined by means of two examinations and a paper which is usually the refined translation of a part of the students' readings for the term. The reading texts are chosen according to the students' needs and specialization. It is a reading course. (Kato)

541 Classical Japanese. Japanese 406 and 408, or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

An introduction to the classical written language, with emphasis upon grammar, syntax, and various classical written styles. A reading knowledge of modern Japanese (equivalent to at least three years of study) is a prerequisite. Class meetings are devoted to reading, translating from Japanese into English, the grammatical analysis and drill. A selection of literary works from the tenth through the sixteenth centuries are read, with stress on accurate translation, close analysis of grammatical structure, and careful attention to literary qualities. Materials which include the Hojoki (Record of My Hut) of Kamo no Chomei (1155-1216) and selections from the thirteenth-century war tale Heike Monogatari (Tale of the House of Taira). This course is required of graduate concentrators in Japanese and is a prerequisite (with Japanese 542) to advanced work in pre-modern Japanese literature. It is also highly recommended to graduate students of pre-modern Japanese history, Japanese art history, etc. It may also be taken by undergraduates with sufficient advanced preparation in the modern language.

553. Classical Japanese Poetry. Japanese 542. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

An introduction to the Japanese classical poetic tradition through reading and analysis of representative Japanese verse from the seventh century A.D. through the 14th. A working knowledge of classical Japanese (equivalent to Japanese 541 and 542) is a prerequisite. Readings of individual poems and poetic literature are combined with oral reports, written work (equivalent to one long seminar paper), and occasional lectures by the instructor. Works covered include the great poetry anthologies, Man'yoshu (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves, ca.759), Kokinshu (Collection of Ancient and Modern Times, ca. 1205). Other anthologies, individual collections, and critical works are also consulted. The course may be elected repeatedly for credit by the same students, in which case materials not previously studied are used. Recommended not only for graduate concentrators in Japanese, but also for students of pre-modern Japanese history, art history, Buddhism, etc. The approach is essentially analytical and practical, representing the application of Western techniques of analytical criticism to Japanese materials. (Brower)

554. Modern Japanese Literature. Japanese 406 and 408; or permission of instructor. (3 each). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course is a graduate seminar in the rise of the modern Japanese novel. Students will be expected to do all reading in the original Japanese, to present seminar reports, and to write a final paper. Readings will include landmark works by major writers of the Meiji-Taisho periods. (Danly)

Courses in Film and Video Studies (Division 368)

200. Introduction to Film Techniques. (2). (HU).

This course is required for concentrators in the Program in Film and Video Studies and is designed to give students a basic intellectual understanding of film techniques and how they are used to create individual works of film art. Techniques demonstrated and discussed include lighting, lighting effects, cameras, lenses and lens effects, color, film stocks and processing effects, camera angles, special effects and sound. On the completion of this course students should have the necessary technical knowledge for aesthetic analysis of film. The structure of the course is a combination of lecture, discussion, live technical demonstration, and slides specially created for the course. There will be pertinent assigned readings, three short projects, and a final examination. (Tyman)

236/Hist. of Art 236. The Art of the Film. (4). (HU). A fee is assessed to help defray the costs of film rentals.

This course examines through lectures, demonstrations, and discussions the psychological dramatic effects of various film elements (e.g., camera movement, editing, acting, sound, and special effects). Each week we view two films which make outstanding use of one of these basic techniques. The technological and artistic history of film from its beginning through the early years of sound is also emphasized. During the recitations we discuss the meaning of the week's films as well as the techniques employed. We also write five short exercises, a ten-page analysis of a current movie, and a final exam. A lab fee is assessed to help pay for film rentals. (Cohen)

399. Independent Study. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Directed research under supervision of a faculty member associated with the Program in Film/Video Studies. For more information, contact the Film and Video Studies Office (764-0417).

Other Film-Video Courses. The following are offered during Winter Term, 1984, and are among those which can be used as part of a concentration plan in Film-Video Studies. For more information about these courses consult this Guide : Communications 521, History of the Motion Picture; English 411, Art of the Film; English 413, Studies in Film Genre; French 410, Le cinema francais; RC Humanities 457, Production Seminar: Fiction, Fantasy, Fairy Tale; Slavic Languages and Literature 312/RC Humanities 312, Soviet and East European Cinema.

Courses in Geography (Division 374)

101. Introduction to Geography. (4). (SS).

This course introduces modern geography to students who have no previous knowledge of the subject and demonstrates how a geographic point of view can enhance an understanding of world regions and environments as well as the implementation of successful urban and regional planning. To do this, social and physical systems and the interaction between them are discussed in terms of their spatial attributes. The course thus defines geography as the study of human-environment systems from the viewpoint of spatial relationships and spatial processes. Lectures begin with a consideration of the city and introduce students to increasingly complex spatial models which represent geography's special contribution to the social and physical sciences. The basic premise is that the spatial insights provided apply not only cross-culturally to human systems, but also, with appropriate modifications, to those in nature. The course analyzes how human and natural systems in combination create geographic regions which sustain humankind. Two one-hour examinations plus a final; three lectures and one recitation section each week. (Kolars)

201/Geology 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Man. (4). (NS).

See Geological Sciences 201. (Outcalt)

381. Elementary Cartography. (4). (SS).

Maps organize, record and present uniquely information about our earth, its history, its people, its resources, its cultural and physical features and distributions of varied geographical phenomena around us. We encounter maps in many forms as city maps, road maps, weather maps, wall maps and atlases. We use maps as planners, historians, engineers, teachers, researchers or as travelers in our daily lives. Maps contribute to a wealth of information about the environment in which we live and the world around us. Geography 381 is an introduction to the mapping process, with particular emphasis on the techniques of map design to display spatial data, map drawing, map reproduction and map use. Students will obtain a basic understanding of the processes and problems involved in map making and develop basic skills to design, draw and produce a map. The course consists of two one-hour lectures and two, two-hour laboratories each week. Students will be expected to spend some time outside regular laboratory periods for completing projects. Elements of Cartography by Robinson, Sale, and Morrison will constitute the main text supplemented by additional reading assignments. The course grade will be based on two midterms, one final, and the laboratory exercises. (Aggarwala).

420. Geographic Basis of Southeast Asian Society. (3). (SS).

This course examines the basic physical conditions in Southeast Asia in which man has developed his various life patterns. The variety of ethno-linguistic groups and their distribution is discussed, with particular attention to the Indian and Chinese minorities. The development of the major religions in the region is considered with particular attention to the economic and social impact of Islam and Buddhism, as well as a discussion of indigenous religions such as Cao Dai and others. The formation of national states, their economic and political viability, are covered, with emphasis on the problems faced in the process of "decolonization." Grading is based on two to three examinations, one of which is optional. Reading is moderate. (Gosling)

432/Urban Planning 432. World Food Systems. (3). (SS).

The emphasis of the course is on the relationship between nutrition needs, food production and distribution, and national and international food policies. The geography of rural land use and the means of appraisal and use of the environment by different cultures are presented. Social, economic and technological aspects of food supply in developed and underdeveloped countries are analyzed in a search for pragmatic and operational ways to improve the world food situation. The role of U.S. agriculture is considered in national and international perspective. The course is designed for geographers, planners, public policy students, and those concerned with the interplay between environmental processes and human organization in creating and allocating the world food supply. The course grade is determined by performance on graded exercises, term paper, midterm and final exams. (Nystuen)

433/Urban Planning 433. Urban Geography. (3). (SS).

Geographical factors affecting location, organization, and functioning of cities. Both internal arrangement and external connections of cities are analyzed with major emphasis on intra-city relationships. (Nystuen)

Courses in Geological Sciences (Division 377)

A. Introductory Courses and Courses for Non-concentrators

G.S. 100 114 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Time Schedule for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Time Schedule. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. G.S. 100-114 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

100. Coral Reefs. (1). (NS).

Coral Reefs will be an in-depth tour of the biological and physical processes active in modern reef systems to provide a detailed understanding of the ecology of the individual organisms and the complex nature of their interactions within the reef community. Evolution of the reef community will be examined, ranging from the crude framework structures formed over one billion years ago by primitive algae to the luxuriant and diversified reefs of the modern-day oceans, to define the evolutionary strategies of reef building organisms. By tracking these evolutionary strategies through geologic time, the implications of man's intervention with the Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere on the character of future reef communities will be considered. (Lohmann)

102. Energy from the Earth. (1). (NS).

A survey of the principal non-nuclear energy resources of the earth: oil (petroleum), natural gas, coal, tar sands, oil shale. Includes discussions of the geology of these materials, their composition and/or mineralogy, types of deposits, recovery, utilization and technology, and ecological problems. No prerequisites, except that a course in elementary chemistry (high-school or university) is highly desirable. Lectures only profusely illustrated with slides. Grade based solely on final examination. Text: Buedisili & Firebaugh (Eds.), Perspectives on Energy (3rd ed.) published by Oxford University Press, 1982. (Wilson)

103. Dinosaurs and Other Failures. (1). (NS).

This course will provide an introduction to our current understanding of dinosaurs and certain other reptilian groups of the Mesozoic Era. It is intended for students with an interest in geology, paleontology, or evolution, but does not require prior training in these fields. The course will deal with broad features of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, methods of reconstructing dinosaur behavior and ecology, new developments in our interpretation of the biology of dinosaurs, and possible causes for the extinction of dinosaurs. There will be two lectures each week and a single exam at the end of the course. (Fisher)

104. Ice Ages, Past and Future. (1). (NS).

This course looks at the effects of past glaciations on the landscape and on life, man in particular. Concurrent climatic and paleogeographic changes, both in continental and oceanic realms, are also reviewed. The causes of the ice ages that have dominated the Earth for the past two million years and predictions of future ice ages based on current geological research are examined. The course consists of lectures and one (final) exam. (Farrand)

105. Continents Adrift. (1). (NS).

The seemingly stable land masses of the world are actually in motion. Continental collisions and fragmentation, formation of new ocean floor, and specific patterns of earthquakes and volcanoes are some of the events caused by earth motions. This course presents the modern view of plate tectonics and continental drift, their suspected causes, and the predictable consequences of such a dynamic system. (Bogen)

107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. (1). (NS).

The course is a study of the earth in action and includes the following topics: geography of earthquakes and volcanoes; catastrophic events in historic times; size and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; the products of volcanism; volcanic rocks; volcanic activity through geologic time; volcanic exhalations and the evolution of the earth's atmosphere and oceans; relationship of earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics and the internal dynamics of the earth; volcanism on other planets; volcanism and geothermal energy; manmade earthquakes; and earthquake prediction and control. Instruction by lecture, evaluation on basis of final exam. (Pollack)

108. Minerals in the Modern World. (1). (NS).

Lectures provide insights into the character, distribution, utilization, economics, politics, and deleterious side effects of mineral resources. The geology, including how a resource occurs, how it originates, and how much exists receive the most emphasis. The course centers around metals, such as iron, aluminum, and copper, essential to modern industrial society, fertilizers, and water, rather than energy, which is covered in Geological Sciences 102. Current events related to minerals and national or international affairs are always incorporated as they arise. Grading will be based on one half hour exam and a one hour final. Texts: Kesler, Our Finite Material Resources, McGraw-Hill, 1976; G.S. Course Pack, Dollar Bill Copying. (Cloke)

112. Nuclear and Other Future Energy Resources. (1). (NS).

A survey of the geology, mineralogy, present and future developments, and ecological implications of nuclear energy, fusion, tar sands, and oil shales. (Cloke)

117. Introduction to Geology. Credit is not granted for G.S. 117 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology. (5). (NS).

This course provides a one term, introductory level survey of the field of geology. No previous science background is assumed. The general themes of Geology 117 are the evolution of the earth, and life on earth, and the processes responsible for the observed changes. Emphasis is on historical geology, but physical geology is introduced briefly early in the course. The course provides the essential educational background for a greater appreciation of the geological world. There are three lectures and one discussion session each week and an auto tutorial laboratory. The laboratory is open about 25 hours per week, and students may come in at any time it is open. Approximately three to four hours each week are required to complete the laboratory work. Course evaluation is based on two lecture examinations, discussion section quizzes on reading assignments, a final examination, and several short laboratory quizzes, and graded assignments. This course may be elected, without the laboratory, as Geological Sciences 119. (Dorr)

119. Introductory Geology Lectures. Credit is not granted for G.S. 119 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology. (4). (NS).

This course consists of Geology 117 without the laboratory. There are three lectures and one discussion per week. Course evaluation is based upon two lecture examinations, a final examination, and short weekly quizzes in discussion sections. See Geology 117 for the description. (Dorr)

121(111). Physical Geology. Credit is not granted for G.S. 121 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology. (4). (NS).

This course emphasizes the physical and chemical processes that affect the earth. It first considers the minerals and rocks which make up the planet and the many processes which break them down and through erosion, transportation, and deposition both continually change the earth's surface and create new rocks. Then the major processes that act internally to form mountain chains and new ocean basins and to move the relatively few large plates which comprise the earth's surface are brought together through the hypothesis of plate tectonics. The course ends with a short survey of the mineral and energy resources of the earth. The format consists of three illustrated lectures, a three-hour laboratory session utilizing exercises designed to supplement the information from the lectures and text, and a one-hour discussion section each week. An optional field trip is held in the middle of the term. Evaluation is based on class examinations and laboratory performance. The course presumes no prior knowledge of the geological sciences. (Farrand)

122. Introduction to Physical Geology. Credit is not granted for G.S. 122 to those with credit for an introductory course in geology. (3). (NS).

This course consists of the three weekly lectures associated with Geology 121 plus a one-hour discussion each week designed to help the student integrate and clarify the material covered in the lectures and text. See the Geology 121 description for further details about the material covered. There will be one optional field trip about midway through the course. Evaluation of the student will be primarily based on the individual's exam grades and participation in the discussion section. The course presumes no prior knowledge of the geological sciences. (Farrand)

201/Geography 201. Introductory Geography: Water, Climate, and Man. (4). (NS).

This course is a basic introduction to the field of physical geography and emphasizes various topics including maps, seasons, time, the atmosphere, radiation and heat balance, circulation, moisture and precipitation, air masses (fronts), and water supply. Students also study ground and surface water, climate classification, hot climates, transitional climates, cold climates, permafrost and changes in climate (glaciers). Students in this lecture-laboratory course are evaluated by midterm and final examinations with satisfactory completion of the laboratory work a prerequisite to this final course evaluation. The text is Strahler, Introduction to Physical Geography while the laboratory workbook is Strahler, Exercises in Physical Geography. (Outcalt)

281/Environ. Studies 350. Environmental Geology. (4). (NS).

Because of the absence of course prerequisites, an effort is made to introduce essential geologic material either through lectures or text readings or both before the course moves on to a consideration of environmental concerns. A special effort is made to limit the coverage of geology to those elements which are of particular significance in a discussion of man's physical environment. Since the general course emphasis is on environmental geologic topics, discussion of other environmental issues is generally avoided unless these issues are at least peripherally related to geology. Course topics include rocks and minerals of economic importance; surface and ground water; the origin, distribution, and nature of soils; metallic and nonmetallic ore deposits; the environmental aspects of the action of streams, winds, rivers, glaciers, and shoreline processes; mass movement such as landslides and similar processes; and construction problems involving geological subjects. Although questions are encouraged, the course is not intended to provide an opportunity for extensive, seminar-type discussion. Attendance and participation in lectures and examinations are required. There are three hours of lecture each week. One term exam and a final examination are required. The examinations are noncumulative. The text is Keller's Environmental Geology. The discussion sections meet for one hour each week, but an additional hour of work each week may be required during the latter half of the term. The discussion sections are devoted to group project work leading to a final oral presentation focusing on geologic environmental problems of towns and adjacent areas in the vicinity of Ann Arbor. This course cannot be used as part of a concentration plan in geology and mineralogy. (Dorr)

282/Environ. Studies 349. Environmental Geology. (3). (NS).

This course consists of the lecture portion only of Geology 281/Environmental Studies 350. (See description for Geology 281.) Students who elect this course do not complete the group project study of the environmental geology of an area. Lecture, reading, and examinations are the same. (Dorr)

417/A&OS 417. Geology of the Great Lakes. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This is a course that presents the general physical science and geology of the world's largest freshwater system, the North American Great Lakes. Topics to be covered include introductions to lake circulation and sedimentology, the relevant aspects of the North American glaciations, the sediments and geologic history of each lake, and a section on the various research efforts now being conducted on various Great Lakes topics, including pollution. This course is intended for those persons, especially aquatic scientists, with only a limited background in geology (introductory physical geology or permission of instructor) but who are interested in learning about the physical and chemical aspects of natural freshwater systems. Evaluation will be based upon a midterm and final exam and a short term paper. (Rea)

231. Elements of Mineralogy. Prior or concurrent enrollment in the first term of elementary inorganic chemistry. (4). (NS).

This course is a comprehensive introduction to the nature, properties, structures, and modes of occurrence of minerals. The first three-fourths of the course (three lectures per week) considers the general features of minerals and includes topics such as introductory crystallography, crystal chemistry, and introductory phase equilibria. During the last portion of the course, the principal rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, proxenes, and olivines are individually reviewed with respect to properties, structures, genesis, and other characteristics. The laboratory (one three-hour laboratory each week) is divided into three sections: (1) three weeks of morphological crystallography plus x-ray diffraction, (2) six weeks of systematic mineralogy during which students become familiar with the properties and associations of approximately seventy-five significant minerals, and (3) four weeks of introduction to the use of the polarizing microscope as applied to both crushed mineral fragments and rock thin sections. There is one required field trip. Optical mineralogy is covered in a separate recitation. Geology 231 is a prerequisite to the professional concentration program in the Dept of Geological Sciences. (Peacor)

305. Sedimentary Geology. An introductory geological sciences laboratory course; or permission of the instructor. (4). (NS).

Geological Sciences 305 is one of several geology core courses, required of all concentrators in the Department of Geological Sciences. The rigorous course format consists of three lectures and one scheduled two-hour laboratory session each week, in addition to 4-6 hours of evening laboratory work each week that can be carried out individually at the student's own pace. In addition, four one-day field trips are required, and are scheduled from September to November during the Fall Term. The laboratory portion of the course material consists of in-depth familiarization with terrigenous clastic and non-clastic rocks, both in hand-sample and in thin-section, their fabrics, compositions, and classifications. The lecture portion of the course deals with the principles and processes of sedimentation, a survey of modern sedimentary environments, diagenesis of sedimentary rocks, and the general tectono-sedimentological evolution of the phanerozoic North American continent. Evaluation of students is based on three lecture exams, a final exam, laboratory quizzes and assignments, and field trip projects. Sedimentary Geology is intended only for the serious student of the earth sciences. (Wilkinson)

415. Introductory Economic Geology (Metals). G.S. 310, 351, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This is a survey economic geology course whose main emphasis is on gaining an understanding of how we study and describe ore deposits as well as studying specific examples of each major type. Fossil fuels and most non-metallic ore deposits are left to other courses in the department. Such a study of the processes, controls on and extent of different kinds of ore deposits will allow the student to better understand the problems in locating concentrations of natural resources as well as the technical, practical, environmental and monetary considerations that decide whether or not an elemental concentration is an ore. The course is directed toward the senior/first-year graduate student who has completed the core courses in geology and as such is an elective outside the required departmental sequence. The method of teaching will combine lecture and discussion with a one hour per week lab session which will be devoted to problem solving the first half of the term and small lab exercises the second half. There will be a midterm and final as well as a term paper on a subject of the students' choosing. No text books are required but Ore Petrology by Stanton is recommended. (Kelly)

418. Paleontology. G.S. 117 (or the equivalent), or Biol. 105 or 114. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the principles, methods of analysis, and major controversies within paleontology. It will familiarize the student with the fossil record (primarily, but not exclusively, of invertebrates) and its use in dealing with problems in evolutionary biology, paleoecology, and general earth history. Three lectures weekly and one field trip; midterm, final examination, and term paper. Required text: Raup and Stanley, Principles of Paleontology (2nd edition).

419. Paleontology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in G.S. 418. (1). (Excl).

This course is an introductory laboratory in paleontology. It will involve observation, analysis, and interpretation of fossil specimens (primarily invertebrates) and relevant material of living organisms. Its goal is to give the student experience in dealing with paleontological problems and to develop a familiarity with the systematics and morphology of important groups of fossil organisms. Students should be registered concurrently or previously in Geological Sciences 418. One three-hour lab weekly; lab quizzes, exercises, midterm, and final examination. Required text: Moore, Lalicker, and Fischer, Invertebrate Fossils.

420. Introductory Earth Physics. Math. 116. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to the physics of the solid earth. Topics included are: seismology and structure of the earth's interior; geodynamics; gravity and the figure of the earth; isostasy; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism and its implications for plate tectonics; geothermics and the thermal history of the earth. Instruction by lecture; student evaluation on the basis of weekly problem sets and two hour exams. (Ruff)

437. Evolution of Vertebrates. A course in general biology or historical geology. (4). (NS).

The course will cover the fossil evidence of the evolutionary history of the vertebrates. Lectures will describe the diversification, adaptation, and paleoecology of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds from the Cambrian to the recent. Laboratories, one three hour session per week, will be devoted to the study and identification of fossils and characteristics of the vertebrate groups. The grading system will be based on two exams and a term paper. (Smith)

448. Pleistocene Geology. An introductory geological sciences laboratory course or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This course begins with the study of glaciers, their origin and mechanics of movement, as a background to investigation of the depositional and erosional effects of glaciers on the landscape, with Michigan as a prime example. Moraines and outwash landforms and the sediments that compose them are studied in some detail. Glacial-lake shorelines and deposits and the history of the Great Lakes around Michigan are also given much emphasis. Next, phenomena characteristic of periglacial regions such as permafrost, loess and river systems are discussed, and then broad-scale phenomena such as fluctuations of sea level during glaciations and wet periods ("pluvials") in now dry parts of the Earth are reviewed. Finally the still enigmatic causes of ice ages are considered. Geology 448 is intended for students who will utilize its subject matter in their professional activities, primarily in geology, archaeology, life sciences, engineering and natural resources. It is an intensive course requiring at least one introductory course in physical geology as background including the basic skills of rock identification and topographic map reading. The first half of the course is strongly field oriented; there are three or four required field trips, including one weekend trip. The course format includes three lectures per week and several exercises to be done outside of class. In addition to the text there are a number of other readings, as well as a term paper relating Pleistocene geology to the student's field of specialization. (Farrand)

467. Stratigraphy. G.S. 305, 310, and 351. (3). (NS).

This is a course in advanced historical geology and paleotectonics. The structural and stratigraphic evolution of Western Europe, North Africa, Middle East, and North America is discussed in lectures. The approach is stratigraphic. Within the historical framework, specific rock sequences are examined. In the course of this the student should become familiar with many of the classic stratigraphic sections of North America and Europe. These include sheet quartz arenites, geosynclinal clastics and euxinic siliceous sediments of basins, paralic sediments, red beds, black shales, sheets of shelf carbonates, cyclic sedimentation, starved basins and shelf marginal carbonates, various types of reefs and carbonate buildups, and evaporites. Background needed: a course in historical geology or regional stratigraphy and a course in petrography (preferably sedimentary petrography, and structural geology). (Wilson)

478/A&OS 478. Chemical Oceanography. Chem. 365 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course will review present knowledge concerning the chemistry of the oceans, identify the areas where this knowledge is limited, and examine conditions and processes that have a significant bearing on the ocean and man's activities. The course begins with a brief synopsis of the chemical composition of seawater. This is followed by a discussion of the physical factors and chemical principles which govern the system and therefore form the theoretical framework of marine chemistry. Finally, important aspects of marine chemistry are examined in detail. These include dissolved gases, carbon dioxide/carbonate equilibria, nutrient cycling, organic materials, primary and secondary productivity, sediments and sedimentary processes, and geochemical models of the oceans. Selected topics of general interest such as marine pollution and chemical resources are also discussed. The interaction of the atmosphere, the biosphere, and sediments with the hydrosphere is stressed throughout the course. Course requirements include a midterm, the final examination and a term paper. Study guides consisting of problems and discussion questions are issued for each major topic in the course. Text: Broecker and Peng, Tracers in the Sea. (Meyers)

Germanic Languages and Literature

Dutch Courses (Division 357)

111. First Special Speaking and Reading Course. Permission of the department. (4). (FL).

This course provides the student with the basic grammar of the Dutch language. We mainly use the monolingual course-book Levend Nederlands ( Living Dutch ) and each lesson from the book will consist of everyday conversation, a grammatical explanation, exercises, a coherent word list, questions about the conversation, discussion, and homework. To enliven the class the teacher will provide the students with songs, newspaper articles, comics, etc. Films and video will be used where possible. The students are strongly advised to visit the monthly meetings organized by the Netherlands America University League. Books: Levend Nederlands Cambridge University Press, New York; W. Z. Shetter, Introduction to Dutch, Nijhoff, The Hague; P. de Kleijn, E. Nieuwborg, Basiswoordenboek Nederlands, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhoff, 1983; J. Hulstijn, M. Hannay, An English Self-Study Supplement to Levend Nederlands, Amsterdam, 1981. Also recommended: B. C. Donaldson, Dutch Reference Grammar, The Hague, Nijhoff, 1981. (Broos)

231. Second-Year Dutch. Dutch 112 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

The course will start with an overview of the basic grammar of the Dutch language. We will develop skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening by means of texts to be announced. Comics, songs, newspaper articles, and literature will enliven the course and introduce the students to contemporary Dutch society. Students are strongly advised to visit the evenings organized by the Netherlands America University League. Books: P. de Kleijn, E. Nieuwborg, Basiswoordenboek Nederlands, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhoff, 1983; J. Hulstijn, M. Hannay, An English Self-Study Supplement to Levend Nederlands, Amsterdam, 1981; and, B. C. Donaldson, Dutch Reference Grammar, The Hague, 1981. (Broos)

480. Modern Dutch Literature. Dutch 231 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course will examine the poetry and prose of both The Netherlands and Belgium in modern times. The reading of poems, short stories, novellas, etc. in the original language will provide the student with material for discussion about authors, opinions, place and points of view of Modern Dutch literature. In cooperation with the writer in residence, the student will have the unique opportunity to exchange ideas and opinions with the author about his or her work. The course will be conducted totally in Dutch. (Broos)

491. Colloquium on Modern Dutch Culture and Literature. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is given in English by the annual visiting Dutch Writer-in-Residence, usually a distinguished Dutch novelist or poet(ess). It will cover a variety of topics, e.g., the cultural, sociological, and professional situation of a writer in Europe in general and The Netherlands in particular. Also, the influence of English, American, French, and German in Dutch culture will be considered. Since this is a course with a practicing, prominent Dutch writer, students are encouraged to ask questions, bring forward suggestions, etc. At least one substantial paper will be required. Of interest for the students are the monthly cultural evening meetings organized by the Netherlands America University League. (For further information, 763-6865).

German Courses (Division 379)

100. Intensive Elementary Course. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 102. (8). (FL).

German 100 is an accelerated course in elementary German, covering the same material in one semester that 101 and 102 cover in two semesters. The four basic communication skills (speaking, writing, reading, and listening) are all taught, but particular emphasis is placed on speaking and listening. The language of the classroom is German, except during grammar explanations. There are weekly quizzes, a midterm, a final, and frequent homework assignments. Successful completion of German 100 qualifies a student to progress to 200-level German courses.

101. Elementary Course. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

The first year German program is designed to develop the four language skills understanding, speaking, reading and writing. Proficiency in these areas requires control of the sound system of the German language, mastery of the basic grammatical structures and the ability to understand simple reading passages dealing mainly with German life and culture. Special emphasis will be given to the development of oral skills. It is highly recommended that students make use of the taped exercises in the Language Laboratory. Quizzes are given after each chapter. In addition, there are midterm and final exams.

102. Elementary Course. German 101 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

See German 101.

111. First Special Reading Course. Undergraduates must obtain permission of the department. (4). (Excl).

The objective of this course is to teach students to read simple German expository prose. Course content focuses on an introduction to the essentials of German grammar and syntax both in class lectures and in texts. Students are required to read but not to write and speak German. The course uses traditional methods of instruction which present rules of grammar and syntax as well as a basic vocabulary. Since much memorization is necessary, it is essential that students have time to do required course work which averages about twelve hours each week exclusive of class time. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation, three one-hour examinations devoted to specific problems of grammar and vocabulary, and a final examination requiring the translation of sight passages without the aid of a dictionary. The class is taught in English, and the course text is Jannach, German for Reading Knowledge, (third edition). There are no course prerequisites, but German 111 is open only to graduate students who wish to fulfill a German foreign language requirement and to advanced undergraduates in special programs who already have met the LS&A foreign language requirement. Undergraduates must receive departmental permission prior to electing the course.

231. Second-Year Course. German 102 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 221. (4). (FL).

This course is conducted primarily in German and is designed to expand the speaking, understanding, reading, and writing skills acquired in German 102. A thorough review and continuation of the grammar is included. Students are expected to read and discuss short stories and a short novel, write essays, and prepare daily assignments. Requirements also include weekly quizzes, a midterm examination, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Course. German 231 (or 221) or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed 230, 222, or 236. (4). (FL).

This course is conducted in German and is designed to expand the writing, reading, and speaking skills acquired in German 231; it also serves as an introduction to modern literature of German speaking countries. Students are expected to read and discuss short stories and a novel, and write essays on the material covered in class. Requirements include periodic quizzes, a midterm examination, and a final examination.

236. Scientific German. German 231 (or 221) or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed 232. (4). (FL).

The purpose of this course is to provide basic practice in the reading and translation of texts primarily from the natural sciences. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation. Students will also select and translate an outside article in their field. Quizzes are given in addition to a final exam. Texts supplied by instructor.

301/Ling. 331. Elementary Yiddish. (3). (FL).

This course is the first part of a two-semester sequence in Elementary Yiddish. No familiarity with Yiddish is assumed. Student evaluations are based on exams, quizzes, written homework assignments, and oral classroom work. (Norich)

325 Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 (or 222) or the equivalent (placement test). (3). (Excl).

The sequence of German 325 and 326 is primarily intended to improve fluency and accuracy in written and spoken German. One hour each week is devoted to a systematic grammar review including translation from English to German. The remaining class time is devoted to German conversation based on a discussion of a reading text and of other topics chosen at the discretion of the individual instructor. A German essay of one or two pages is assigned approximately every week. One or more five-minute oral presentations may be required. There are midterm and final examinations.

326 Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 (or 222) or the equivalent (placement test). (3). (Excl).

Except by special permission of the instructor, only students who have completed German 325 should elect 326. See 325 for the description.

350 Business German. German 232. (3). (Excl).

This is an introduction to the vocabulary, practices and procedures found in German business activity. Included are the nomenclature of office procedure, business letters and reports. In addition the course examines the German educational and political system from the standpoint of business practices, such as merchandising and advertising. The reading consists of the reading of actual business, merchandising and advertising material. There is a midterm and a final examination, and the writing of papers and translations during the course is required. The text consists largely of a course pack and a basic text. (Fabian)

381. Eighteenth to Nineteenth-Century Drama. German 232 (or 222) or the equivalent (placement test). (3). (HU).

This course provides an introduction to German literature of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries through several of the great classical dramas. In conjunction with German 382, 383, 384, or 385 this course can be elected in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a German concentration or for a German teaching major or minor. The course will begin with the reading of Lessing's lively comedy set against the backdrop of the Seven Years' War, Minna von Barnhelm. The struggle of the great individuality in the context of political intrigues and social forces of history is the central theme of the next play, Schiller's Maria Stuart, the tragedy of Mary, Queen of Scots, held captive by Queen Elizabeth I. Kleist's Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, an astonishingly "modern" drama, depicts the existential struggle of a young man in confrontation with death. Each student will be asked to choose a drama from the period as "outside reading." The emphasis of the course is on the analysis of the works, mainly in class discussion. Students will write two short interpretive papers and a final exam. (Grilk)

384. Short Fiction: Romanticism to Realism. German 232 (or 222) or permission of chairman. (3). (HU).

Drawing on novellas by Tieck, Kleist, Keller, Hauptmann and others, this course should provide carefully paced reading practice at the appropriate level (3rd year). At the same time, the works chosen provide a comprehensive and aesthetically rewarding survey of the main currents and most significant authors on this very popular genre from Romanticism to Naturalism, the first phase of "modern" German literature. Discussion is emphasized. A term paper and a final exam are required. (Dunnhaupt)

414/Res. College Humanities 414. Vienna 1890-1918. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this seminar is to analyze two seemingly contradictory movements: the political disintegration of the multinational Habsburg Empire on the one hand, and the unequaled cultural productivity of these decades on the other. Areas in which crucial breakthroughs will be examined include literature and the theater (Hofmannsthal, Schnitzler, Kraus), music (Mahler, Schoenberg, Berg), the visual arts (Klimt, Schiele, Kokoschka), philosophy (Mach, Schlick, Wittgenstein), psychology (Freud, Weininger, Adler). Guest speakers from various departments will be invited to contribute insights into their specialties. There will be two common class texts (Schorske, Fin-de-Siecle Vienna, 1980; Janik and Toulmin, Wittgenstein's Vienna, 1973) plus bibliographical help for the various fields of exploration. Prerequisites are an active interest in Modernism and the ability to do critical investigations in one of the areas mentioned. Class reports will, after discussion, be developed into one substantial term paper. A knowledge of German is not required, but will be useful. (Seidler)

415. The German Language Past and Present. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

The objectives of German 415 are to introduce students to the assumptions, terminology, and methodologies of both descriptive and historical linguistics, and to apply these to a survey of the historical background of German from pre-literate times to the present, with emphasis on the emergence of the standard literary dialect. Although our main concern will be the internal structure of the language, we will relate this to the cultural context in which it has evolved. The course is required of undergraduate German concentrators, except that those who have had previous courses in linguistics may substitute a more advanced course in German linguistics, for example 503, 504, or 506. Instruction is through lectures and discussions. Evaluation will be based on homework problems, quizzes, short papers, and a final examination. Students should have attained at least fourth-term proficiency in German. (Kyes)

425 Intermediate Composition and Conversation. German 325 and 326; or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Various approaches are used to improve the student's written and spoken German. Each week a composition of at least two pages is assigned. Sometimes the instructor assigns a specific topic while at other times students select their own topics. Occasionally students are required to listen, in the language laboratory, to a tape on some aspect of German history or culture and to use it as a departure point for an essay. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. German is used exclusively in class. The final course grade is based on compositions as well as participation in discussion and other class projects. German 425 is regularly offered during the Fall Term while German 426 is regularly offered during the Winter Term. German 426 may be taken independently of 425. (Weiss)

456(482). Nineteenth Century German Theatre. 3 years college German; or permission of instructor. (3) (HU).

Plays by Grabbe, Buechner, Grillparzer, Raimund, Hebbel, and Hauptmann will be read to acquaint students with not only the most significant playwrights of the century but also to illustrate the main trends from the end of romanticism and classicism to naturalism. Since the course will concentrate on the texts themselves, no special background beyond a very good knowledge of German (fourth-year undergraduate) is needed. One substantial paper (10-15 pages in English or German) on a play read outside of class, participation in discussions (in English or German) and a final examination will provide the basis for the grade. There will be no quizzes. (Cowen)

459(489). The Literature of the German Democratic Republic. Senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course gives a survey of East German literature from 1950 until the present and includes prose works, drama, and poetry written by a broad spectrum of authors, only some of whom are known in the West. Historical, social, and political background information will aid the understanding of literary works. Since little has been translated, a 300-level reading knowledge of German is necessary; however, no background in German literature is required. Most lectures will be conducted in German, but discussion may be in English, as preferred by individual class members. A midterm and final examination are required; undergraduates will write an eight-page term paper, in English. Works read will vary somewhat with the availability of editions, but selections by Christa Wolf, Hermann Kant, and Ulrich Plenzdorf will be included. Slides and other illustrative materials will be shown; two or three representative feature films will be screened. (Hofacker)

491 German Honors Proseminar. Senior Honors standing. (3). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

Completion of the sequence of German 491 and 492 is required for an Honors concentration in German. Interested students not already in the German Honors concentration program should apply to Professor Chrichton for admission (minimum 3.0 GPA with at least 3.5 in German). In German 491 students will read and discuss a selection of German dramas, novellas, short novels, and poems from the age of Goethe to the present. The course gives students experience in the analysis of various literary genres and acquaints them with representative works by major authors from various literary periods. While they are by no means restricted in their choice of a topic for the Honors thesis (492, Winter Term) to the works of authors discussed in 491, some students may find that their search for a topic which they would like to explore in greater depth is facilitated by the broad spectrum offered in 491. Class discussion is in German. Each student gives an oral introduction to one of the works discussed. There are two interpretive papers totaling about 20 pages. No examination. (Crichton)

German Literature and Culture in English

Courses in this section do not require knowledge of German.

330/RC Hums. 330. German Cinema. (3). (HU).

This course traces the development of German cinema in its social, political, and cultural context. It presents major films and filmmakers in relation to their historical circumstances and to developments in the other arts. This subject matter falls into two main periods: from the Expressionist era around World War I up to 1933 and from 1965 to the present, with some attention to National Socialist film and the early 1950's. Filmmakers discussed include F.W. Murnau, Fritz Lang, G.W. Pabst, Volker Schlondorff, R.W. Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Alexander Kluge, and Wim Wenders. The films cover various genres of both fictional and documentary film; 10-12 films are considered, and students are expected to see most films twice. The method of instruction combines lecture and directed discussion. The required readings consist of secondary material on the cultural background of German cinema, commentary on the films and filmmakers, and occasionally scripts and theoretical writings. Students write five short papers (2-4 pp.) and two longer ones (5-8 pp.). A course fee of $20.00 will cover film rentals. This course meets the Jr/Sr Writing requirement in the Fall Term, 1984. (Zorach)

441. German Masterpieces in English Translation. Junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

The main effort of the course will consist of an intensive reading in English translation of masterpieces of German literature. Works by Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, and others will be studied and discussed within the context of the era in which they were written and of the present time. Emphasis will be placed upon the historical background of the works, their place in literary history, on their influence, and on the eternal problems, values, and conflicts of individuals and society. The course is one of the department's offerings of German literature in translation, and students majoring or minoring in German should not elect it. The final grade will be derived from the midterm examination, two short papers, quizzes, class discussion, and a take-home final examination. (Hubbs)

445. Holocaust Literature in English Translation. Junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course will trace the changing relationship between Christians and Jews and the nature of anti-Semitism in Germany as well as the rest of Europe from Roman times to the present. The course will contain three segments. Part one will examine the period up to and including the Middle Ages and include figures such as Maimonides, Reuchlin, and Luther, as well as the nature of the literary and cultural interrelationship during this period of struct and formal separation. Part two will cover the period from the end of the Middle Ages through the period of enlightenment until the beginning WWI. Included will be such figures as Rachel Varnhagen, Henrietta Herz, Moses Mendelsohn, Dorothea Schlegel, and their impact on German Romanticism and German life and culture, a development which resulted in a complex change in the German-Jewish relationship. The increasing assimilation on the one hand was balanced by a profound frustration on the other. Intellectual integration was accompanied by personal frustration as in the case of Heine, Boerne, and Herzl. The ideas of Zionism and the emerging concepts of racial anti-Semitism were parallel developments, culminating in the writings of men such as Chamberlain, Lagardes, Langbehn, and Moeller van der Bruck. Part three deals with the impact of WWI, the developments during the Weimar Republic and the ideology of the Nazi period. It will examine the writings of men such as Ernst Juenger and the impact of literary institutions such as the "Deutsche Rundschau" and the movement known as the "Conservative Revolution" as well as the film on German thought and culture. This period will trace the transformation from near total assimilation to equally total extermination. This will be followed by a discussion of the impact of the Holocaust on post WWII literature and thought. There will be a midterm examination and either a term paper or a final examination. (Fabian)

449. Special Topics in English Translation. Junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
The Role of Women in Early and High Medieval Narrative Literature.
This course is open to students from all areas. No knowledge of a foreign language, modern or medieval, is required, but students with such knowledge are free to read the assigned works and passages in the foreign tongue. The course will explore the role of women in both short and long narrative works from ca. 700 to the beginning of the thirteenth century. In order to further elucidate the female role as presented in works of fiction the course participants will also become familiar with information passed on by historiographers such as Tacitus, Jordanes, Paulus Diaconus, Galfridus Monemutensis, and Saxo Grammaticus. The literary genres will include heroic lay and Christian legend as well as early experimental romance, fabliau-type short story as well as courtly romance in continental Europe of around 1200. Attention will be drawn to a multiplicity of aspects of womanhood in the Middle Ages. Topics to be treated will include: women of different social strata and educational backgrounds; the female hero (fellow-combatant, administrator, martyr) and the female felon; love and its ramifications of marriage, temptation, seduction, and cruelty. The important concept of the "grande passion" will be studied with the help of Abelard's Story of My Misfortunes, Gottfried's Tristan and Isolde, and the Persian romance Vis and Ramin. (Scholler)

Scandinavian Courses (Division 471)

233 Readings in Modern Swedish Literature. Swedish 114 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course covers the material of a second year course in Swedish language. Emphasis is on speaking, writing, reading, and listening skills. The bases for evaluation are writing, speaking, and listening drills and examinations at regular intervals to test acquisition of these skills. Readings are selected (for oral commentary) from contemporary Swedish poetry, prose, and politics. Students needing Swedish 103 and 104, or the equivalent, for entry into this 233 course can meet this prerequisite by passing an examination to be given by the instructor. Those wishing to begin Swedish 103 should see the instructor by the first meeting of Swedish 233.

Scandinavian Literature in English

Courses in this section do not require knowledge of a Scandinavian language.

331. Introduction to Scandinavian Civilization. (3). (HU).

The course is meant to provide an opportunity to become acquainted with the society and culture of the modern states of Scandinavia: Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. There are no prerequisites, and no knowledge of a Scandinavian language is required. The course is open to everyone, but is also a part of the concentration in Scandinavian Studies. It will deal with many aspects of Scandinavia, mostly contemporary. There will be a geographical overview, showing how location and climate affect the countries' roles in today's world, followed by a short historical summary tracing the development of their societies to the present day. The vast majority of the course will deal with post-World War II Scandinavia, especially those subjects where these countries have made important contributions to the rest of the world. Among the topics to be studied will be politics, economics, social welfare, art and architecture, music, film, literature, drama, the media, emigration, and Scandinavian languages. The course will be a combination of lectures by the instructor, and guests, and discussions. A class report will be required, plus a final exam. The required textbook is Scandinavia by Franklin Scott; other readings will be added. (K. Marzolf)

Great Books Courses (Division 382)

191. Great Books. Open to Honors freshmen only. (4). (HU).

Great Books 191 will survey the classical works of ancient Greece. Among the readings will be Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, a number of the plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes, Herodotus' Histories, Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, and several of Plato's dialogues. The course format is two lectures and two discussion meetings a week. Six to eight short papers will be assigned; there will be midterm and final examinations. Great Books 191 is open to freshmen in the Honors Program, and to other students with the permission of the Director of the Great Books Program. (Buttrey, and others)

201. Great Books. Gt. Bks. 201 is not open to students who have taken Gt. Bks. 191 or Classical Civ. 101. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
Careful and detailed reading and discussion of great literary, historical, and philosophical works of ancient Greece and Rome. We shall become familiar with examples of epic poetry (the Iliad and the Aeneid ), tragic drama (Aeschylus and Sophocles), history (Herodotus), and philosophy (Plato), works which have influenced men's minds for centuries and which thus form an important part of the foundation of our culture. The purpose of the course is not to learn about these works but to learn the works themselves, so that they become, in a sense, a part of our own experience, permanent and personal intellectual property. We will read and we will talk about what we read. Students will be evaluated on class performance, approximately three papers, a midterm, and a final examination. (Cloyd)

Section 002. Unless you care to think and talk and write about such matters as responsibility, courage, honor, friendship, loyalty, love, justice, goodness, ambiguity, time, power, death, and faith, this course is not for you. If you do care about what is true or noble or good, you may enjoy the contacts we will make, through reading excellent English translations, with the Graeco-Roman and the Judaeo-Christian roots of Western Civilization. Our texts will include Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; broad selections in the Histories of Herodotus; Aeschylus' Oresteia; a couple Sophoclean tragedies; some of Plato's philosophic dialogues, including much of the Republic; Vergil's epic of Rome, the Aeneid; selections from the Bible; and St. Augustine's Confessions. As well as attending and participating in class, students will write three short papers (total for the term of about ten pages), a midterm, and a final exam. (Wallin)

Section 003. We are, perhaps more than we suspect, shaped in our habits of thought and action, by our Western heritage. Our roots lie in Greece, Rome, and Israel, and our knowledge of who we are depends in large part on our knowledge of those forces which have helped form us. What meaning does it have for my life, for example, that I know I have to die? With this question we approach Homer's Iliad and Odyssey and the Exodus of the Hebrew Bible. Whether in Thucydides' portrayal of the struggle between Athens and Sparta or in the tragic drama of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, or in Plato's investigation of the meaning of life in the Socratic dialogues, or in Rome's struggle for eternal peace, it is always the dark mystery of human existence which fuels man's desire to know who he is. Students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, two or three short papers, midterm, and final exam. (Paslick)

393. Great Books in Literature, Philosophy, and the Arts. (1). (HU). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.
THUCYDIDES' HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR.
This short course will meet October 16 through November 15 on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 10:30 until 12 noon. Student grades will be based upon class participation, a short paper (5-7 pages), and an exam to be given in the last class meeting, Thursday, November 15th. Our text will be the Penguin edition of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, and we will read and talk about the whole book. We will attempt to understand how and why Thucydides gave meaning to the events of fifth-century B.C. Greece that he describes. Thucydides claims that his book will be "a possession for all time." His first great English translator, the British philosopher Hobbes, calls Thucydides "the most politick historiographer that ever writ." Some modern admirers see Thucydides as the father of modern scientific historiography, some detractors see him as destroying history. We will test these claims and others for ourselves and our time. (Wallin)

Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110(101). Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is designed to give students a general view of the western tradition as it developed in Europe from the fall of the Roman Empire down to the seventeenth century. I assume that many of you will have had no exposure to the evolution of some of our most important traditions like the Christian Church (both as an institution and as a body of doctrines); the capitalist economy; the renaissance and reformation; and the growth of the modern state. I shall examine these various problems in lectures, always giving consideration where appropriate to cultural developments such as art, architecture, and music, and then break the class down into small study groups for discussion. In these sections you will have the opportunity to follow up on the lectures and to work in depth on problems of your own interest. Readings will be in primary sources such as the Bible and in historical analyses such as H. Miskimin The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe. The requirements for the course will be a midterm examination and a final examination. In addition, you will have an opportunity to write three short papers that will be analyzed for content, organization, and style; so that you develop your writing skills as well as your analytic capabilities. (Vann)

111(102). Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with Europe since 1700 in broad outline, focusing on large-scale changes in the economy, society and politics. The lectures will not provide basic narrative accounts of each country's history, but will be organized around general themes, making reference to individual countries for illustration. For this reason it is important to follow the course through the assigned text-book and the associated readings, as the lectures have to leave a lot of background knowledge understood. The aim of the course is not just to communicate facts, but to deal with general ideas, and to introduce the problems of interpreting historical change or its absence. Assignments: critical review, midterm and final. (Eley)

151(101)/Asian Studies 111. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Murphey)

160(331). United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on changing notions of what American, both as a society and as a polity, stands for. It will turn first to the sources of the growing American self-consciousness in the 18th century: will describe the vision embraced by the founding fathers; will explain the forces which produced a mutation in that vision, creating Jacksonianism; will develop the seeds of self-destruction in the Jacksonian creed; will explain the sources of the suicide of Jacksonian America and the birth of the industrial faith; and will seek to define the residuum which each of these historical movements contributed to modern America. There will be a midterm and a final examination. Weekly assignments will amount to perhaps 150 to 200 pages, and will be drawn both from primary sources and from secondary comments. Though designed as a survey, the course presupposes some vague familiarity with the structure of American history; and will therefore desert the strictly narrative, for emphasis on certain episodes and movements which possess symbolic value. (Thornton)

161(332). United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 is designed to trace via talks, discussion sections and books America's history from 1865 to the present. The course will attempt to offer, with consistency, an analytical framework of usefulness to those trying to comprehend America. Its principal themes will be those of small-town America and its ideological persistence; the rise of an opposing set of values embodied in bureaucratic institutions; and the continuing tension between local and national values in such issues as race, religion, women's rights, foreign policy, government regulation, etc. The talks and a significant number of the books will also attempt to convey the varieties of personal experience so important to this period. The course meets four hours each week: Two in lecture and two in a discussion section. Tentative marking requirements include a short paper, a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 161. (Linderman)

196 Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).

In addition to readings (and writing assignments) on what history is, approaches to history by certain great historians and other methodological issues, a major course paper will be carried out based on archival work at the Michigan Historical Collection. (J. Fine)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200(311). Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

History 200 is a survey of Greek history (with an occasional glance at events in the Middle East) from the Minoans/Mycenaeans to Alexander's conquest of Persia. Through lectures and discussion sections translations of eight or nine Greek classics will be read the following topics will be explored: the end of the Mycenaean civilization and the Dark Age; the emergence of Athenian democracy; the formation of the Athenian Empire and its dissolution; Greek-Persian relations to the death of Alexander. Each student will be asked to complete the midterm exam or a paper and to take a final examination. (Adams)

211(314)/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100 1500. (4). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contacts with the East were re-established, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved West over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Some specific topics to be covered include the demands of the secular world for greater religious experience; definitions of orthodoxy and the development of the Inquisition; scholastic thought and Western creativity; feudalism, chivalry, and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and a fascination with the macabre. Modern interpretations of the period will be supplemented with readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.). In addition to a midterm and a final examination, students will write a book report and a paper. This is a lecture course, but some periods will be reserved for discussion. (Hughes)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "diginity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945 1975. (4). (SS).

The course treats the Vietnam War both as part of an ongoing revolution within Vietnamese society and as the product of Western interventions in that revolution. It will look at the background of Vietnamese nationalism in the period of French colonialism and coalescence of that nationalism with a militant revolutionary movement. The resulting foreign wars, first with France and then with the U.S., will be discussed in the context of post-World War II global tendencies, including movements for national liberation, Western responses to these movements, and American policies for containing Communism. Special attention will be given to the manner of U.S. involvement in and extrication from Vietnam. There will be assigned readings from different points of view, three 50-minute lectures and a 50-minute discussion section each week, midterm and final examinations, and an optional paper. (Lieberman and Staff)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

An introduction to British history from 55 B.C. (Caesar's invasion) to 1688 (William of Orange's invasion). Particular attention will be given to the development and disintegration of several "British societies," i.e., the Anglo-Saxon, the medieval, and the early modern. A textbook will provide the basic framework for the historical narrative and lectures will supplement rather than repeat the text. Other readings will include literary as well as historical works. There will be an hourly examination, a final examination and a brief paper. The course format will primarily be lectures, with class sessions allotted for discussion. (Herrup)

250(543). China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of Chinese history from the Neolithic Age to the early 1800s, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

283(263). Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

287(270)/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the periods of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (R. Suny)

316(443). History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (4). (SS).

The course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of eight to ten pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

324/Religion 324. The Biblical and Patristic Roots of Christian Mysticism. (3). (HU).

See Religion 324. (Dutton)

332(391)/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

371(288)/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

A survey of the history of American women with particular emphasis on social, economic, and intellectual aspects. The course will examine the historical position of women within the family and the society, focusing on such problems as separate spheres, the nature of women's work, the implications of class, the rise of the "lady", changing notions of sexuality, the meaning of education, and feminism. Readings (approximately one book a week) will include historical studies, fiction, social commentary, and anthropological articles. In addition to a midterm and a final, students will write several papers.

384(470). Modern Jewish History 1880 1948. (4). (SS).

The course centers on a number of themes: Jewish responses to developments in late nineteenth-century Europe and Russia including socialism, migration, and Zionism; the impact of twentieth-century European culture on Jewish thought; the rise of modern anti-Semitism and its culmination in the Holocaust; the decline of Jewish settlement in Europe, Russia, and North Africa and the creation of new Jewish centers in the United States and Israel. The readings will be drawn from books and articles. There will be two exams and a comprehensive take-home final. (Weinberg)

396 History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 The Art of History from Herodotus to Machiavelli.
This course is intended to introduce students to ancient, medieval, and Renaissance historiography through reading classic examples of the art of history selected from this 2000-year span. We will begin with some of the historians of ancient Greece and Rome Herodotus and Thucydides, Livy and Sallust and examine what they considered to be the proper subject matter of history and how they interpreted and expressed that matter. We will then explore the transformation of historiography in the Middle Ages as new subjects were treated in new ways and for new ends, the historians of the Church, chronicles of the crusades, and universal chronicles. Finally, we will study the revival of the matter and form of classical historiography in the Italian Renaissance, as exemplified in works by Leonardo Bruni, Angelo Poliziano, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Francesco Guicciardini. Throughout the course, our focus will be on the ways in which people have used the writing of history to order and interpret chaotic experience. Students will write several short papers on assigned topics, a longer paper on a topic selected in consultation with the instructor, and a final exam. (Bornstein)

Section 002 The Mongols. This is a seminar on the Mongols and their impact on Asia, the Near East, and Europe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Students will study and discuss various topics touching the Mongols and/or those societies which the Mongols conquered. Most of the readings will come from translated documents of the period; students will also read and discuss some modern studies as well as relevant anthropological literature. Students will be responsible for discussion in class and will prepare a number of short reading reports. (Lindner)

Section 003 Technology and Society Through the Ages. The objective of this colloquium will be to study the history of technological development and its interactions with society. The course will be broad and comparative, looking at developments from Neolithic times to the present in different cultures. The major course assignment will be an in depth survey of the relationship between social and technological development in one culture. (Steneck)

397 History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 American Political Development.
This course is concerned with the political development of the U.S. from the early days of the nation to the present. The course is also premised on the view that the better understanding of the difficulties and problems facing the nation can be gained by considering them in relation to historical experience and to the processes of change which the nation has undergone. In this sense the course can be seen as an effort in "applied history." An underlying argument is that political institutions, practices and attitudes are formed in particular historical circumstances but persist long after circumstances have changed. One consequence is political stability, but another is constraint upon the capacity of the nation to adapt to new circumstances and difficulties. Thus one of the goals of the course is to assess for the contemporary period, the consequences of the persistence of political attitudes and approaches to government from the past into the present and the future. (Clubb)

Section 004 Feudalism in Japan and Europe. In this course, we will be examining the question of whether or not feudalism is a useful intellectual construct for ordering our understanding of the medieval histories of Japan and Western Europe. We will begin by studying the ways in which a number of continental historians have used "feudalism" in their writings, and then move on to an examination of medieval England as a case study of European feudalism. In the last part of the course, we will read a variety of English-language treatments of "Japanese feudalism," and attempt to discover how meaningful a concept feudalism really is in that context. Grading in this course will be based on three papers, two of 5-7 pages, and one of 8-10. Readings will range from the empirical studies of such English scholars as Maitland and Stenton to the Marxist theory of Perry Anderson. The papers will be based on the readings for the course. (Arnesen)

Section 005 Northern Renaissance. The course will treat the impact upon northern Europe of a variety of intellectual and cultural activities originating in Italy during the Renaissance. Special attention will be paid to the writings of the humanists on education, rhetoric, language, politics, religion and the arts. The influence of humanistic ideas on these topics will be considered for western Europe in general, with particular attention on France and England. After reading two classic historical accounts comparing north and south European culture (J. Burckhardt and J. Huizinga), the following thinkers will be discussed: Erasmus, More, Rabelais, Montaigne, Bacon, Shakespeare, and Jonson. Discussions will focus on social factors favorable to the migration of ideas, forms and motifs from south Europe to the North. Here we shall deal expressly with the reception of such Italian texts as Boccaccio's Decameron, Petrarch's poetry, Machiavelli's The Prince, and Castiglione's The Courtier. Students will be required to do reports and book reviews. (Becker)

Section 007 Soldiers, Diplomats, Merchants and Missionaries: The American Involvement in Modern Japan. This course concerns one aspect of the encounter between the U.S. and Japan. It deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It focuses on individual Americans from different walks of life government representatives military figures, businessmen, government advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers, and explorers - -their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as a way of examining the broader involvement of Americans in the history of modern Japan. Each student will prepare three biographical sketches. Grades will be based on class discussions of readings and on the quality oral reports and assigned papers. (Hackett)

Section 008 Politics, Power and the Development of the Public Sector in America. What historical forces have helped to shape the public sector in contemporary America? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists to analyze the development of the public sector at local, state, and national levels in pre-New Deal America. The course will be conducted as a colloquium and, therefore, will be organized around weekly meetings to discuss assigned readings which will include both theoretical works and historical case studies. Among the former will be pluralist and neo-Marxist theories of power and the state, and collective choice theories and models of political mobilization. Historical case studies will focus on the relationships among socio-economic change, political action, and demands for the expansion of the public sector at critical moments in the nation's history. Of particular interest in the case studies will be the question of from where demands for the expansion of the public sector originated. Students will write brief, weekly papers on the assigned readings and longer papers comparing theoretical and historical works. (McDonald)

Section 009 The Role of Death in American Society. The course will analyze the manner in which American society has dealt with death in the past as well as today. The emphasis will be on class discussions of primary and secondary materials dealing with the reaction of Americans to death. Students will have an opportunity to explore some particular aspect of this topic in more detail in a long term paper for the course. (Vinovski)

Section 011 Alexander the Great. Recent archaeological discoveries in Greece and fresh studies of Philip and Alexander have rekindled debate on the personality, motives, and exploits of the Macedonian conqueror. Through readings, discussion, reports, and papers this course will explore several topics at the center of this debate: the reliability of the ancient accounts; the significance of the recent archaeological discoveries at Vergina; Macedonia-Greek relations under Philip and Alexander; the issues that inspired that Greek-Persian hostility; the purpose and logistics of Alexander's campaign. In addition to participation in discussions of assigned reading, each student will be asked to write one review essay and one research paper of 20-25 pages. (Adams)

Section 012: Popular Culture and High Culture in Modern British History. This colloquium will focus on the relationship between two often antithetical notions of culture in a modern, industrial society. Topics for reading and discussion include: popular culture in Britain during the Industrial Revolution, intellectual responses in the Victorian era, the rise of mass culture, the impact of technology on communications, mass media and elite culture in the twentieth century. There will be two or three papers and a final examination. (Lemahieu)

399(394). Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

We will discuss practical problems of research. While there is an agenda, it is a flexible one. The main emphasis is on accommodating and discussing the problems that occur in the research of each individual student. As such it should help to reduce frustrations and anxieties. It should be added that this class does not and cannot replace close contact with the special thesis advisor. (J. Fine)

404(415). The Later Roman Empire. (4). (HU).

This course explores the major developments of the later Empire e.g. the conflict between Paganism and Christianity, the problem of 'decline' - through lectures, discussions, and reading of the ancient sources in translation. In addition to his/her participation in discussions, each student will be expected to write a midterm and final examination and to produce a term paper. Some familiarity with Roman history before A.D. 284 (through History 201 or an equivalent course) is desirable. (Eadie)

414(457). Northern Renaissance and Reformation. (4). (HU).

In Fall 1984 this course is jointly offered with MARC 428.

A survey of the major intellectual movements of the period 1450-1600, including scholasticism, humanism, political theory, Protestantism, and the Counter-Reformation. Almost all of the reading will be from primary sources, such as the writings of Aquinas, à Kempis, Erasmus, More, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, Loyola, and related documents (papal and conciliar decrees, creedal statements, and religious settlements.) There will be no assigned textbook, and lectures will be designed to provide the necessary background. There will be regular discussions and students will be encouraged to ask question about the material. Requirements: a midterm, three short essays on the assigned reading, and a final. (For requirements for three-credit course, see MARC 428.) (Tentler)

417(460). Intellectual History of Europe from 1900 to the Present. (4). (HU).

A lecture course devoted to the ideas characterizing the anti-positivist revolt, neo-romanticism and modernity and its discontents. Now that "modernism" as a movement is drawing to a close, it is possible to distinguish both its positive and negative elements and to establish its relationship to the rise of the totalitarian political movements of the 20th century and to post-modern political liberalism. "Modernism" will be defined in engendering experience, symbolic integration, philosophy and style. There will be a midterm and final examination. Students will write a term paper 2,500 words in length on "The Use of Myth as Integrative System by Modernists." The text is Roland N. Stromberg, An Intellectual History of Modern Europe, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1966). (Tonsor)

423(465). Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930s, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: modern European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

430(417). Byzantine Empire, 284 867. (4). (HU).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the history of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and conversion to Christianity (entering Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationships between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed: all that is sought is student interest. Freshmen and sophomores are welcome, and in past years freshmen have taken and done very well in the course. The textbook for the course is Ostrgorsky's History of the Byzantine State, take into consideration special interests, and a special reading list has been drawn up for those interested in Church History. Requirements: A midterm written hour exam (in place of which a half-hour oral exam may be taken). One ten-page paper (which can be used to replace the hour exam if the student chooses and takes on a more major project) and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J. Fine)

432(501). Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (SS).

The course covers the first seven centuries of recorded Russian history and focuses on such major topics as the Norsemen's conquest of Russia, the Golden Age of Kiev, the Mongol invasion, the rise of Moscow, relations with the West, expansion into Siberia, the Ukraine, and first contacts with China. During the first ten weeks, lectures follow a roughly chronological sequence (to the reign of Peter the Great). The last five weeks feature a series of survey lectures on special topics such as women in Old Russia, Jews and Jewish influences in Old Russian history, Cossacks, the rise of serfdom, Ivan the Terrible, aristocrats and bureaucrats, holy fools, problems in Old Russian culture, and legends and myths that shaped Russian history. The basic text is N. Riasanovsky's A History of Russia. Modest additional readings will be assigned. Questions and comments from the class during a lecture are welcome. The course is open to all students and assumes no prior knowledge of Russian history. (Dewey)

434(503). History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

A history of twentieth-century Russia, which concentrates on the social, political, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism as they developed before 1917, and as they were applied in domestic and, to some extent, foreign policies after 1917. Stress is placed on understanding Russian perspectives of Russian history, and on developing an awareness of important aspects of social development generally. Readings are drawn from various literary and historical monographs, rather than from a single text; and students are asked to integrate their own interests with the substantive material of Soviet history through class "projects," which may or may not be written term papers. There is also a midterm exam (with a graded/ungraded option as well as a take-home/in-class choice), and a final (graded, choice of take-home/in-class). (Rosenberg)

440(531)/GNE 470. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500 945. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 470. (Ehrenkreutz)

447(536)/CAAS 447. Africa in the Nineteenth Century. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 447. (Uzoigwe)

451(548). Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is W.G. Beasley, The Modern History of Japan, (Praeger, Rev. ed., 1974, pb). Other reading assignments will be organized with a course pack. (Hackett)

452(549). Premodern Southeast Asia. (4). (SS).

The course examines Southeast Asia from the earliest historic kingdoms to the European penetration of the mid-eighteenth century. It seeks to explain the emergence of distinctive Buddhist, Islamic, Confucian, and Hispanic zones, while at the same time answering the broader question: what regional traits and patterns of acculturation rendered premodern Southeast Asia a coherent historic unit? After describing the great classical civilizations (of Angkor, Burma, Vietnam, Srivijaya, and Java), the course analyzes the crisis of the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, and its implications for social and religious integration. European activities are seen as inaugurating the latest in a long series of maritime-based transformations. The course assumes no previous knowledge of Southeast Asia. There will be a variety of general and specialized readings, three 50-minute lectures a week, midterm and final exams, and an optional paper. (Lieberman)

454(588). The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (4). (HU).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

466(562). The United States, 1901 1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

476(581). Hispanic America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. The approach is both thematic and chronological. Themes to be discussed include: the indigenous background to conquest; early interactions between Europeans and Indians; the institutional structures of empire; shifting uses of land and labor; the nature of settler society; class, race, and ethnicity; the character of 18th century reforms; and the social bases of the wars of independence. The major focus will be on Mexico and Peru, with some attention paid also to Brazil, Argentina, Central America and the Caribbean. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America will be the main text, with additional readings in works by Gibson, Crosby, Prescott, Taylor, Stein, and Lynch, and some primary materials by Columbus, Juan and Ulloa, and Humboldt. The method of instruction is lecture/discussion. Requirements include a short critical book review, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. (R. Scott)

488. The Left in Europe, 1789-1917. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the major democratic, socialist, and revolutionary opponents of the Old-Order in Europe and the critics of industrial capitalism from roughly the French Revolution to the Russian Revolution. Lectures will be presented on such topics as: Utopian socialism, Marxism and its evolution in the 19th century, the Paris Commune, the Russian populists, the origins of Bolshevism, European and Russian labor, and the revolutionary experiences of 1789, 1830, 1848, 1905, and 1917. Readings will include works by George Lefebvre, Robert Heilbrunner, Karl Marx, Leopold H. Haimson, Carl Schorske, and others. A research paper will be required as well as examinations. (Suny)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Webb)

516(425). History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (HU).

A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from earliest times until the fall of the Gaelic order. The course is conducted mainly by lecture. Students will write two briefer and one longer paper, and have a final examination. There are no prerequisites for the course though a prior course in later Irish history, or in Irish literature, or in ancient or medieval European history would be helpful. (McNamara)

551(545). Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (HU).

In this course, we shall seek the origins of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, which was so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely for antecedents and shall hear testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, bandits and warlords, cultural iconoclasm and conservative reaction, nationalism and women's liberation, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Mao's social vision and the People's Republic as a model of development.

Some familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful. Those entering the course without background should be ready to do some catch-up work. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write three short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

558(364). U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (SS).

An examination of American foreign policy to 1914, with special emphasis on the formative years (1775-1823) and America's entry into world politics (1898-1914). Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

566(573). History of the American City. (4). (SS).

History 566 is a general survey course of the history of American cities which is especially concerned with the period from the onset of the industrial revolution (circa 1840) to the present. It will consider cities primarily as systems of social relationships and focus upon the interactions among economic development, class structure, social differentiation, and political economy. Both chronological and topical approaches to the subject will be presented, and topics to be considered in some detail include the development of the urban class structure, the origins and professionalism of urban institutions such as police, schools, etc., machine and reform-style urban politics, the urban experience of racial and ethnic minorities, and the political economy of post World War II suburbanization, urban renewal, and central city fiscal crisis. On average there will be two lectures and one discussion of required reading per week. Students will read about ten paperback books, write an essay-type midterm and final examination, and prepare a brief (5-8pp.) interpretive essay based upon the course readings. Graduate students will be expected to accomplish an essay of greater length and complexity. (McDonald)

569(564)/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course examines the origins, development, and growth of American business. After tracing the beginning of business enterprise in Europe, the course describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation, the antitrust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920's, the impact on business of the 1929 depression and the New Deal, economic aspects of World War II, and the postwar business scene. Two quizzes, final exam. (Lewis)

571/Amer. Inst. 471. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 471. (Vinovskis)

581(429). Utopian and Millennial Movements. (4). (HU).

This course surveys past utopian and millennial movements and begins with a study of the most recent of them, the "counter culture" of the late 1960s. The course then takes a great leap backward to the beginnings of utopian idealism as represented by the prophetic message of ancient Judaism and the Christian apocalyptic vision. These two traditions are then compared with the Buddhist "Nirvana" and similar eastern ideals. After a rather brief review of the principal millennial trends of the middle ages, the course focuses on four utopian movements of modern times: the rationalist utopians of the French Revolution; communism from Hegel through Marx, Lenin, and Stalin to Mao; the Nazi vision of a "Third Reich"; and anarchism. The course then returns to the present with an analysis of recent and current communalism including an evaluation of the Israeli kibbutz. If time permits, modern science fiction as a form of utopian thought and sentiment will also be considered. (Mendel)

582(511). History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (SS).

This course traces the history of the criminal law in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: one short paper based on documents, a midterm and a final examination. (Green)

588(598). History of History II. (4). (HU).

An historiographical survey of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries stressing the development of historicism and its problems. The course places a major emphasis on the relationship of the development of method to philosophies of history. No text is employed. Students are expected to read four books of their own choice from an extensive bibliography and to write a critical 2,500 word paper. There is a midterm and a final examination. (Tonsor)

Courses in History of Art (Division 392)

Open to All Undergraduates; Not Open to Graduate Students.

History of Art 101, 102, and 103, while covering different areas, are all considered equivalent introductions to the History of Art. These three introductory survey courses consider not only art objects as aesthetic experiences but also the interaction which exists between the artist and society. The lecture and discussion sections explore various historical, social, religious, and intellectual phenomena which are reflected in the style and content of works of art. Attention is also given to the creative act and to the problems of vision and perception which both the artist and his public must face. The three courses are numbered sequentially but they do not form a sequence. Although it would be logical to move from History of Art 101 to History of Art 102, either History of Art 101 or 102 as well as History of Art 103 serve as a satisfactory introduction to the history of art. Course requirements and texts vary with individual instructors, but an effort is always made to introduce students to works of art in the collections of the university as well as in the museums of Detroit and Toledo. Most of the upper division courses in history of art require one of these three introductory courses as a prerequisite. The introductory courses are directed toward students interested in the general history of culture and are especially valuable cognates for students in the fields of history, philosophy, literature, and musicology as well as the creative arts. Photographic material is available for study in the Fine Arts Study Room in the Modern Languages Building. Examinations usually include short essays and slides which are to be identified, compared, and discussed.

101. Near Eastern and European Art from the Stone Age to the End of the Middle Ages. (4). (HU).

This course approaches the work of art within an historical context and the history of art as a humanistic discipline. The chronological range is from antiquity to the late medieval period, with emphasis on the continuity and interaction of the Classical and Judaeo-Christian traditions. Myths and images which potently survive down to the present day have their roots in the historical periods studied in this course. Architecture, sculpture, painting, and the applied arts are analyzed from the standpoints of technique, style, and cultural expression. The discussion sections are based principally on original materials in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology and the Museum of Art. A general survey of the history is the primary text and supplementary readings are proposed from major works of literature of the various periods studied. This course and History of Art 102 provide a foundation for subsequent study in Western art. History of Art concentrators are strongly urged to take History of Art 101 before 102. (Eisenberg)

102. Western Art from the End of the Middle Ages to the Present. No credit granted to those who have completed 150. (4). (HU).

A chronological history of major achievements in painting, sculpture, and architecture from the Renaissance through the 19th century, the course will attempt both to define the uniqueness of great creative personalities (how, through the manipulation of the materials of their art forms, they gave special expression to their deepest feelings) and to place these artists within wider art-historical/cultural contexts (with their ever-changing conceptions of man's relationship to the physical and spiritual worlds). The weekly discussion section will reinforce the lectures and explore special topics (iconography, connoisseurship, theory, etc.) while encouraging intellectual and emotional involvement with the works of art. Various study materials, textbooks, suggested additional readings, photographs, will be made available, and grading will be based on two-hour examinations, participation in discussion sections, and the final examination. Except for commitment, there are no prerequisites, although a student might well elect History of Art 101 prior to the present course. (Whitman)

103. Arts of Asia. (4). (HU).

This course traces the development of art and architecture in India, Southeast Asia, China and Japan from prehistoric origins to the modern era. Particular emphasis is placed upon the role of Asian religions in the development and content of Asian art, and the interaction of the various cultures. Use will be made of the permanent collection of Oriental art in the University Museum of Art. Three lectures per week and one section meeting to discuss the material presented in lectures. Midterm and final examinations, and several short written assignments are required. (French)

221(321)/Class. Arch. 221. Introduction to Greek Archaeology. (4). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 221. (Pedley)

236/Film Video 236/Eng. Hums. 236. The Art of the Film. (4). (HU). A fee is assessed to help defray the costs of film rentals.

See Film and Video Studies 236. (Cohen)

271. European Painting of the Nineteenth Century. Hist. of Art 101 or 102; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course concentrates upon the history of 19th century European painting. Greatest emphasis is given to French painting, but considerable attention is devoted to German, English, and Spanish painting of the first half of the century. Major artists discussed include Goya, Constable, Turner, Gericault, Delacroix, Courbet, Manet, Monet, Degas, Van Gogh, Gaugin, and Cezanne. The principal movements considered are Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and Symbolism. The lectures seek, within a chronological context, to interweave issues of form and content and to identify reflections within the paintings of the major historical, social, and intellectual currents of the time. Some of the main themes are: the relationship between the artist and nature; and the relationship between the artist and the public. These themes are discussed within the general thesis that the 19th century witnessed dynamic forces of change released by the French Revolution and the urban and industrial revolutions. These forces helped to shape the paintings, and it is the examination of the changing shapes of painting and of conflicting attitudes towards the past and the present that are of special concern in the study of the artists. The class takes the form of slide-lectures. Two examinations and a paper are required. (Isaacson)

341. The Gothic Age. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of the art of Europe in the later Middle Ages (1150 to 1500). Students will examine major works of sculpture, stained glass, manuscript illumination, tapestry, fresco and panel painting, and the art of the goldsmith. The goal of the course is to explore the rapid evolution of the Gothic style culminating in the International Style of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and to chart the intellectual history of the period through iconographic developments in late medieval art. Requirements include a midterm and a final.

376. Dada and Surrealism. Hist. of Art 102, 272; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

A survey of the crucial artistic and intellectual concepts developed by the Dadaists and Surrealists, this undergraduate lecture course will examine the problems explored by Dada, in the personalities of Duchamp, Arp, Schwitters, Ernst, the Berlin Dadists, Picabia, Man Ray, Richter and others, and how their Dada work influenced the later art and ideas of this century. The growth of Surrealism and its relationship to new scientific and psychological thought will be approached through the art and concepts of such key artists as Arp, Miro, Ernst, Giacometti, Dali, Magritte, Masson and Tanguy and some of their followers. The focus will be on Dada and Surrealist work in painting, sculpture, happenings, environments and film. Outside reading will include material on the Dada and Surrealist achievement in literature and the theatre. In Fall 1984, special attention will be paid to the 40 works on loan to the UM Museum of Art for an exhibition entitled: "The Wild Eye: The Influence of Surrealism on American Art". There will be a midterm exam, a final exam in two parts (one part slides and one part take-home essay) and a term project/paper. (Kirkpatrick)

386. Introduction to the Art and Architecture of the Islamic World. History of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the arts of Islamic countries from about 650 A.D. onward, including architecture, painting, ceramics, metalwork, and textiles. The emphasis will lie not on dynasties and dates, but on the distinctive characteristics of these arts as they developed over more than eleven centuries in the lands between Spain and India. The course is designed to demonstrate the lines of development of Islamic art, its regional groupings, and its cultural background and context. Two short (3-5 page) papers based on the examination of objects in the University collections will be assigned, and there will be a final examination. The course is to be composed of lectures illustrated with slides, along with occasional discussions. Unpublished and newly discovered archaeological material will be included. (Allen)

Open to Upperclass Students and Graduate Students

404/CAAS 404. The Art of Africa. (3). (HU),

The course will concentrate on the arts of Sub-Saharan Black Africa. Emphasis will be placed on the sculptural traditions of the major West African styles in the media of wood, stone, metal and clay. The course will also cover African decorative arts and utilitarian objects. Attempts will also be made to describe and integrate interrelationships between the visual arts and African culture and religion in general. This course is not part of a departmental sequence nor is any special background needed. The classes will consist of lectures, discussion and museum experience with actual objects. Two examinations and one paper will be required. (Maurer)

421/Class. Arch. 421. Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. One previous art history, anthropology, or classical archaeology course recommended. (3). (HU).

Survey of the art and archaeology of ancient Mesopotamia and Iran, focusing upon art as a reflection of the societies that produced it. Specific attention will be paid to concepts of aesthetics, iconography, narrative pattern, and programs of piety and politics as these are revealed in sculpture and the art of seals Periodically the class will meet at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology instead of convening for the normal slide-lectures. During these sessions students will have the opportunity to examine and discuss actual artifacts and works of art. Grade evaluation will be based upon a midterm, a final examination, and a research paper of 5-10 typewritten pages (not including notes). The paper will be based upon investigation of an object in the collections of the Kelsey Museum. Readings will be assigned from texts available for purchase (Henri Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient, 4th ed. 1970; R. Hallo and W.K. Simpson, The Ancient Near East, 1971; and A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia, rev. ed. 1977) as well as from books and articles on reserve in the Fine Arts Library of Tappan Hall. Prerequisites: History of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (Root)

427/Class. Arch. 427. Pompeii: Its Life and Art. (3). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 427.

454. Late Renaissance Art in Italy. Hist. of Art 102 or 250; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The course treats the history of painting in Florence and Rome between 1520 and 1590. The first part of the course concentrates upon Roman painting after the death of Raphael; the second part of the course deals with Florentine painting of the same period, beginning with Andrea del Sarto and ending with Bronzino, Salviati, and Vasari. The lectures in this course cover a good deal of relatively unfamiliar material fairly rapidly. Since no satisfactory, accessible survey is available, the lectures are intended to fulfill this function. Students will be expected to absorb this new material relatively quickly, and will have to be ready to spend time memorizing images that most likely will be new to them. This being the case it is important that students entering the course already have a good grounding in Italian art of the Early and High Renaissance. I would not recommend electing this course if your sole background in Renaissance art is from History of Art 102. History of Art 250 and/or History of Art 451 would provide valuable background for this course but are not required. There will be a paper, midterm examination, and final examination. Texts for the course will be Freedberg's Painting in Italy 1500-1600 and Friedlaender's Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism. (Smith)

469. Neoclassic and Romantic Painting. Hist. of Art 102 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is strongly recommended both for concentrators in art history and for concentrators in English, French, and German. It focuses on the masters of neoclassic and romantic painting in England, Germany, and France from approximately 1750 to 1850. Among the painters studied in detail are David, Delacroix, Ingres, Blake, Turner, Constable, Funge, Friedrich, and the Spaniard Goya. Groups such as the Nazarenes and the pre-Raphaelites are also studied. Artistic issues such as the emergence of "modernism"; the development of the disciplines of aesthetics, art criticism, and art history; and the growth of the notion of art for art's sake are examined and analyzed. Two texts are assigned: Brion, Art of the Romantic Era and Levy, Rococo to Revolution. If available, Honour's Neo-Classicism is also required. About 100 pages of additional reading is assigned. There is a one-hour examination as well as a final. A paper (fifteen to twenty pages in length) is required. Paper topics are chosen on an individual basis and are intended to accommodate personal interests and needs. (Miesel)

474. American Art to 1913. Hist. of Art 102 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

A study of the major chronological divisions of Anglo-American art from the first settlements of the 17th century down through the closing of the frontier in 1890: the Colonial period, starting with the late medieval forms inherited from provincial England and closing by the eve of the Revolution with a colonies-wide adaptation of classical forms; the Federal period, during which the arts were dominated by radically new demands that accompanied political independence; the Romantic period, from 1820 to 1860, throughout which the arts were being nationalized and democratized; the Post Civil War period, in which the loss of a unifying idealism opened the way in the arts both for aesthetic anarchy and for strong personal statement. Emphasis will be on artistic systems as they are manifested both on architecture and in painting. Examples of sculpture and the decorative arts will, on occasion, be taken into account. Grades are to be based on a midterm test, a paper and a final examination or a final paper. (Huntington)

493(387). Art of India. Hist. of Art 103 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

The Art of India is a course designed for students with little knowledge of Indian art. It deals with architecture, sculpture, and painting, most of the monuments being closely connected with the Hindu and Buddhist religions and (to a lesser degree) the Islamic faith. A good portion of the required reading is intended to provide a background in the mythology and history of these religions; books such as H. Zimmer's Myths and Symbols in Indian Art, Joseph Campbell's Oriental Mythology (Volume 2 of Masks of God), S.C. Welch's The Art of Mughal India, William Archer's The Loves of Krishna, and W. Spink's The Quest for Krishna will be used. The major course requirements are a midterm examination and a final paper (instead of a final exam). When possible the course will take advantage of nearby exhibitions. By and large the course is a lecture course, and the coverage chronological, although more attention will be given to certain topics than to others, so that certain parts of India's long tradition can be understood in some depth. History of Art 103, 151, 454 or Asia 111 all would provide a useful background for this course, although they are not essential to it. (Spink)

539/Class. Arch. 539. Greek Architecture. Hist. of Art 101 and 330; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

See Classical Archaeology 539. (Herbert)

572. Expressionism in Twentieth-Century Art. Hist. of Art 102 and either Hist. of Art 271 or 272; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Unlike Futurism or Surrealism, Expressionism was never a conscious grouping with a defined program. Indeed, the course does not attempt to define a "true" Expressionism but rather presents those artists usually associated with that ism as individual creators. However, the major focus of the course will be the artists connected with two German groups, the Bridge and the Blue Rider (Kirchner, Heckel, Schmidt-Rottluff et al. from the former; Kandinsky, Marc, Feininger, Klee, et al. from the latter). Other German and Central European artists will also be examined including Kollwitz, Barlach, Beckmann, Schiele and Kokoschka. A broader context for Expressionism will be established by first reviewing certain Post-Impressionist and Symbolist developments and the Art of Munch, Ensor, Hodler and Klimt and then, in the final weeks, by discussion of American Abstract Expressionism. The primary method of instruction is lecture but discussion is encouraged. There will be a midterm quiz, a final and a paper (15-20 pages). The text is: Dube, Expressionism (Praeger) but there will be additional readings from books on Expressionism by Willett, Selz, Myers and Miesel. The course should be valuable not only for students of modern sculpture and painting but for German and Russian majors as well as for those interested in the relationship between art and society, politics, religion and even race. (Miesel)

584. Painting in Islamic Countries. Hist. of Art 101 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course consists of a short examination of pictorial representation in Islamic art and culture, followed by a detailed treatment of manuscript illustration and the arts of the book, particularly in the Persian speaking world, from the 13th through the 17th centuries. Aside from considering some of the finest masterpieces of Islamic art, the course will deal with art historical issues that transcend the limits of Islamic culture. Trip(s) to the Detroit Institute of Arts will be included. Two short papers; term paper, and final exam. (Allen)

598. Japanese Painting to 1600. Hist. of Art 103, 390, or 495. (3). (HU).

Japanese painting from its beginnings in the 7th century through the 16th century. Early painting through the 12th century is mostly Buddhist religious art. The 13th century saw the development of the secular narrative handscrolls. The 14th and 15th century art is largely monochrome ink painting, much of it inspired by Zen Buddhism, and in the 16th century the art of golden screen painting reached its full development. The course comprises the first half of a sequence; Japanese painting from the 17th century to the present is given a second term. A knowledge of Japanese history and language helps but is not required. Three lectures per week, midterm and final exams, and one paper required. (French)

College Honors Courses (Division 395)

250. Sophomore Seminar. Open to Honors students. (3). (SS).
Section 002 Assessing Empirical Social Research: Becoming a Critical Consumer.
Research findings in such fields as physical and mental health, education, family life, social deviance, the welfare of minority and other social groups appear regularly in the popular media and the publications of social and behavioral science disciplines (e.g., Psychology, Sociology, Political Science, Anthropology and others). Sampling this literature in areas of individual interest, students will consider how to appraise the contributions and limitations of research findings. The objective is to increase sophistication by developing a frame of reference for asking questions and a mode of thinking that enhances appreciation of how various types of research (e.g., case studies, surveys, experiments, historical analyses, cost-benefit studies) may add to knowledge and may have potential usefulness. (H. Meyer)

251. Sophomore Seminar. Open to Honors students. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Observation and Interpretations.
This seminar is designed to examine the process of gaining knowledge in the various domains of the human experience, through a careful and detailed analysis of its various stages, i.e., observation, description, inference, interpretation, extrapolation, and prediction. Close attention will be paid to the complex interplay between rules of evidence and the nature of the evidence. While this may sound like an introductory course in the history of science or epistemology, the course has no pretensions to be a philosophy class, nor will it use a philosophy text. Readings will be selected from among the great works of literature, secular and religious, and enduring works of science, including Freud, Kafka, the Bible, Solzenytsin, Tolsty, Connan Doyle and Flaubert. Students will be expected to read a fair amount and to write several papers during the course of the semester. This course should be taken pass/fail. (Guiora)

Section 002 Words. This will be a seminar on words, and the social and philosophical implications of the best of them. Using the Oxford English Dictionary (the OED) as our text, we will examine the etymological and historical significance of a number of important words in the English language. The course will begin with instruction, by example, in our method of studying; thereafter the class will first examine together a wide range of assigned words liberty and religion and justice, freedom and friendship, law and legislation, radicals and radishes, wisdom and happiness, truth and faith, belief and live, thanks and thoughts, etc. and then explore the dictionary in search of other interesting words. Students will be expected to report in class their findings, and to write up one word per week. The text for the course will be, as we've mentioned, the Oxford English Dictionary; students will be encouraged to buy their own copies; order forms available from the Honors office in March. No knowledge of languages other than English is required, though students with competences in any foreign languages will find such skills useful. In addition to class reports, a final essay will be required in which students will be asked to discuss what they have learned. (Hornback)

252. Sophomore Seminar. Open to Honors students. (3). (NS).
Section 001 Constraints on Energy Options.
Several ways in which we obtain energy will receive rather technical evaluation. The terms force, energy, work, heat and temperature among others, will be given rigorous scientific definitions and used in assessing maximum useful energy as utilized or proposed in various options. For resources relying on minerals the geologic setting and processes of formation will be described, as well as the geography of their occurrence. These options will include oil, natural gas, coal, geothermal energy, solar energy (direct), tidal energy, agricultural wastes, urban trash, oceanic thermal gradients, wind, fresh/saline water osmotic pressure, wood and others. Evaluation will consist of a short midterm paper, a slightly longer final term paper, a short (ca. 15 minutes) class presentation on some energy related topic and a midterm exam. Field trips during class time are likely to be at the Ford Nuclear Reactor (North Campus), KMS Fusion, and one or two solar heated houses (small fee to cover transportation). Readings will be from Energy in Transition 1935-2010, Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, National Research Council of the National Academy of Science, W.H. Freeman & Co., 1980; Schurr, S.H., et. al., Energy in America's Future, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979; and current or recent periodicals. Prerequisites are high school algebra, and a reasonably good knowledge of general science (a little chemistry and physics, which may be rather short of high school course equivalency). (Cloke)

Section 002 Human Striving: Science and the Humanities Compared. A significant part of the activity of those involved in the humanities may be referred to as involving "the art of criticizing". Part of science is also a critique of the literature, and most scientific activities begin as such. Assuming that science and the humanities are both outcomes of human striving, we will investigate their similarities and differences by sampling and analyzing both. Do their differences arise out of differences in subject matter, methodology, or both? Is there an area of human activity in which it is impractical or impossible to be "scientific"? If so, why, and is this area approached gradually or suddenly as one moves through the various social sciences toward, say, history, philosophy, literature, and the arts? (Alexander)

Courses in Linguistics (Division 423)

211. Introduction to Language. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the scope and methods of linguistic inquiry. It should enable students to acquire familiarity with the different branches of linguistics and to come to some appreciation of what linguists do. The course has two principal goals: to introduce many of the basic tools for studying language and to learn to use those tools to improve our understanding of language as we encounter it in our daily lives. One part of the course will examine principles for analysing sounds, words, sentences, and larger texts such as conversation and narratives. Another part of the course will explore how social factors affect language use. For example, students will look at differences between men and women, older and younger people, and ethnic groups. A study of how language changes will also be discussed. In the third part of the course the role of psychological factors in language is explored. As part of the assignments, students will study language in films, advertising, and politics. This course is not designed to meet the needs of any particular group but rather provides an opportunity for people from any discipline to find out what linguistics is all about. In general, undergraduates should enroll in Linguistics 211. Honors students and those undergraduates desiring to do graduate level assignments should enroll in Linguistics 411. (Manaster-Ramer)

311. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. (3). (HU).

Basic concepts and field techniques in linguistics will be introduced and explained in the course of exploring and describing, from word to discourse, a non-Western language. Several short papers. No prerequisites. Textbook: K.L. Pike, On Describing Languages. (Becker)

312. Introduction to Analysis of Sounds. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to two interdependent branches of the study of speech-sounds. These are: (1) phonetics, concerned chiefly with the analysis and classification of all the sounds that can be pronounced by human vocal tracts the total human sound-producing potential, and (2) phonology, concerned with the different ways in which particular languages utilize this universal human sound-potential. The approach to phonetics will be largely experimental, though non-instrumental: that is, students will discover the range of possible human sounds, and how they are produced, by systematic experimentation in their own vocal tracts. Thus, the categories used in the classification of all speech-sounds will be learned experientially as well as intellectually. The last third of the course, dealing with some basic concepts of phonology, will survey ways in which features of the universal human sound-potential are organized into the different sound-systems of particular languages. Examples will be drawn from English and a few other familiar languages. Text: a course-pack. Grading: by two tests of practical ability to analyse and describe sounds in the taxonomic categories of phonetics, and one test relating to phonology. Prerequisites: none (except an interest in language!). (Catford)

314. Introduction to Word Analysis. (3). (HU).

Much of what is commonly called 'grammar' word endings, verb and noun forms, paradigms, etc. falls within the linguistic area of morphology. This field deals with the internal structure of words and the meaningful pieces, or 'morphemes' (such as type, write, er, and s in English typewriters), from which they are made and through which grammatical and semantic relationships among words are expressed. This course will deal with morphological analysis in a wide range of language types. There will be frequent data analysis homework problems and a final project involving extended morphological analysis of a language of the student's choice. Text: Matthews: Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of Word-Structure. (Hill)

315. Introduction to Sentence Analysis. (3). (HU).

This is an introduction to what is commonly called syntax in a classical transformational framework. No prior knowledge of linguistics or of languages other than English is assumed. One of the most important facts about syntactic analysis is that it is based on argumentation: one cannot simply claim an analysis, one must argue for that analysis. Accordingly, this course concentrates on syntactic argumentation. We learn how to organize data, form logical hypotheses, argue for the best hypothesis, and test the predictions of our hypotheses. There are frequent problem sets and the students are strongly encouraged to meet in groups outside class to discuss the problem sets. There are no exams, papers, or regular readings. Near the end of the term there may be selected readings. The data we use will all come from the students' heads: sentences of natural languages. Class progresses by discussion, with student participation being crucial. This course should be of interest to language, mathematics, music, law, and philosophy "types" as well as anyone else who wants to build up skills in argumentation. (Napoli)

351. Second Language Acquisition. (3). (SS).

This is an introductory course in second language acquisition, dealing with how people learn foreign/second languages. We will first examine methodological issues necessary for the interpretation of second language data. The major part of the course will focus on topics of recent second language acquisition research, especially those that enable us to test proposed models of second language acquisition. Through data analysis problems students will have first-hand experience dealing with second language data. Given the introductory nature of this course, no prior coursework in second language acquisition is necessary. A course pack made up of selected readings will serve as the readings. The course is intended for all students who are interested in knowing more about how second languages are learned. (Gass)

354. Language and the Public Interest. (3). (SS).

This course examines the characteristics of language used in major American institutions. We will look at the written and spoken language of advertising, politics, medicine, psychotherapy, pharmacy, law, banking, insurance, and the schools. In addition, we will be concerned with factors thought to influence how language is used in these institutions such as the sex roles, social status, and degree of intimacy the participants in these institutions share. We will also explore how the spoken and written varieties of language used in these institutions differ and what consequences this has. There will be a series of brief assignments and one major course paper. (Keller-Cohen)

360. ESL Theory, Methods, and Tests I. One introductory course in linguistics. (3). (HU).

This course is designed to provide students with a sound theoretical and practical basis for language teaching. The background of knowledge and experiences it provides is intended not only for those interested in finding out about teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESL), but is also applicable to English teaching in general, and to foreign language teaching as well. A wide variety of topics related to language learning and teaching will be studied. The complexities involved in the teaching of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills will be investigated in detail. An evaluative consumer's guide to different language learning theories, teaching methods, and testing procedures will be developed to enable students to make informed choices for their own teaching requirements. Additional topics will include a study of situational needs for language use (e.g., language for business, language for science) with special attention to the language of the classroom. Throughout the course a general background of educational issues crucial to language teaching will be provided. There are no prerequisites. All students interested in language teaching are invited. (Ard)

370. Language and Language Policy of the USSR. (3). (Excl.).

The topics to be taken up in this course will include the different languages of the USSR (belonging to many families, very different in structure: a survey; classification); how and when they came to their present location (cf. Caucasian); history of linguistic studies in the USSR (much has been done by those exiled by czars); linguistic policy under czars and after the revolution of 1917 (e.g., the policy of russification, Moldavian versus Rumanian, the policy of preferences for "big" languages including new names for languages; linguistics studies in Russia (of languages present there; linguistics in republics: Lithuania, Estonia, Uzbekistan, Ukrainia, Moldavia, etc.). (Shevoroshkin)

409/Anthro. 472. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

See Cultural Anthropology 472. (Yengoyan)

411/Anthro. 475. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

This course introduces the discipline of linguistics, with major focus on developing the ability to make descriptive generalizations about linguistic systems of languages not known (beyond small data sets) to the students. We will concentrate on "descriptive" linguistics: phonetics (the nature of speech sounds), phonology (how speech sounds are organized), morphology (combinations of meaningful units into words), syntax (sentence formation), semantics (meaning), pragmatics (language use). We will also spend some time on comparative/historical linguistics, including: language origins, language variation and change, relationships among languages, linguistics as a method for studying prehistory. Textbook: Fromkin and Rodman: An Introduction to Language (second edition). (Hill)

420. Microcomputer Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The computer has been part of our culture a fixture in our hopes, plans, and nightmares for more than a generation. Recent developments in microcomputer technology have placed the power of the computer within the reach of virtually everyone...if we can manage to grasp it. Computers are useful only to the extent that they can meet people's needs, and this depends on the ways that exist to communicate these needs to the computer. Just as in human communication, these take the form of languages. This course is designed for linguistics students and others with a strong interest and thorough grounding in Language and languages. We will begin with the theory and practice of microcomputer operation, then proceed to editing and wordprocessing, learning and analyzing several command languages in the process. Further topics covered include documentation and its production, user interface design, types of programming languages, and text analysis of representative technical material and advertising. The thrust of the course is on applying Linguistic methods and findings to real problems in microcomputer software design and use. Prior programming knowledge and experience is useful but not required. There will be homework, several writing assignments, and a final term project, done on a microcomputer. The text is Cortesi, Inside CP/M, and course packs. Students must have had at least an introductory course in Linguistics. (Lawler)

442/Anthro. 478. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

Introduction to the use of language in its social context, and to the analysis of natural linguistics data. The course involves some field work, ;and covers bilingual and multilingual communities, language and politics, language and social issues, social variation in language, conversational interaction.

485. Linguistic Typology. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

There are hundreds of languages in the world how different can they be? And how similar, and what are the reasons for these similarities? What differences are there between the surface level and the deep level of language organization? And why is it that the similarities among languages are best perceived at the deep level? To what extent can all the variety of thoughts conveyed by languages be described by several dozen elementary meanings? What are language universals? What are the rules of language change? In what ways do today's languages differ from the languages which existed 10,000 years ago? How can we understand the striking similarities between such distant languages as those of American Indians and the languages of the Caucasus? (Shevoroshkin)

492. Topics in Linguistics. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Language Paradigms and Verbal Art.
This course will explore the deep indebtedness of creative writers to the theories current in the worlds in which they wrote. These theories at the most fundamental level are often born in the work of linguists. This course seeks to interrelate language and literature, language as an object of analysis and as a communicative device. It is a course that attempts to form a bridge between current trends in linguistics per se and those in literature, particularly literary criticism. There will be a one page paper each week; no exams. (Markey)

510/Anthro. 576. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Anthropology 576. (Mannheim)

170. English as a Foreign Language. Students will be placed in 170 based on the English Language Proficiency Examination. (4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for non-native graduates and undergraduates who have sufficient language proficiency to be admitted to the University but who need to improve their language skills to perform successfully in academic work. For example, some students may have difficulty expressing themselves in writing, giving oral presentations, and understanding lectures. A prerequisite for placement in the course is a score in the 80's on the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency. There are three hours per week of group instruction, discussion, and practice exercises. Students receive instruction and practice in the writing of well formed sentences, paragraphs, and essays. Library resources, research techniques, and the steps for developing a well organized and properly documented term paper are presented. Instruction is given in techniques of oral presentation and classroom discussion. Pronunciation instruction is provided on a tutorial basis and self-access listening comprehension materials are available in the language laboratory. Students are graded on a credit/no credit basis. A student receives a passing grade if she or he has attended classes regularly and satisfactorily completed specified assignments, including the final end of term research paper. (Soden)

180. English for Foreign GSTAs. Teaching assistants will be placed in 180 on the basis of pre-session testing. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course is designed for students who do not pass the special English Language Skills Test for Teaching Assistants. Instruction will be given twice a week in two hour sessions and in additional small group work. The course will focus on oral presentations in the student's own field of study. Extensive use of video-taping and critiquing will be included. Topics to be covered will include: (1) methods of organization for oral presentation; (2) public speaking skills; (3) classroom interactional skills; (4) intensive audio and video pronunciation workshop instruction. Students will be tested on pronunciation early in the course, and when necessary assigned to special self-study pronunciation work in the language laboratory in addition to the pronunciation workshops. Note that this course is designed to meet the needs of non-native speakers of English. (Ard)

222 Elementary Ojibwa. (3). (FL).

This course is designed to give the conversational and cultural skills necessary to enable students to use Ojibwa in real life situations. The teaching methods are entirely inductive, and the role of writing is downplayed. There is considerable emphasis on teaching culturally appropriate behavior, and the simple conversational patterns of greetings, leave takings, introductions, table talk, etc. There is no prerequisite for the course. (Rhodes)

301 Thai. (4). (FL).

This course is the first half of the sequential Elementary Thai courses. The emphases are on practicing pronunciation and simple conversation, reading and writing simple Thai, and expanding students' vocabulary. Four hours of language lab per week are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

307 Elementary Tagalog. (4). (FL).

This course is designed for those students who wish to learn Tagalog and to acquire a reading and speaking knowledge of it and for those students who wish to learn about Tagalog structure from a linguistic viewpoint. The first kind of student is a specialist who wishes to learn Tagalog as a tool for conducting research in Philippine history, anthropology, political science, or linguistics, or in Austronesian linguistics or education in Southeast Asia. The second type of student is the linguist who wishes to gain or add comparative knowledge of a different linguistic system. Linguistics 307 begins a two-term sequence which emphasizes against a background of Philippine culture Tagalog pronunciation, word formation processes, and basic sentence structure. By the end of the first year, students should have acquired a competence in spoken Tagalog and should be ready for intermediate level reading. Language laboratory tapes are assigned, and there are question and answer sessions in class. Once a week a class session is devoted to a lecture/discussion of Tagalog structure. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination, part of which is oral. For those students whose primary interest is linguistics, a paper takes the place of the final examination. Tentative course texts and materials include J. Donald Bowen, editor, Beginning Tagalog; Schachter and Otanes, Tagalog Reference Grammar; language laboratory tapes prepared by UCLA and/or the instructor; and a Tagalog-English dictionary. A list of supplementary reading is given at the beginning of the term. (Naylor)

322 Intermediate Ojibwa. (3). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the basic conversational skills of the student who knows some Ojibwa. The emphasis in class is on increasing the range of situations in which the student can use Ojibwa in real life. Some emphasis is placed on teaching the students to be able to learn more Ojibwa outside of the classroom, by talking and using the language with native speakers. Linguistics 223 is a prerequisite, or some speaking knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

331/German 301. Elementary Yiddish. (3). (FL).

See German 301. (Norich)

401 Intermediate Thai. Ling. 302. (3). (FL).

This course is the first half of the sequential Intermediate Thai courses. It is designed to increase students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing abilities, as well as vocabulary expansion. Students practice pronunciation and conversation as well as read and write short paragraphs. Four hours of language lab per week are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

422 Advanced Ojibwa. Ling. 322 and 323, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is aimed at giving students with conversational ability in Ojibwa the opportunity to both improve their speaking and listening skills and to introduce them to Ojibwa literature, and the various dialects represented in the literature. Students will work with the original, unedited texts, as well as with edited, retranscribed materials, and thus learn about the problems of working in a language without a standard writing system that is widely accepted. The course prerequisite is Linguistics 323, or a conversational knowledge of Ojibwa, Ottawa, or Chippewa. (Rhodes)

433 Intermediate Tagalog. Ling. 314 or permission of instructor. (3). (FL).

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is part of a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Linguistics 307 and 308 must pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format of the course will be as follows: readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points and question and answer sessions in Tagalog on the content. There will be written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination part of which will be oral. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write brief letters, read certain plays, newspapers, magazines, etc. Course texts are: Intermediate Readings in Tagalog, ed. by Bowen; Tagalog Reference Grammar by Schacter and Otanes; and a Tagalog-English Dictionary. Supplementary readings will be assigned during the term. (Naylor)

501 Advanced Thai. Ling. 402. (3). (FL).

This course is the first half of the two sequential Advanced Thai courses. The course is designed to improve students' proficiency in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension of the Thai language. The course is flexible and tailored to suit students' needs and interests.

Courses in Mathematics (Division 428)

All mathematics courses require a minimum of one year each of high school algebra and geometry. In order to accommodate diverse backgrounds and interests, several curse options are open to beginning mathematics students. Courses preparatory to the calculus are offered in pairs: a lecture/recitation format and a self-paced version of the same material. The even-numbered course of each pair is self-paced. Department policy limits a student to a total of 4 credits for courses numbered 110 and below.

Math 103/104 is the first half of Math 105/106; Math 107/108 is the second half. Math 112 is designed for students of business and social sciences who require only one term of calculus. The sequence 113-114 is designed for students of the life sciences who require only one year of calculus. The sequence 115-116-215-216 is appropriate for most students who want a complete introduction to the calculus. Each of Math 112, 113, 115, 185, and 195 is a first course in calculus; credit can be received for only one course from this list. Math 109/110 is designed for students whose preparation includes all of the prerequisites for calculus but who are unable to complete one of the calculus courses successfully. Math 109/110 will be offered as a 7-week course during the second half of each term.

Admission to Math 185 or 195 requires permission of a mathematics Honors counselor (1210 Angell Hall). Students who have performed well on the College Board Advanced Placement exam may receive credit and advanced placement in the sequence beginning with Math 115. Other students who have studied calculus in high school may take a departmental placement examination during the first week of the fall term to receive advanced placement without credit in the Math 115 sequence. No advanced placement credit is granted to students who elect Math 185. Students electing Math 195 receive advanced placement credit after Math 296 is satisfactorily completed.

101. Elementary Algebra. (2). (Excl).

Standard lecture version of Mathematics 102. Material covered includes integers, rationals, and real numbers; linear, fractional, and quadratic expressions and equations, polynomials and factoring; exponents, powers and roots; functions.

102. Elementary Algebra (Self-Paced). (2). (Excl).

Self-paced version of Mathematics 101. See Math 101 for description.

103. Intermediate Algebra. Two or three years of high school mathematics; or Math. 101 or 102. 1 credit for students with credit for Math. 101 or 102. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 or 106. (2). (Excl).

Standard lecture version of Mathematics 104. Review of elementary algebra; rational and quadratic equations; properties of relations, functions, and their graphs; linear and quadratic functions, inequalities, logarithmic and exponential functions and equations. Equivalent to the first half of Mathematics 105/106.

Section 002 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for calculus and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. This CSP section covers the complete departmental syllabus and selected additional topics such as a thorough treatment of how to set up word problems. The required extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts and group problem-solving. Material covered includes rational and quadratic equations; properties of relations, functions, and their graphs; linear and quadratic functions; inequalities; logarithmic and exponential functions and equations. Course content is equivalent to the first half of Mathematics 105/106. The text has been College Algebra: A Functions Approach, by Keedy and Bittenger.

104. Intermediate Algebra (Self-Paced) Two to three years high school mathematics; or Math. 101. One credit for students with credit for Math. 101. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 and 106. (2). (Excl)

Self-paced version of Math 103. Material covered includes rational and quadratic equations; properties of relations, functions, and their graphs; linear and quadratic functions; inequalities; logarithmic and exponential functions and equations. Course content is equivalent to the first half of Mathematics 105/106.

105. Algebra and Analytic Trigonometry. See table. Students with credit for Math. 104 can only elect Math. 105 for 2 credits. (4). (Excl).

Standard lecture version of Math 106. This course provides passage to Math 115 for students with weak or incomplete high school mathematics backgrounds. Students with good mathematics preparation but no trigonometry can elect Math 107 concurrently with Math 115. Topics covered include number systems, factoring, exponents and radicals, linear and quadratic equations, polynomials, exponential and trigonometric functions, graphs, triangle solutions, and curve sketching. The text has been Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (Fourth Edition) by Swokowski.

106. Algebra and Analytic Trigonometry. See table. Students with credit for Math. 104 can elect Math. 106 for 2 credits. (4). (Excl).

Self-paced version of Math 105. There are no lectures or sections. Students are assigned to tutors in the Mathematics Laboratory and work at their own pace. Progress is measured by tests following each chapter which must be passed with at least 80% success for the student to move on to the next chapter. Up to five versions of each chapter test may be taken to reach this level. Midterms and finals are administered when a group of students is ready for them. More detailed information is available from the Mathematics Department office. The text has been Algebra and Trigonometry: A Functions Approach by Keedy and Bittenger.

107. Trigonometry. See table. No credit granted to those who have completed 105. (2). (Excl).

Standard lecture version of Math 108. This course provides the trigonometry background needed for Math 115. Students with a history of poor performance in high school mathematics, with or without trigonometry, who plan to continue in mathematics usually need a more general training than is offered in Math 107, and should elect Math 105 or 106. The text for Math 107 has been Keedy and Bittinger, Trig, Triangles, and Functions, Third Edition.

Section 002 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for calculus and are willing to devote the necessary effort to do so. This CSP section covers the complete departmental syllabus and also includes precalculus material. The required extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts and group problem-solving. Material covered includes: triangle solutions, trigonometric functions, graphs and equations, curve sketching, and the analytic geometry of lines and conic sections. The text has been Trigonometry: A Functions Approach, by Keedy and Bittenger.

108. Trigonometry (Self-Paced). Two or three years of high school mathematics; or Math. 101. One credit for students with credit for Math. 101. No credit for students with credit for Math. 105 or 106. (2). (Excl).

Self-paced version of Math 107. Material covered includes circular functions, graphs and properties; trigonometric identities; functions of angles; double and half-angle formulas; inverse functions; solving triangles; laws of sines and cosines.

109. Pre-Calculus. Two years of high school algebra. No credit for students who already have 4 credits for pre-calculus mathematics courses. (2). (N. Excl).

Standard lecture version of Math 110. Material covered includes linear, quadratic, and absolute value equations and inequalities; algebra of functions; trigonometric identities; functions and graphs: trig and inverse trig, exponential and logarithmic, polynomial and rational; analytic geometry of lines and conic sections.

Note : Math 112 is a single term calculus course designed primarily for pre-business and social science students. The course neither presupposes nor covers any trigonometry. Math 113-114 is a special two-term calculus sequence for students in the biological sciences. Math 113 begins with a number of pre-calculus topics; the introduction to calculus is gradual. Neither 112 nor 113 nor 114 meshes with the standard sequence. Students who want to keep open the option of going beyond introductory calculus should elect the standard sequence. Credit is allowed for only one of the first term calculus courses: 112, 113, 115, 185, 195.

110. Pre-Calculus (Self-Paced). Two years of high school algebra. No credit for students who already have 4 credits for pre-calculus mathematics courses. (2). (Excl).

Self-paced version of Mathematics 109. See Math 109 for description.

112. Brief Calculus. Three years of high school mathematics or Math. 105 or 106. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl).

This is a one-term survey course that provides the basics of elementary calculus. Emphasis is placed on intuitive understanding of concepts and not on rigor. Topics include differentiation with application to curve sketching and maximum-minimum problems, antiderivatives and definite integrals. Trigonometry is not used. The text has been Hofman, Calculus for the Social, Managerial, and Life Sciences, Second Edition. This course does not mesh with any of the courses in the regular mathematics sequences.

113. Mathematics for Life Sciences I. Three years of high school mathematics or Math. 105 or 106. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 113 and 114 constitute a two-term sequence designed for students anticipating study in fields such as biology, zoology, botany, natural resources, microbiology, medical technology and nursing. Students in the life sciences who may need a more thorough mathematics background should elect one of the regular mathematics sequences. The material covered includes logic, set theory, algebra, calculus, matrices and vectors, probability and differential equations. Examples are chosen from the life sciences. The text has been Arya and R. Lardner, Mathematics for Biological Sciences (Second Edition).

114. Mathematics for Life Sciences II. Math. 113. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4). (N.Excl).

See Mathematics 113.

115. Analytic Geometry and Calculus I. See table. (Math. 107 may be elected concurrently.) Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics covered in this course include functions and graphs, derivatives; differentiation of algebraic functions, applications; definite and indefinite integrals, applications; and transcendental functions. Daily assignments are given. There are generally two or three one-hour examinations plus a uniform midterm and final.

Section 209: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of calculus and are willing to devote the effort necessary on calculus. This section requires extra discussion time for in-depth analysis of central concepts and group problem-solving.

116. Analytic Geometry and Calculus II. Math. 115. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 114, 116, and 186. (4). (N.Excl).

Review of transcendental functions, techniques of integration, vectors in R to the nth power and matrices, solutions of systems of linear equations by Gaussian elimination, determinants, conic sections, infinite sequences and series. The course generally requires three one-hour examinations and a uniform midterm and final exam.

117. Elementary Linear Algebra. One term of calculus or permission of instructor. No credit is granted to those who have completed Math. 216. (2). (N.Excl).

Topics covered in this course include vectors in R to the nth power and matrices, solutions of systems of linear equations by Gaussian elimination, determinants, vector spaces and linear transformations. There are generally classroom examinations in addition to a uniform midterm and final examination. This material is covered in the four-credit courses: Math. 116 (Fall, 1981) and 216 (Spring, 1982).

185. Analytic Geometry and Calculus. Permission of the Honors counselor. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 112, 113, 115. (4 each). (N.Excl).

First of a three course sequence, 185/186/285. Topics covered in this course are the same as those for Math 115. Students who elect Math 185/186 cannot also receive Advanced Placement credit for Math 115/116.

195. Honors Mathematics. Permission of the Honors counselor. (4). (N.Excl).

Functions of one variable and their representation by graphs. Limits and continuity. Derivatives and integrals, with applications. Parametric representations. Polar coordinates. Applications of mathematical induction. Determinants and systems of linear equations. Text: L. Gillman and R.H. McDowell Calculus, Second Edition. The course is part of the Honors sequence Mathematics 195, 196, 295, 296. Students must bring basic competence in high-school algebra and trigonometry. They need not be candidates for a mathematical career; but they should be willing to regard mathematics not only as a logical system and as a tool for science, but also as an art. Evaluation will be based on homework, examinations, and participation in discussions. The division of class-time between lectures and discussions will be determined informally according to the students' needs. Students will be encouraged to establish informal study groups.

215. Analytic Geometry and Calculus III. Math. 116. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics covered include vector algebra and calculus, solid analytic geometry, partial differentiation, multiple integrals and applications. There are generally daily assignments and class examinations in addition to uniform midterm and final examinations.

216. Introduction to Differential Equations. Math. 215. Students with credit for Math. 117 can only elect Math. 216 for 3 credits. (3; 4 beginning IIIa 1982). (N.Excl).

Topics covered include first order differential equations, linear differential equations with constant coefficients, vector spaces, differential operators, and linear transformations, systems of linear differential equations, power series solutions, and applications. There are generally several class examinations and regular assignments.

247/Ins. 474 (Business Administration). Mathematics of Finance. Math. 112 or 115. (3). (N.Excl).

This course is designed for students who seek an introduction to the mathematical concepts and techniques employed by financial institutions such as banks, insurance companies, and pension funds. Actuarial students, and other mathematics majors, should elect Math 424 which covers the same topics but on a more rigorous basis requiring considerable use of the calculus. Topics covered include: various rates of simple and compound interest, present and accumulated values based on these; annuity functions and their application to amortization, sinking funds and bond values; depreciation methods; introduction to life tables, life annuity, and life insurance values. The course is not part of a sequence. Students should possess financial calculators.

285. Analytic Geometry and Calculus. Permission of the Honors counselor. (4 each). (N.Excl).

Topics covered in this courses are the same as those for Math 215/216.

289. Problem Seminar. Permission of instructor or the Honors counselor. (1). (N.Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission.

One of the best ways to develop mathematical abilities is by solving problems using a variety of methods. Familiarity with numerous methods is a great asset to the developing student of mathematics. Methods learned in attacking a specific problem frequently find application in many other areas of mathematics. In many instances, an interest in mathematics and an appreciation of mathematics is better developed by solving problems than by receiving formal lectures on specific topics. The student receives an opportunity to participate more actively in his education and development. This course is intended only for those superior students who have exhibited both ability and interest in doing mathematics. The course is not restricted to Honors students.

295. Honors Analysis I. Math. 196. (4). (N.Excl).

This course is devoted to the study of functions of several real variables. Topics covered include: (1) Elementary linear algebra: subspaces, bases, dimension, and solution of linear systems by Gauss elimination. (2) Elementary topology: open, closed, compact, and connected sets. Continuous and uniformly continuous functions. (3) Differential and integral calculus for vector-valued functions of a scalar. (4) Differential calculus for scalar valued functions on R to the nth power. (5) Linear transformations: null space, range, matrices, calculations, return to linear systems, norm of a linear transformation. (6) Differential calculus of vector valued mappings on R to the nth power: derivative, chain rule, implicit function theorem, inverse function theorem. Math 296 picks up where 295 ends.

300/ECE 300. Mathematical Methods in System Analysis. Math. 216 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 448. (3). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 300/ECE 300 is primarily a lecture course designed to introduce electrical and computer engineering students to operational mathematics as embodied in Laplace Transforms, Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms and Complex Variables. The course is divided into 5 distinct topic areas, with the following amount of time coverage. Laplace Transforms (2 weeks), Inverse Laplace and Applications to Linear Differential Equations (2 weeks), System Theorem Concepts (1 week), Real Fourier Series (1 1/2 weeks), Functions of a Complex Variable (5 weeks), Inversion Integral (1 week), Complex Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms (2 weeks). Course grades determined from: weekly graded home problem assignments; three or four hourly quizzes and the final examination. Texts: (1) Course Notes-Mathematical Methods of System Analysis by Louis F. Kazda (available from Dollar Bill Copying, 611 Church). Reference: Engineering Library Reference Book List.

305/ECE 305. Mathematical Methods of Field Analysis. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Math 300/ECE 300. No credit granted to those who have completed 450. (3). (N.Excl).

The purpose of Mathematics 305/ECE 305 is to provide understanding of the mathematics involved in the analysis of vector and scalar fields and to give experience in its application. It is a lecture course which is required for the electrical engineering option in the ECE Department, and is typically taken in the junior year. The main segments of the course are (1) the algebra of vectors and scalars (1 week); (2) the differential calculus of fields in one, two and three dimensions: grad, div and curl (4 weeks); (3) the integral calculus of fields: line, surface and volume integrals; Green's, the divergence and Stokes' theorems (5 weeks); and (4) partial differential equations: their solution subject to prescribed initial values and boundary conditions (4 weeks). The required text has been Advanced Engineering Mathematics by E. Kreyszig (Wiley, 1979; 4th edition). Coverage is limited to Chapters 6, 8, 9, and 11, plus supplementary material involving the use of curvilinear coordinates. Weekly homeworks are assigned and marked. Grades are based on the results of the homeworks, 2 (or 3) quizzes and a final examination.

312. Applied Modern Algebra. Math. 116, or permission of mathematics counselor. (3). (N. Excl).

This course is an introduction to algebraic structures having applications in such areas as switching theory, automata theory and coding theory, and useful to students in mathematics, applied mathematics, electrical engineering and computer science. It introduces elementary aspects of sets, functions, relations, graphs, semigroups, groups, rings, finite fields, partially ordered sets, lattices, and Boolean algebras. Computer oriented applications are introduced throughout, covering some of: Finite State Machines, Minimal State Machines, Algebraic Description of Logic Circuits, Semigroup Machines, Binary Codes, Fast Adders, Polya Enumeration Theory, Series and Parallel Decompositions of Machines.

350/Aero. Eng. 350. Aerospace Engineering Analysis. Math. 216 or the equivalent. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a three-hour lecture course in engineering mathematics which continues the development and application of ideas introduced in Math. 215 and 216. The course is required in the Aerospace Engineering curriculum, and covers subjects needed for subsequent departmental courses. The major topics discussed include Fourier series, vector analysis, and an introduction to partial differential equations, with emphasis on separation of variables. Some review and extension of ideas relating to convergence, partial differentiation, and integration are also given. The methods developed are used in the formulation and solution of elementary initial- and boundary-value problems involving, e.g., forced oscillations, wave motion, diffusion, elasticity, and perfect-fluid theory. There are two or three one-hour exams and a two-hour final, plus about ten homework assignments, or approximately one per week, consisting largely of problems from the text. The text is Engineering Mathematics, Vol. 1, by A.J.M. Spencer et al.

385. Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers. One year each of high school algebra and geometry, and acceptable performance on a proficiency test administered in class; or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 485. (3). (Excl).

Mathematics 385 is an integrated treatment of arithmetic and geometric concepts important to elementary teachers. Principal emphasis is placed on the number systems of elementary mathematics: whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers. The School of Education requires successful completion of Math 385 before the student teaching experience. The text has been Professor Krause's Mathematics for Elementary Teachers, published by Prentice Hall. The course consists of two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Grades are principally determined by midterm and final examination scores, but the quality of homework performance, as evaluated in the discussion sections, has bearing on the final grade.

404. Differential Equations. Math. 216 or 286. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a second course in differential equations which reviews elementary techniques and delves into intermediate methods and equations. Emphasis varies slightly with individual instructor and student needs but usually includes power series expansions about ordinary points and regular singular points, series solutions of second-order differential equations, simultaneous linear equations (solutions by matrices), Laplace transform, numerical methods, nonlinear equations, and phase-plane methods. The format is lecture/discussion, and the course is often elected by engineering students and students of the natural, physical and social sciences.

412. First Course in Modern Algebra. Math. 215 or 285, or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 512. Students with credit for 312 should take 512 rather than 412. (3). (N.Excl).

This course assumes a level of mathematical maturity and sophistication consistent with advanced level courses. It is a course elected primarily by mathematics majors including teaching certificate candidates and by a small number of master's degree candidates. Normally it is the first "abstract" course encountered by students in mathematics. Most students continue with Mathematics 513 for which Mathematics 412 serves as a prerequisite. Course topics include basic material on sets with special emphasis on mappings, equivalence relations, quotients and homomorphisms; groups and subgroups; rings, integral domains and polynomial rings; and fields and simple extensions. Students seeking a more comprehensive presentation should consider Mathematics 512.

413. Calculus for Social Scientists. Not open to mathematics concentrators. (3). (N.Excl).

A one-term course designed for students who require an introduction to the ideas and methods of the calculus. The course begins with a review of algebra and then surveys analytic geometry, derivatives, maximum and minimum problems, integrals, integration, and partial derivatives. Applications to business and economics are given whenever possible, and the level is always intuitive rather than highly technical. This course should not be taken by those who have had a previous calculus course or plan to take more than one or two further courses in mathematics. The course is specially designed for graduate students in the social sciences.

416. Theory of Algorithms. Math. 312 or 412 or ECE 367; and CCS 374. (3). (N. Excl).

This course will introduce the students to various algorithms used to solve mathematical problems. We will discuss the efficiency of these methods and areas of current research. The interaction between mathematics and computer science will be stressed. Topics will include: enumerative algorithms and their relation to sieve methods and sequence counting; generative algorithms designed to output all possible objects of a given type; algorithms for selecting an object at random; and graphical algorithms useful in circuit design and flow problems. Some elementary complexity analysis will be included with discussion of run and storage space restrictions, asymptotic methods, and NP completeness. The class format will be lecture/discussion. The grades will be based on homework and take-home exams.

417. Matrix Algebra I. Three terms of college mathematics. No credit granted to those who have completed 513. (3). (N.Excl).

The course covers basic linear algebra and touches on several of its applications to many different fields. Emphasis is on introducing a diversity of applications rather than treating a few in depth. Topics emphasized include a review of matrix operations, vector spaces, Gaussian and Gauss-Jordan algorithms for linear equations, subspaces of vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants, orthogonality, characteristic polynomials, eigenvalue problems, and similarity theory. Applications include linear networks, least squares method (regression), discrete Markov processes, linear programming, and differential equations. The class is elected by a cross section of students, and usually includes some graduate students. The class format is lecture/discussion. The text has been Linear Algebra and Its Applications by Strang.

419/CICE 401/ECE 401. Linear Spaces and Matrix Theory. Math. 216 or 286. No credit granted to those who have completed 417 or 513. (3). (N.Excl).

Finite dimensional linear spaces and matrix representations of linear transformations. Bases, subspaces, determinants, eigenvectors, and canonical forms. Structure of solutions of systems of linear equations. Applications to differential and difference equations. The course provides more depth and content than Math 417. Math 513 is the proper election for students contemplating research in mathematics. The objectives are to give a rigorous understanding of linear algebra and linear spaces. Abstract methods are used and some emphasis is given to proofs. The course is essential for the mathematics section of the CICE qualifying examination. Some mathematical maturity and ability to cope with abstraction is required; elementary understanding of matrices and differential equations. Three lectures per week, the grades are based on exams.

425/Stat. 425. Introduction to Probability. Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl).

This course is a basic introduction to the mathematical theory of probability. Course topics include fundamental concepts, random variables, expectations, variance, covariance, correlation, independence, conditional probability, Bayes' Theorem, distributions, random walks, law of large numbers and central limit theorem. By itself the course provides a basic introduction to probability and, when followed by Statistics 426 or Statistics 575, the sequence provides a basic introduction to probability and statistics.

427/Ins. 513 (Business Administration). Retirement Plans and Other Employee Benefit Plans. Junior standing. (3). (N. Excl).

The development of employee benefit plans, both public and private. Particular emphasis is laid on modern pension plans and their relationships to current tax laws and regulations, benefits under the federal social security system and group insurance.

431. Topics in Geometry for Teachers. Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl).

The major goals of this course are to: (1) survey the modern axiomatic foundations of Euclidean geometry, (2) study at least one non-Euclidean geometry as a concrete example of the role of axiomatics in defining mathematical structures, (3) provide an introduction to the transformation approach to geometry, (4) introduce students to application, enrichment, and problem materials appropriate for secondary school geometry classes.

448. Operational Methods for Systems Analysis. Math. 450 or 451. No credit granted to those who have completed 300. (3). (N.Excl).

Introduction to complex variables. Fourier series and integrals. Laplace transforms; application to systems of linear differential equations; theory of weighting functions, frequency response function, transfer function; stability criteria, including those of Hurwitz-Routh and Nyquist. Text has been Kaplan's Operational Methods for Linear Systems.

450. Advanced Mathematics for Engineers I. Math. 216 or 286. No credit granted to those who have completed 305. (4). (N.Excl).

Topics in advanced calculus including vector analysis, improper integrals, line integrals, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, and infinite series. Emphasis on applications. Text: Kaplan's Advanced Calculus (Second Edition).

451. Advanced Calculus I. Math. 215 and one course beyond Math. 215; or Math. 285. Intended for concentrators; other students should elect Math. 450. (3). (N.Excl).

Single variable calculus from a rigorous standpoint. A fundamental course for further work in mathematics.

454. Fourier Series and Applications. Math. 216 or 286. Students with credit for Math. 455 or 554 can elect Math. 454 for 1 credit. (3). (N.Excl).

Othogonal functions. Fourier series, Bessel function, Legendre polynomials and their applications to boundary value problems in mathematical physics. The text will probably be Churchill's Fourier Series and Boundary Value Problems, Third Edition.

471. Introduction to Numerical Methods. Math. 216 or 286 and some knowledge of computer programming. (3). (N.Excl).

Basic mathematical methods used in computing. Polynomial interpolation. Numerical integration. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Linear systems. Monte Carlo Techniques. Round-off error. Students will use a digital computer to solve problems. The text is Burden, Faires, and Reynolds Numerical Analysis.

481. Introduction to Mathematical Logic. Math. 412 or 451; or permission of instructor. (3). (N.Excl).

The course covers the syntax and semantics of the languages of propositional and first-order predicate logic. In the first third of the course, the notion of a formal language is introduced and propositional connectives, tautologies, and the notion of tautological consequence is studied. The heart of the course is the study of first-order predicate languages and their models. The completeness and compactness theorems are proved and applications such as non-standard analysis will be covered. No background in logic is required, but a student should be familiar with some abstract mathematics and have experience in constructing proofs. Evaluation is by problem sets and exams, either take-home or in-class. The usual text is A Mathematical Introduction to Logic by H.B. Enderton.

486. Concepts Basic to Secondary Mathematics. Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl).

Mathematics 486 is a specialized course for junior and senior math majors and minors who may teach high school mathematics. The purpose of the course is to strengthen students' understandings of the basic mathematical concepts that underlie the algebra, geometry, and pre-calculus math taught in high schools. The principal emphasis is on algebraic ideas. Six or seven units are ordinarily covered. A possible sequence of topics for the 1981 Fall Term is: Absolute Value; Number Theory; Logic and Set Theory; Development of Elementary Algebra from the Field Axioms; Mathematical Induction; Theory of Equations (including the solution by radicals of 3rd and 4th degree equations and a brief introduction to Galois Theory); Problem Solving (centered around the kinds of problems encountered in Math Contests). This is a required course for high school math teachers. It should be completed before student teaching. The calculus sequence is a prerequisite. In many ways, the course supplements Math 412, providing concrete examples for abstract concepts encountered in Math 412. Taking 486 prior to Math 412 would be helpful. The course is a combination of lecture and discussion. One homework paper is required each week. It is expected that each paper will reflect between six and ten hours work on problem sets. Grades are principally determined by the quality of these papers. The two-hour final examination counts for about 20% of the final grade. No text is used. Students are given mimeographed material over each topic. This includes assigned problems and explanatory material. There are many helpful library texts on Number Theory, Theory of Equations, Logic, and Set Theory, but in general it is essential that the student attend all lectures and participate in the discussion in order to be properly prepared for the assignments.

490. Introduction to Topology. Math. 450 or 451. (3). (N.Excl).

The topology of subsets of Euclidean space. Simplicial complexes, simplicial approximation, manifolds and fixed point theorems. Concurrent registration in advanced calculus and Math 412 (or 417) will be useful but not necessary. Topological ideas permeate much of modern mathematics, and this course will stress developing one's intuition about the subject.

525/Stat. 510. Probability Theory. Math. 450 or 451; or permission of instructor. Students with credit for Math. 425/Stat. 425 can elect Math. 525/Stat. 510 for 1 credit. (3). (N.Excl).

This course covers basic topics in probability, including random variables, distributions, conditioning, independence, expectation and generating functions, special distributions and their relations, transformations, non-central distributions, the multivariate normal distribution, convergence concepts, and limit theorems.

MARC Courses (Division 430)

205. Material Resources in the Medieval and Renaissance Culture. (4). (HU).

The course will consist of a commentary on three French and two Spanish epic songs. Our approach will be twofold. On one hand, we will do a close reading of the texts, with an eye to what is distinctive about each one. But on the other, and at the same time, we will focus attention on the code common to all of them, the rules and norms that define the genre. Two of our poems are recognized masterpieces of world literature, the Song of Roland and the Poem of the Cid. Texts in translation will be ordered, but students who wish may read them in the original languages. (Fraker)

211(314)/History 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100 1500. (4). (SS).

See History 211. (Hughes)

212/Hist. 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

See History 212. (Becker)

418. Comparative and Thematic Studies of Medieval Culture I. (3-4). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once.
Crusades in East-West Perspective.
The purpose of this course is to examine the causes, the primary stages of development, and the consequences of the Crusades not only from a traditional "Christian" or "European" perspective, but also from a "Near Eastern" or "Islamic" point of view. Special emphasis is given to the role of the Crusades in the social and economic development of the medieval Mediterranean world. No prerequisites; a midterm test and a final "subjective" examination. (Ehrenkreutz)

421. Early and High Middle Ages: Thematic Studies I. (3-4). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once.

In Fall Term, 1984, this course is jointly offered with German 449. See German 449 for description. (Scholler)

428. The Northern Renaissance and Reformation: Thematic Studies I. (3-4). (HU). May be elected for credit more than once.

In Fall Term, 1984, this course is jointly offered with History 414. See History 414 for description. (Tentler)

437/French 437/RC Language 437. French Culture and Literature in the Middle Ages with Visual Assistance. French 438 is recommended. (3). (HU).

See French 437. (Mermier)

Music

Music History and Musicology (MHM: Division 678)

It is possible for LS&A students to elect a concentration program in music, and this program is described in the LS&A Bulletin. In addition, music courses are frequently elected by LS&A students not concentrating in Music. Courses in Music History/Musicology, Composition, and Music Theory are elected for LS&A credit. Some of these courses can be used as part of the humanities requirement in a Pattern I area distribution plan. LS&A students may elect music performance courses for degree credit, but this credit counts toward the maximum twelve non-LS&A credit hours that can be applied toward an A.B./B.S. degree or twenty non-LS&A credit hours that can be applied toward a B.G.S. degree.

341. Introduction to the Art of Music. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (HU).

This is a course in listening to music. By studying the various genres, styles, and aesthetic ideals of Western art music, you will learn how to listen perceptively and creatively. No musical background is necessary. The course begins with the elements of music. After a brief survey of the artistic and cultural heritage of Western music, we will concentrate on symphony, opera, concerto, and song, by Baroque, Classical, and Romantic composers. We will also discuss the different styles and trends in twentieth-century music. There are three lectures and one discussion section per week. Tapes of assigned works are available for private study in the Undergraduate Library Listening Room. The course grade is based on three exams and a short written project in aural analysis. This is the first course suggested for the LS&A concentration in Music. (Monson)

345. The History of Music. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (HU).

This course examines European music, its performance and reception, from the Middle Ages through the Baroque period (Bach, Handel). Musical works will be discussed on their own terms, as well as within broader cultural and historical frameworks. Lecture material will be supplemented by recorded music (tapes available at the UGLi Sight and Sound Center) and readings from required textbook(s), titles to be announced. Because students who are not music concentrators elect this course, the ability to read music is not necessary. However, familiarity with the topics and terminology of Music History and Musicology 341 is assumed and essential. Student performance will be evaluated by means of two one-hour examinations, a two-hour final examination, and a 5-7 page paper due after midterms. (Borders)

405. Special Course. (2-3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Computer-Assisted Music Research.
The main project will be an independent research topic that is assisted by a computerized data management system. The chosen subject can reflect interest in music history, ethnomusicology, or music analysis. The final paper will be a formal one prepared with automated word processing. Most students will probably work with two systems on MTS, TAXIR and TEXTEDIT. Prerequisites: at least a total of l6 hours in music history or theory. Method of instruction is discussion. (D. Crawford)

450. Music in the United States. (3). (HU).

In Fall, 1984, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496. Music in the U.S. is a survey of American musical history, open to undergraduate and graduate students, both music and non-music majors. Since listening is an important part of the course, and since technical terminolog is not avoided, students in the course should have some musical background, preferably MHM 341 or its equivalent. The course concentrates on "classical" music and jazz. Two textbooks are used: Hitchcock's Music in the U.S. (Prentice-Hall) and Charles Ives' Essays Before a Sonata (Norton). Students will also be asked to buy an LP recording of a jazz performance, to be determined. Required listening tapes for the course are available in both the UGLi and School of Music listening rooms. Tests include two hour exams and a final; papers are required of graduate students. I spend a fair amount of time talking about music in class: recorded and live examples make up a large part of the lecture time. Students are encouraged to analyze their own musical experiences, which I believe helps them reach a better understanding of music as a part of our culture. (R. Crawford)

Composition (Division 665)

221. Introduction to Elementary Composition. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (Excl).

This course deals mainly with composing and appreciation of contemporary art music. Time is also spent with pop and jazz, ethnic and traditional classical music. Assignments are creative but directed. Teaching assistants give individual attention to students while working on projects. Attendance at concerts of contemporary music is required. A balance is maintained between traditional compositional crafts and advanced or experimental tendencies. Many outstanding American composers have started in this class. No musical background is required although the ability to read music will be extremely helpful. The course is also recommended for students outside of music programs who have had rather extensive backgrounds in music, performance, and even composing. This course will provide surer "footing" and guarantee better progress than higher level courses initially. (Albright)

421. Creative Composition. Non-School of Music students must have completed Composition 222 or Theory 238. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to composition for musicians who wish assistance in such work and is usually elected by upper level undergraduates and graduate students. It focuses on a study of the language and methods of twentieth century composition with the emphasis always on composing. The course format includes lectures by the course instructor on composition and on various examples of music; lessons with graduate teaching assistants; and in class performances of music composed by the students taking the course. Course requirements include preparation of master sheets for the musical scores and out-of-class rehearsal and performance of music written by students enrolled in the course. Student compositions are critiqued by both the course instructor and the other students in the class. The course prerequisite is one year of either composition or theory. (Bolcom)

422. Creative Composition. Composition 421. (3). (Excl).

Music 422 is a continuation of Music 421. For a description, see Music 421. (Bolcom)

423. Advanced Composition. Composition 422. (2-4). (Excl).

For students capable of original creative work. Individual instruction with course instructor is provided. Participation in a weekly seminar devoted to the examination and analysis of a broad range of Twentieth Century literature is required. Previous composition courses required. (Albright)

424. Advanced Composition. Composition 423. (2-4). (Excl).

A continuation of Composition 423. For description see Composition 423. (Albright)

425. Advanced Composition. Comp. 424. (2-4). (Excl).

Stresses different approaches to notation, such as graphic or proportional, and focuses on the shaping and instrumentation problems involved in composing for the mixed consort. Instruction is individualized. Participation in a weekly seminar is also required. (Bassett)

426. Advanced Composition. Comp. 425. (2-4). (Excl).

A continuation of Composition 425. For description, see Composition 425. (Albright)

521. Seminar in Composition. Composition 424. (2-4). (Excl).

This course addresses the problems of composing for large ensemble or orchestra. Special attention is given to craft, instrumentation techniques and personal statement. Score preparation and performance material extraction, manuscript reproduction methods and presentation are stressed. Individual instruction is provided. Participation in a seminar concerned with the detailed study of recent compositions, techniques and aesthetics is required. (Albright)

522. Seminar in Composition. Composition 521. (2-4). (Excl).

A continuation of Composition 521. For description see Composition 521. (Bassett)

Music Theory (Division 696)

237. Introduction to the Theory of Music. While this course requires no previous formal training in music theory, it is essential that students have a basic understanding of musical notation. (3). (Excl).

The course covers basics of music theory and musical notation: scales, keys, intervals, triads, clefs, meter, rhythm, and some basic harmony. The course objectives are development of fluency in reading and writing musical notation, improvement of the musical ear, and provision of a foundation for music analysis skills. Ideally students should have some basic music reading ability, but students without it can catch up with some extra effort. The course is a prerequisite to Music Theory 238, Introduction to Musical Analysis. There are two lectures and one lab per week, devoted partially to aural skills development. Student evaluation is by assignments and exams.

Courses in Natural Resources (Division 700)

301. Ecological Issues. (lecture only: 3; lecture and discussion: 4). (NS).

This is a 3 or 4 credit non-laboratory course offered for undergraduates throughout the University. It has no prerequisites, nor is it required for admission into more advanced courses. It is designed to appeal to students with widely varying interests. The intent is to provide the student with a general background for improved understanding of the complex nature of natural resource problems and the difficulty of arriving at totally acceptable solutions through the decision-making processes characteristic of a democracy. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to matters concerning the allocation of natural resources and the quality of our environment. Attention will be given not only to ecological aspects, but to economic, legal, political, sociological, and psychological ramifications of the problems as well. Meeting the course objectives requires that students integrate the following components: (1) material presented in lectures, (2) reading assignments, (3) term paper or project, and (4) three exams. There will be three lectures weekly for each student. Recitation sections are scheduled once a week for every student taking the course for 4 credits. There will be a number of guest lecturers with expertise in a variety of disciplines who will share their special knowledge and insights to assist the student in developing an appreciation for the diversity and complexity of environmental concerns and help point to solutions for contemporary problems. Lectures in the early part of the term will deal with ecology. Once the basic ecological framework has been established, case studies illustrating the multifaceted nature of environmental problems will be examined. The readings are primarily from the text, although handouts will be distributed from time to time. The text is Living in the Environment by G. Tyler Miller. The recitation sections will be used for discussion of issues raised in the lectures and to supplement the lectures with debates, film and slide presentations, group projects, book reports, etc. Each student will write a term paper of about ten pages or become involved with a term project dealing with a topic of the individual student's choice relating to the environment. This flexibility allows a student to dig deeply into some course topic of interest. (Nowak)

Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (3). (HU).

This course offers a broad, humanistic examination of the numerous elements which make up the Near East. Students will be introduced to the people, cultures, historical background, and economic and political problems of the area. The course emphasizes the period from the rise of Islam to modern times and shows how Europeans and N.E. populations through a series of encounters and confrontations have learned from and influenced each other. The course has no prerequisites. While intended for the general student body, it will also provide a structural framework for beginning students in N.E. Studies by showing the relationship between subject matter presented in more advanced courses. There will be one midterm and a final. Two short term papers (5 pp.), the first on outside readings, the second on accompanying films. The course is based on lectures, guest lecturers, and class discussion. Special "lab" sessions will introduce students to N.E. food and dance. (Kolars)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Freedman)

361. Gods, Men, and History in the Ancient Near East: Evolution and Transformations of Society and Culture in the Lands of the Fertile Crescent. Part I: From the Beginnings to Alexander the Great (ca. 5000-323 B.C.) Sophomore standing. (4). (HU).

This specifically undergraduate course attempts a combination of approaches to Ancient Near Eastern History, one which stresses cultural and intellectual concerns against the backdrop of necessary political history. Beginning with the decipherment of the first writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the study explores the first organizations of human life and activity in recorded history. The course is as much interested in "capturing" the human perspectives of the era (3000-323 B.C.) as in setting in order consecutive events. We shall be looking at politics, religion, substinence issues, literature and world-views of ancient Semitic peoples. The course requires no previous background, and is introductory in nature. It will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion techniques. Grading in the course will be based on two papers of about six pages each, and final examination. Texts will include a collection of paperbacks, such as: S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians; A.L. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia; John Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt; and Frankfort, Wilson, and Jacobson, Before Philosophy. (Orlin)

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

445(345). Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. (Stewart-Robinson)

460. Archaeology of the Historic Near East. (3). (SS).

This course deals with the utilization and production of archaeological evidence having to do with the cultural history of the Syro-Palestinian region of the Near East from the dawn of history ca. 3000 B.C. to the age of the Hellenistic Empires. There will be discussion of both methods and results in the correlation of archaeological evidence with the evidence from the written texts, both traditional (i.e., the Bible) and newly discovered inscriptions. No particular background is necessary for this course which is part of the departmental offerings in the field of Ancient and Biblical Studies. Student evaluation will be on the basis of a midterm and final examinations, plus a paper required only of graduate students. There is no text, but a bibliography of required and recommended readings will be provided. Instruction will be by lecture lavishly illustrated with visual aids (color slides), and class discussion. (Mendenhall)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature, Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. (Schramm)

470/Hist. 440. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500 945. (3). (HU).

This course emphasizes the political and economic background, as well as the main aspects and social trends characterizing the rise and peak of Islamic civilization between the seventh and tenth centuries of C.E. (Ehrenkreutz)

485/Rel. 485. Islam and the Muslims: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is two-fold: to make an in-depth study of some of the distinguished Muslim minds in various fields of intellectual activity; and to make that study serve as an introduction to those fields. The following list should give an idea of the type of scholars to be studied: Hasan al-Basri, Ma'arri, Ghazali, Rumi, Ibn Khaldun, Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Waliullah, and Iqbal. The course will be given mainly in the form of lectures. There will be a short course pack, and, if necessary, one or two books dealing with some of the scholars included. All readings will be in English. The basis of grading will be three 90-minute exams and class preparation and participation. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

489. God and Man in Islamic Thought: Islamic Rationalism and Mysticism. (3). (HU).

This course will survey the main currents of Islamic thought in the first few centuries of Islamic history. The emphasis will fall on what are called the "religious" sciences, but Muslim philosophy and mysticism will be discussed at some length, and Muslim contributions to natural sciences will be touched upon. The course will be given mainly in the form of lectures. The readings (all in English) will consist either of a medium-sized course pack or two or three books. Three 90-minute exams will determine the grade, but class preparation and participation will definitely be taken into consideration. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LS&A Honor's Council. This course should be taken both semesters of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per semester. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors", or with "with Honors", in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (FL).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's Practical Grammar in Classical Hebrew as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes. (Schramm)

308/Greek 308. The Acts of the Apostles. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (2) (HU).

See Greek 308. (Nissen)

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustus (4). (HU).

See Religion 350. (Hoffman)

484/Rel. 489. Introduction to the New Testament. (4). (HU).

An introduction to the historical and critical investigation of the literary artifacts of first and early second century Christianity, this course presupposes no prior acquaintance with the New Testament or religious studies. The focus of the course is on application of the methods of form and redaction criticism as tools for the investigation of the development of the Jesus-tradition and early Christianity. The approach is historical rather than theological; students interested in a more general view of the gospels should elect ABS/REL 280 rather than ABS/REL 484. Text: Throckmorton, Gospel Parellels. Recommended: Hoffman, Jesus: Outside the Gospels. (Hoffmann)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Arabic Phonology and Script by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part One, by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

Arabic 102 is offered Fall 1984 and Winter 1985. This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part Two by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

Arabic 201 covers the material of Arabic 101 and 102 in one term. It is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course starts with A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script by Ernest McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part I by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets six hours per week for six credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. The two main features of Arabic 201 are that it is taught by a native speaker instructor, and that it involves constant oral and written practice. No previous classroom experience in the language is required. (Wahba, Staff)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. Passages in Arabic are translated sometimes with and sometimes without the use of a dictionary. There are also dictionary practice drills which are intended to aid vocabulary acquisition and discussion of specific morphological problems based on extracts taken from Arabic newspapers. This is a semi-intensive course which meets six hours each week. A practical command of spoken modern standard Arabic is emphasized in class work. In order to develop a command of written Arabic, students produce (in Arabic) weekly summaries, commentaries, and composition. Arabic 401 is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for students who expect to learn the language for use in related fields. Weekly quizzes, midterm, and final. (Wahba)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

415. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 402. (3). (Excl).

This course teaches the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar of colloquial educated Arabic as spoken in Jerusalem, Beirut, Damascus and Amman, through oral and pattern practice drill. Towards the end of the course emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content than the first lessons. For Whom : This course is recommended for students who plan to travel or to work in the Levant and those who need Arabic for immediate oral use. Evaluation and Requirements : Use of language laboratory to reinforce class work and also to do assignments which need to be recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, monthly tests, and the examination. Special Features : The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversations and the listening comprehension selections. In addition, it is taught by a native speaker of the dialect to be taught. Texts: Colloquial Levantine Arabic by Ernest McCarus et. al. (Rammuny)

430(530). Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectual Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). No textbook, but a reading list will be distributed. (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny Advanced Arabic Composition Based on Literary Texts and Audio-Visual Materials, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications, 1980. Also Raji Rammuny Students' Guide, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications 1980. (Rammuny)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills.

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills.

401. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. Intermediate level.

402. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (5). (FL).

Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. Intermediate level.

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Students will continue to read for comprehension in the special genre of newspaper literature. The special terminology of newspaper and radio will be emphasized. Unedited newspaper selections will be read, and regular news broadcasts will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. (Coffin)

501. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Continuing to develop the skills of reading, writing, and speaking modern Hebrew on an advanced level, and introducing the student to modern Hebrew poetry and prose.

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 502 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

Readings in the prose and poetry of major Hebrew authors.

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. Student evaluation is based on examinations-periodic quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The basic text, Modern Persian. Elementary Level, by Windfuhr and Tehranisa, will be used throughout Persian 201 and supplemented by coordinated tapes produced for enrolled students in the language lab. (Luther)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Luther)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course involves the reading and literary analysis of texts from major authors of the classical period (ca. 950-1500) and includes basic skills in reading aloud and the use of the rules of prosody in scansion and interpretation of poetry texts. It will include shorter or longer passages from such writers as Ferdowski, Nezami, Rumi, Sa'di, Hafez, Bayhaqi, Nezamiye Aruzi, and others, according to the interests of the class and instructor. There are midterm and final exams. The texts are in the form of a photocopied course pack. (Luther)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, Turkish for Foreigners (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, Turkish (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' Turkish Grammar (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. (Stewert-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. (Stewart-Robinson)

Philosophy Introductions

The Philosophy Department offers a series of 150-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 154, "Law and Philosophy will be offered Winter Term, 1984. It will be taught by regular faculty members and will be limited to 50 students.

Philosophy 181, 202, 231, 232, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences among the major kinds of social, political, and economic organization, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean?

The 200-level philosophy introductions and 181 vary in their approach to the issues, in their instructional format, and in credit hours. Philosophy 202 (4 hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A. J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (3 hours) and 232 (4 hours) are more concerned with contemporary debate about these issues than with their historical development; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Like Philosophy 231 and 232, Philosophy 181 is mostly concerned with contemporary discussion, but its format is different. It s smaller, limited to 50 students, and is taught in a combination lecture/discussion format 3 times a week.

The Department offers 2 elementary introduction courses in logic, 180 and 201. Their subjects and levels are essentially identical. 180, however, is taught by faculty in a section of about 40-50, while 202 is taught in sections of 20-25 by advanced graduate student teaching assistants.

Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Two such courses will be offered Fall Term, 1983: Philosophy 356, "Issues in Bioethics", and Philosophy 357, "Ecology: A Philosophical Perspective."

Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

Please see the statement above on Introductory Courses.

154. Law and Philosophy. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

This course provides a general introduction to problems in contemporary moral philosophy and action theory as they arise in the context of law. The topics to be covered include (1) the relation of law to morality: does law express particular standards of justice or morality, or is it a disinterested arbiter among competing social conventions? Should it enforce some particular moral code, or can and should it merely adjudicate among them? How should the law respond to conscientious moral opposition to its rulings (civil disobedience, conscientious objection)? (2) legal and moral responsibility: under what conditions can individuals be held legally responsible for the consequences of their actions? Must they have intended these consequences, if they are harmful? How much knowledge and foresight of harm must individuals be expected to have? Under what conditions can a person be excused from legal responsibility by reason of insanity or mental incompetence? Can individuals be held responsible for harm to another, just because they failed to prevent that harm? Or must they have caused harm actively? (3) punishment: what is the justification for punishment? is it the reform of the criminal, the deterrent effect on the society at large, or the justified desire for retribution on the part of the plaintiff? What constitutes punishment: incarceration, forced therapy, or social ostracism? What are the actual effects of punishment? Do these effects undermine its justification? In examining each of these areas, we will begin with particular case decisions, using these as concrete focal points for posing and discussing the more general philosophical issues. The requirements for this course will be three 5-page papers, a midterm, and an in-class final exam. (Piper)

155. The Nature of Science. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the philosophy of science. Special attention will be given to questions about the nature of scientific reasoning, including: is there a scientific method? How are scientific theories tested? How are statistical inferences performed? Do the conclusions of scientific inquiry have a special claim to credibility or objectivity? What roles, if any, do values play in scientific practice? What can the history of science tell us about the nature of scientific reasoning? Can scientific reasoning appropriately be extended to other areas of inquiry? No special background will be presupposed. Lectures and discussion. Midterm and final examinations. A term paper. (Railton)

180. Introductory Logic. No credit is granted to those who have completed 201, 203, or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

This is an introductory course in logic. We will begin with a study of some problems, fallacies, etc., which arise in informal reasoning. This will be followed by a study of some of the elements of formal (symbolic) logic. There may also be some brief considerations of induction and of probability. The course will be conducted by lectures, discussions, and demonstrations of problem-solving techniques. Students will be expected to do homework assignments regularly. Grades will be assigned principally on the basis of two exams and several quizzes. (Mavrodes)

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
The approach to philosophical topics in this course is partially historical. There will be some attention to the origins and evolution of central ideas in the Western philosophical tradition, and to their long term influence on Western culture. Students will read the writings of about five key figures in the history of philosophy, rather than a textbook of articles by contemporary philosophers. Lectures will explain the doctrines of the thinkers, and, in so doing, illuminate certain enduring problems in philosophy and types of answers to them. A partial list of these answers includes materialism and idealism with respect to questions about what exists; rationalism, empiricism, and pragmatism with respect to questions concerning what we know and the nature of truth, and hedonism with regard to standards of good and evil. In addition to learning about these problems and types of answers, students will examine and evaluate arguments in the texts. They will gain practice in writing a paper that draws upon skills in argumentation. Evaluation of course work will be based primarily on the paper and on three, one-hour examinations. There is no final examination. Lectures and discussion will be intermixed in the same classroom setting, the discussions focusing on the texts as illustrations of topics covered in the lectures. No previous philosophy course is required. (Munro)

201. Introduction to Logic. No credit granted to those who have completed 180, 203 or 296. I and II: (3); III a and III b: (2). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term, each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 202, 232, 234, or 297. I and II: (3); III a and III b: (2). (HU).

This course is open to students from all areas of the University. No previous work in philosophy is required or assumed. First semester undergraduates are welcome. The course has two principal goals. The first is to provide an introduction to fundamental philosophical problems drawn from a variety of branches of philosophy. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skills and, more generally, the critical and argumentative skills of those enrolled. The following issues will be discussed: (1) determinism, free will, and moral responsibility; (2) arguments for and against the existence of God; (3) the nature of mind and its relation to body; and (4) self-interest, altruism, and moral obligation. There will be a final examination and one (midterm) hour examination. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week, and requires two short papers while Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. Students who feel they would benefit from the additional hour of discussion or from the additional required writing, or who need the extra hour of credit are advised to enroll in 232 rather than 231. The course has a single text, an anthology: Joel Feinberg, editor, Reason and Responsibility, 5th edition, 1981, Dickenson Publishing Company. (Loeb)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Loeb)

296. Honors Introduction to Logic. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 180, 201 or 203. (3). (N.Excl).

Logic is valuable, first, as a tool for theoretical clarification. That makes it indispensable for many of the purposes of philosophy, particularly for the purpose of analyzing the structures of sciences, mathematics, and other systems of thought. Logic is valuable in the second place because it provides methods for the evaluation of reasoning, regardless of the subject matter with which the reasoning is concerned. This course is designed to introduce the student to the concepts and methods of modern deductive logic. It will deal with such key logical ideas as validity and invalidity of arguments, entailment between propositions, and logical truth. It will examine such properties of logical systems as consistency and completeness, and ask which branches of logic can be formulated as complete, consistent systems. Examples of the use of formal logic as a tool of clarification will be discussed. Students, it is hoped, will acquire considerable skill in applying various logical techniques for evaluating reasoning and for analyzing the logical status of propositions. There will be two or three exams, and satisfactory completion of homework will be required.

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course will compare philosophical and scientific theories of the nature of things, organisms, minds, and social-cultural systems. Both ancient and modern authors will be studied. We will begin with Plato's idealistic account of man and the nature of the world. His view will be contrasted with Lucretius' materialistic philosophy and with a contemporary understanding of evolution and robotics. The nature of morality and human freedom will be a central topic. Then we will approach reality from the inside out, following Descartes and Berkeley, and study the earlier problems from this point of view. Students will read about 50 pages per week. There will be a midterm and a final. (Burks)

Section 002. This course is an introduction to the major problems of philosophy, usually dealing with roughly the same issues as those taught in Philosophy 231/2, though there may be some attention to historical figures.

335/Buddhist Studies 320/Asian Studies 320/Rel. 320. Introduction to Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 220 or the equivalent. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (3). (HU).

See Asian Studies 320.

345. Language and Mind. One philosophy course. (3). (HU).

Orthodox theories of mind explain mental states by reference to their causal roles. These theories conflict with the assumption that we have a unique and private form of access to our own mental states. The assumption of the privacy of the mental also poses problems for the idea that we succeed in communicating our thoughts to others. In Philosophy 345 we will explore some of the traditional problems in the philosophy of mind and some of the connections between these problems and problems in the philosophy of language. Topics in philosophy of mind include privileged access, causal theories of the mental, mental representations, and mind-body identity. Topics in the philosophy of language include meaning, causal and descriptive theories of reference, reference and autonomous psychology, the private language argument, language understanding and artificial intelligence, and metaphor. Although this course is an introduction to the specific problems under consideration, it is not intended as an introduction to philosophy. The course is primarily designed for philosophy majors and those who intend to do a significant amount of course work in the field. There will be two papers and a final examination. (S. White)

356. Issues in Bioethics. No prerequisites; one Philosophy Introduction is recommended. (4). (HU).

A discussion of ethical issues that arise in the life sciences and health care professions. Topics may include: abortion, euthanasia, and infanticide; the use of animals and humans in experiments; and the distribution and regulation of health care. Three short papers and a final exam. No prerequisite. (Velleman)

361. Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course will examine fundamental questions of moral philosophy. Through a study of texts by some of the main figures (Aristotle, Kant, and Mill), we shall examine such questions as: Is there a "best" sort of life? Are there objectively valid, general principles of right conduct, and if so what are they? What is the relation of ethics to custom, on the one hand, and to individual responsibility and choice, on the other? In addition to these general issues we shall also examine some concrete instances in which difficult moral questions arise most likely some having to do with matters of life and death. There will be significant opportunity for student participation in class discussion. Two short papers (eight to ten pages) and a final exam. (Darwall)

366. Introduction to Political Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

Political philosophy is concerned not merely with the question of what sort of government (if any) we should have, but also with the most general questions about how people can and should live in society. We will undertake a systematic examination of the moral, philosophical, and empirical foundations of three of the dominant political philosophies of our times: social contract theory, utilitarianism, and socialism. Our goal will be to understand the conceptions of human nature, of value, of freedom, and of society and the individual's relation to it that underlie these political philosophies. Readings will include significant figures in the history of political philosophy (such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, and Marx) as well as controversial contemporary political philosophers (such as Rawls and Nozick). Lectures and discussion sections. A midterm and a final examination. A term paper. (Railton)

370. Philosophical Aspects of Literature. (3). (HU).

This course will be centered upon several literary works, tentatively including: John Barth, The End of the Road; Samuel Beckett, Malone Dies; Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths; A. Camus, The Stranger; F. Dostoevsky, Notes from the Underground; Yukio Mishima, Death in Midsummer; J.P. Sartre, No Exit and The Flies. There will also be supplementary readings in various philosophical sources, including selections from Descartes, Berkeley, Hume, Sartre, and Wittgenstein. The literary works will be examined for their "philosophical content," for what they have to say on a variety of philosophical issues, including ideas concerning morality, freedom, human nature, metaphysics, knowledge, and so forth. We will especially emphasize problems of philosophy of mind, problems about the nature of the self, self-knowledge and self-deception, sincerity, action, and freedom. In addition, philosophical questions concerning the nature, function, and value of literature itself will be discussed, in light of detailed examination of the selected works. Some such questions have to do with how it is that literary works express or communicate philosophical (social, political, etc.) ideas, compared to how philosophical essays, or political tracts, do, how literary works inform or illuminate readers, contribute to their understanding of themselves and their situations, and affect their lives in other ways. Other questions to be raised concern the nature of literary devices: metaphor, symbolism and allegory, and caricature. We will also discuss the theory of literary criticism. Probable requirements: three short papers and a final examination. (Walton)

371. Existentialism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course will be an Introduction to Existentialism, (in a fashion it will also be an Introduction to Philosophy), but it will not be a survey course. We will deal only with some of the existentialist thinkers. In the main we will concentrate on Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre and Camus. Most of the readings will be selections from the works of these authors, but some short pieces of Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Kafka and Buber may also be on the list. Three papers each approximately ten pages in length will be required in addition to a final exam. (Bergmann)

388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (HU).

This course is a survey of Greek philosophical thought from its beginnings through Hellenistic times. The figures covered in detail are certain Presocratic thinkers, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, and the Sceptics. Stress is laid not only on the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. Attention is also given to the non-philosophical background against which these thinkers worked, particularly in the case of their ethical views. There will be three papers, ranging from four to seven pages in length, two 30-minute quizzes, and a final. One of the chief aims of the course is to teach students to write a clear, well-organized philosophy paper. (N. White)

401. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy. Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration adviser. (3). (HU).

The topic of this seminar will be moral psychology. In particular, we shall concentrate on the role of so-called folk psychology in explaining actions, on the one hand, and in justifying actions on the other. We shall ask: is the common sense conception of an agent's motives subject to empirical confirmation? or is it an indispensable part of our conception of the agent as rational? Could it be both? Three short papers. (Velleman)

414. Mathematical Logic. (3). (N.Excl).

A study of the syntax, semantics, applications, and limitations of elementary logic. Among the topics included are: (A) truth-functions and sentential logic; symbolization of truth-functional arguments; completeness of sentential logic. (B) Syntax and semantics of quantification theory; symbolization of quantification arguments; completeness of quantification theory; limitations of quantification theory. (C) Elements of set theory and the foundations of mathematics; undecidability and Church's theorem. The text is Formal Logic by R. Jeffrey. (Sklar)

423. Problems of Space and Time. One Logic Introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science; or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of spacetime, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can best be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in the course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without an extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar, Space, Time and Spacetime. There are additional readings from authors such as Reichenbach, Poincare, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others. (Sklar)

431. Normative Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

An examination of fundamental issues in normative ethical theory. Students in the course should normally have taken Philosophy 361 or the equivalent. The emphasis will be on theories of moral obligation and of justice; utilitarian, intuitionistic, and Kantian theories will be considered. Readings will be from a variety of sources, mostly contemporary. Three papers of about five pages each, a midterm, a final exam, and perhaps a few one page discussion notes and in-class exercises will be required. For students who seem ready to tackle a longer paper, a ten-page paper may be substituted for the second and third short papers. Readings will be chiefly from Kant, Mill, Sidgwick, and various twentieth century moral philosophers. (Gibbard)

433. History of Ethics. Phil. 361 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course will be concerned to examine debates regarding the relation of ethics to reason, sentiment, and the passions in 17th and 18th Century moral philosophy. In addition to their historical interest, these debates are relevant to important contemporary issues. We shall study such writers as Hobbes, Locke, Clarke, Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, Butler, Hume, Price, Reid, and Kant. Two papers (eight to ten pages) and a final exam. (Darwall)

458. Philosophy of Kant. Phil. 389, 461, or 462, or permission of instructor, or concentration adviser. (3). (HU).

The course focuses exclusively on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. The entire text will be analyzed, with a view to understanding Kant's epistemological doctrines of the Aesthetic and Analytic, as well as the metaphysical critique of the Dialectic as a foundation for Kant's later moral philosophy. (Piper)

461. Continental Rationalism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course will investigate the philosophical systems of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, based upon a careful reading of selections from their major philosophical works. The principal goal will be to come to grips with the philosophical systems of each of these philosophers in its own right. We will focus on the metaphysics and epistemology in these systems. The "minor" Continental figure Malebranche will probably receive some attention as well. Depending upon the interests and backgrounds of those enrolled, we might also discuss Locke and Berkeley, with a view to determining the extent to which their philosophical systems have affinities with those of the Continental figures. The formal prerequisite is any previous course in philosophy. However, a one term course in the history of modern philosophy (Descartes through Kant), or the equivalent, would provide a much more suitable background. Students will write three papers. There will be a final examination, but no midterm. (Loeb)

468/Chinese 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220) Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Philosophy 468 focuses on the major philosophical schools of the Chou-Han period, which was roughly equivalent in time and intellectual fertility to the classical ages of Greece and Rome. Among these schools, special consideration is given to the Confucian and Taoist schools, since the doctrines associated with these were the sources of the two major philosophical traditions in China for the next 2000 years and affected very significant cultural developments in the arts, religion, science, and politics. The course concentrates on Chinese social and political philosophies (with notable exceptions in the case of certain Taoist thinkers) and on the theories of human nature that were associated with them. Among the more interesting political theories discussed are those pertaining to social control or the most desirable and effective ways of mobilizing the population for goals determined by the rulers. Chinese philosophers have been somewhat unusual in occupying political office and in having an opportunity to test their ideas in practice. This fact has affected the character of Chinese philosophy from the beginning, and it makes the study of Chinese political philosophy especially intriguing. There is some background consideration of the social and living conditions of the periods in which the various philosophies emerged. No knowledge of Chinese is required. Readings are in translation. All students are required to prepare an annotated, critical bibliography of secondary readings. Other course requirements include a midterm and a final examination. (Munro)

480. Philosophy of Religion. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

The course this semester will focus on the question of whether belief in God is justified, rational, in violation of our intellectual duties, etc. We will begin with a consideration of some nineteenth and twentieth century treatments of this topic (e.g., William Clifford and William James) and spend most of the time on comparatively recent arguments (e.g., Alvin Plantinga, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Kai Nielsen, Antony Flew, etc.). There will be a midterm exam, a final exam, and a term paper. (Mavrodes)

481. Metaphysics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

This course will examine several of the central topics in metaphysics such as (1) modalities (concepts of possibility, necessity, and contingency), (2) existence, (3) identity of objects and persons over time, (4) causality and determinism, (5) the possibility of free agency, (6) realism versus idealism, and (7) the nature and possibility of metaphysics. Readings from both historical and contemporary sources (although the latter may predominate). Lectures and discussions; two or three papers; final examination.

Courses in Physics (Division 444)

Since the Physics Department discourages students from changing midstream from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240 to Physics 126, it is important that students choose the first course of a physics sequence with care. Prospective engineers, physicists and chemists should elect Physics 140/240 rather than Physics 125/126 because concentration programs in these areas require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental concentration programs (zoology, biology, etc.) or in special individual circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged to elect the Physics 125/126 sequence. Some counselors will advise all students who have had calculus to elect Physics 140/240. Physics 140/240 can be elected by all students who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy solving difficult problems and who think that they will be good at it.

125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. Two and one-half years of high school mathematics, including trigonometry. No credit granted to those who have completed 140. (3). (NS).

Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered primarily for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional students preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health sciences. Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate sequence for any student wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic principles of physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics 140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in rudimentary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While a high school level background in physics is not assumed, it is helpful. Physics 125 and 126 are not available by the Keller plan. Physics 125 covers mechanics and mechanical waves including sound waves. The final course grade is based on three one hour examinations, class performance and a final examination. Physics 126 is a continuation of Physics 125; and covers electricity and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic and nuclear phenomena.

Section 016: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for Physics 126 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to be so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in the Comprehensive Studies Program section will entail laboratories, exercises, and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

126. General Physics: Electricity and Light. Phys. 125. No credit granted to those who have completed 240. (3). (NS).

See Physics 125 for a general description.

127. Mechanics, Heat and Sound Lab. To be elected concurrently with Physics 125. No credit granted to those who have completed Physics 141. (1). (NS).

Physics 127 and 128 are laboratory courses intended to accompany Physics 125 and 126 (respectively) and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science.

128. Electricity and Light Lab. To be elected concurrently with Physics 126. No credit granted to those who have completed Physics 241. (1). (NS).

See Physics 127 for a general description.

140. General Physics I. Prior or concurrent election of calculus. Phys. 140 and 141 are normally elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed 125. (3). (NS).

Physics 140, 240, and 242 constitute a three-term sequence which examines concepts in physics fundamental to the physical sciences and engineering. Physics 242 focuses on modern physics and is required of all physics concentrators. This introductory sequence uses calculus, and, while it is possible to elect Physics 140 and Mathematics 115 concurrently, some students will find it more helpful to have started one of the regular mathematics sequences before electing Physics 140. This introductory sequence is primarily designed to develop a skill : the skill to solve simple problems by means of mathematics. Developing this skill requires daily practice and a sense for the meaning of statements and formulas, as well as an awareness of when one understands a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does not. Thus one learns to know what one knows in a disciplined way. The final course grade is based on class performance and upon examinations.

Certain sections (see the Time Schedule ) of Physics 140 and 240 are offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures. An information sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available in the Physics Department Office (1049 Randall Laboratory). Students who want to elect Physics 140 or 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information before registering.

An Honors section of Physics 140 is offered in the Fall Term followed by an Honors section of Physics 240 in the Winter Term. Prospective physics concentrators are encouraged to register for these sections.

141. Elementary Laboratory I. To be elected concurrently with Phys. 140. No credit granted to those who have completed 127. (1). (NS).

Physics 141 and 241 are laboratory courses intended to accompany Physics 140 and 240 (respectively) and provide a perspective on physics as an experimental science.

240. General Physics II. Phys. 140 or the equivalent; Phys. 240 and 241 are normally elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who have completed 126. (3). (NS).

See Physics 140.

241. Elementary Laboratory II. To be elected concurrently with Phys. 240. No credit granted to those who have completed 128. (1). (NS).

See Physics 141.

242. General Physics III. Phys. 240 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course will deal in a quantitative manner with topics which may be classified as "modern" physics, and shall include the investigation of: special relativity, the relationship of particles and waves, the Schrödinger equation applied to barrier problems, atomic structure and the interpretation of quantum numbers, the exclusion principle and its applications, structure of solids, etc. The class will meet as a lecture group. Applications of the principles will be considered in the lecture section on a regular basis.

401. Intermediate Mechanics. Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course is required for physics concentrators. It includes a study of vector operators and vector calculus along with their application to various physical problems. Among the topics investigated are: (1) harmonic motion in several dimensions; (2) motion under the influence of central forces; (3) wave motion; and (4) rigid-body rotation. The methods of LaGrange are applied to suitable examples. Examinations are given at various times during the term.

402. Light. Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course may be included in a concentration in physics. Topics studied cover the phenomena of physical optics, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, and polarization interpreted in terms of the wave theory of light. Several topics in modern optics will also be developed.

403. Optics Laboratory. Phys. 242 or permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This is a laboratory course in geometrical and physical optics intended for science concentrators and especially for students electing Physics 402. One experiment every one or two weeks is performed during four-hour laboratory periods; a short report is required for each experiment. The experiments are designed such that they may be performed without students having a formal background in the topic investigated. The experiments include: (1) lens equations; (2) lens aberrations; (3) telescopes; (4) polarization; (5) diffraction; (6) interferometry; (7) electro-optical effects; (8) light detection; (9) fourier optics; (10) holography; and (11) spectroscopy. Students may also devise experiments. The course grade is based on the work done in the laboratory period as well as written reports.

405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism. Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course extends the material introduced in Physics 240 on the classical theory of electricity and magnetism. It tries to develop further both the theoretical ideas contained in Maxwell's equations for these fields, as well as their practical application. It is a required course for all physics concentrators, and is basic to many of the courses and laboratories which follow. Physics 242 is strongly recommended.

406. Statistical and Thermal Physics. Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216. (3). (NS).

An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final examination will be given.

407. Thermodynamics Laboratory. Phys. 126 or 240-241. (2). (NS).

This course is normally elected concurrently with Physics 406 and emphasizes thermodynamics and heat transport. Each section consists of eight students subdivided into groups of two with each group rotating through five experiments: (1) use of the thermoelectric effect to measure temperature, (2) use of thermistors for the measurement of temperature, (3) measurement of the viscosity of gases, (4) measurement of the thermal conductivity of gases, and (5) determination of the ice-water phase diagram. Each experiment takes a maximum of three weeks of laboratory time. Grades are based on the record of data taken, computation and analysis, error analysis, display of results (graphs, tables, etc.) and comparison of results with theory and/or accepted values. Laboratory performance is observed and evaluated by the course instructors.

409. Modern Physics Laboratory. Open primarily to science concentrators with junior standing, or by permission of instructor. No credit to students concentrating in physics (2). (NS).

This course is an advanced undergraduate laboratory course designed to acquaint students in the basic techniques of experimental physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Students select experiments from among those which are available. The results of the experiments are recorded. These laboratory notes together with a written laboratory report are graded. The reports and performance in laboratory are the basis for the course grade. There are no formal examinations. Students may modify existing experiments or develop new experiments. Topics investigated include: photo-electric effect; diffraction; electron charge and charge-to-mass ratio and others. This laboratory is not open to physics concentrators who should choose Physics 459 or 461.

417. Macromolecular and Biophysics I. Math. 216 and Phys. 242, and 402; or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

An introduction to the biophysics of cells, emphasizing the electrical and molecular structural properties of membranes and the neuromuscular and sensory systems; physical techniques used in cell absorption, fluorescence, scattering, magnetic resonance, and analysis of spontaneous optical and electrical fluctuations.

419/IPPS 519/Nat. Res. 574. Energy Demand. Basic college economics and senior standing. (3). (SS).

The structure of U.S. energy use will be examined from several disciplinary viewpoints: physical, economic, behaviorial/institutional and political. Detailed study will be made of energy use in housing, passenger transportation and basic materials industries. Different methods of forecasting will be explored. Projections of future energy demand will be examined which show even greater variability in the projected need for energy than characterizes the potential capacity to provide energy. These projections will be critically evaluated. This course is part of a new Energy Studies Program. The text for the course is Our Energy: Regaining Control, co-authored by the instructor. Extensive supplementary readings will be used. The course requires two papers: one on an energy demand issue and the other on analysis of a recent development in demand or a projection of future energy use in a specific area. Prerequisites are a college level course in mathematics or economics and senior or graduate standing. The course will require establishment of minimum proficiency in analytical techniques concerning energy.

438. Electromagnetic Radiation. Phys. 405. (3). (NS).

This course is primarily intended for undergraduate students, but can also be taken by those beginning graduate students who are lacking E-M in their backgrounds prior to their taking the graduate 505/506 sequence or who are interested only in the M.S. programs. Topics to be covered are: (1) plane electromagnetic waves in various media; reflection and refraction at dielectric and conducting surfaces; skin effect; wave guides and cavities; dispersion; (2) multipole radiation; (3) radiation fields due to moving charged particles; Brehmsstrahlung; synchrotron radiation; Cerenkov radiation.

451. Methods of Theoretical Physics. Phys. 401 and Math. 450, or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This is a course in mathematical methods of physics. The textbook by G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, is used; approximately 85% of the contents will be covered. This course is considered a necessary preparation for graduate school.

453. Atomic Physics I. Phys. 242 or equivalent, Phys. 401 and 405; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

A brief review of the mechanical, thermal, electric, magnetic and chemical properties of matter will be given. The empirical foundation of atomic physics will be discussed in some detail. The theoretical developments resulting from the failure of classical theories and early atomic models will be discussed, wherein wave mechanics will be studied and a brief introduction to the Schrödinger equation will be given. Other topics include the exclusion principle and some quantum statistical mechanics.

455. Electronic Devices and Circuits. Phys. 240 and 241. (5). (NS).

An introduction to DC and AC circuits; j-notation, circuit theorems; semiconductors (primarily qualitative) and introduction to diodes and bipolar (junction) transistors; four-terminal networks; transistor characteristics and biasing, equivalent circuits, transistor amplifiers and their frequency and pulse response; unipolar transistors (J-FET, MOSFET, IGFET); resonant circuits, oscillators, inductive coupling; transistors as switches, the multivibrator family including the Schmitt trigger circuit; integrated circuits: operational amplifiers and logic gates; pulse shaping; modulation and detection; noise; and power supplies. Two or three hour exams, plus a final. Four hours of laboratory per week, with written reports. The text is Ryder's Electronic Fundamentals and Applications.

459. Nuclear Laboratory. Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This is an advanced laboratory course designed to acquaint students with the techniques of experimental nuclear physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Included are experiments in the following areas: scintillation counting; gamma-gamma angular correlation; Compton effect; Rutherford scattering; muon lifetime; nuclear magnetic resonance; and nuclear fission. This course is normally elected as a sequel to Physics 403, 407, or 409.

461. Atomic Laboratory. Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory course, or permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

Intended mostly for science majors. Conducted in a manner similar to Physics 403, 407, 409 and 459, but more advanced. Emphasis on atomic phenomena and instrumentation. Experiments available include atomic spectroscopy, Zeeman effect, optical pumping and lasers, x-ray diffraction and Moseley's law, Faraday effect and others.

464. Solid State Laboratory. Physics 242 (General Physics III) and Physics 406 (Thermodynamics). Physics 463 should be taken concurrently or previously. (2). (NS).

This is a laboratory course covering experimental work in x-ray diffraction from solids, electron transport in solids, phase transitions, the use of the electron microscope and thermal mechanisms in solids. Conducted in a manner similar to the other physics labs (403, 407, 409, 459, and 461).

465. Senior Seminar. Open to Physics concentrators in their junior or senior year. (2 each). (NS).

This is a seminar on History of 20th Century Physics. Through reading and from discussions with visiting speakers we explore the historical aspects of selected topics in modern physics. Since seminar members are expected to contribute actively to discussion and since the physics content of this history will be emphasized, students will be expected to have had several courses beyond Physics 242. Open to juniors, seniors and graduate students.

468. Elementary Particles. Prior or concurrent election of Phys. 453. (3). (NS).

The course offers a very broad but disciplined introduction to the exciting field of elementary particle research: methods of producing and detecting particles, their interactions, and an outline of the most current theoretical ideas. Since the course is not part of a required sequence, students are expected to be motivated primarily by a fundamental curiosity to learn about one of the frontier sciences.

Courses in Physiology (Division 580)

101. Introduction to Human Physiology. No prerequisite, but prior exposure to introductory chemistry is helpful. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (3). (NS).

Physiology 101 and Physiology 102 are courses in basic human physiology and are designed to help students to (1) know the functions of the major organs of the body; (2) understand the basic physical-chemical mechanisms responsible for each organ's function; (3) relate organ functions to the general concept of regulation of the internal environment; (4) recognize pathological states (diseases) as consequences of altered normal function. Physiology 102 students attend a laboratory session every other week and receive an additional unit of academic credit. Every Physiology 101/102 student must register for a conference section which meets once a week. Conference sections offer students an opportunity to ask questions and to participate in small group discussions on recent lecture topics. The textbook for the course is: Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function (second edition) by Vander, Sherman, and Luciano. Examinations are multiple choice. There will be two examinations during the term and a final examination. The hour examinations are given in the evening from 7-8 p.m. Students electing Physiology 102 must also take two laboratory examinations. (Sherman)

102. Principles of Human Physiology. No prerequisite, but prior exposure to introductory chemistry is helpful. No credit granted to those who have completed 101. (4). (NS).

See Physiology 101. (Sherman)

Courses in Political Science (Division 450)

Primarily for First and Second Year Students

101. Introduction to Political Theory. (4). (SS).

What place does politics have in the pursuit of the good life? Are politicians free to behave immorally? Should a good person get involved in politics? A survey of the history of political theory, this course will focus on such questions. Along the way, we will explore the differences between ancient and modern society, and examine in what light political theory can shed on politics. No background is needed. Readings include Homer, Sophocles, Thucydides, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Rosseau, Marx, and Mill. Requirements: two 5-page papers, a midterm, and a final. Hourly lectures twice a week, and two hours of section meeting a week. (Herzog)

111. Introduction to American Politics. (4). (SS).

This is a broad survey of government and politics in the United States which explores a wide range of topics including elections, interest groups, the presidency, Congress, and the courts. The kinds of questions considered might include the following: What impact do interest groups have on governmental policy? Are there real differences between the two major political parties? What accounts for swings in voting behavior and election outcome from one time to another? How do members of Congress decide how to vote? This is not a comprehensive list but suggests the kind of issues that are discussed in this course. There are two lectures and two discussion section meetings each week. There is generally a midterm, a final examination, and some other written work. (Kingdon)

140. Introduction to Comparative Politics. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to give students an understanding of how several major political systems work and to familiarize them with concepts used to analyze politics in these and other countries. Each of the countries selected will be discussed separately in order to introduce its distinctive features and to ensure that students understand how it operates. As the course progresses, we will draw increasingly broad comparisons. Certain key concepts will be introduced and used for comparative purposes. In particular, we will be concerned with the social and economic forces that influence political life; political parties and political competition; leadership succession; the role of political institutions; and the analysis of contemporary political conflicts. The course will offer two lectures per week, plus two meetings in relatively small discussion sections designed to encourage a two-way flow of communication. (Inglehart)

160. Introduction to World Politics. (4). (SS).

The primary purpose of this beginning course is to expose the student to the core questions that should be asked at any beginning of the study of international politics. Who are the major actors in international affairs? What kind of order exists in relations among nations? What mechanisms exist for change? What regularities exist in the behavior of actors toward one another that give shape and direction to the system? We shall try to get at some of the questions raised by using three of the major approaches students in the field utilize to select the behaviors they wish to study. One approach is to study the process of decision-making in foreign policy. Another approach is to study the effects that differences in national growth have on the politics among nations. A third way is to study the way the international system constrains the actions of individuals and groups. The major elements of the course are contained in four sets of lectures. (1) The decision-making approach; (2) effects of national growth on international politics; (3) problems and consequences of different types of international systems; (4) global trends in contemporary world politics including such topics as imperialism, neocolonialism, international economics and interdependence, developed-developing world relations, international organizations, and the limits to growth. There will be one, possibly two, exams during the term, plus a final. Other requirements may include a 12-15 page essay and such additional assignments as may be made by individual section leaders. (Organski)

210/Amer. Inst. 240. Introduction to the Political Economy of American Institutions. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 240. (Walker)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

300. Contemporary Political Issues. (4). (SS).

It is recommended that the student has taken at least Political Science 111. The course will focus on the implications of recent political change for the conduct of political campaigns and the governance of the country. Critical issues in the study of political behavior will be addressed by examining the following five questions: 1) How are candidates for political office evaluated by the public? 2) Does the recent increase in political independence indicate that Independents are alienated from political parties or that they think parties are irrelevant? 3) Is the electorate more ideological today than in the past? 4) Are non-partisan group attachments replacing political parties as the mobilizing force in American politics? 5) Does the media select our candidates for high office? (Markus)

309. The Politics of Liberation. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit three times, provided that content is different.
Women.
This course will center on the investigation and discussion of the various frameworks of analysis used to examine the roles of women in politics.

320. Chicano Politics and the Chicano Community. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended to be a critical examination into the study of Chicano Politics.

353. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on various dimensions of the Arab-Israeli conflict which is approached from numerous perspectives, among them: the history of Arab-Israeli antagonism, inter-Arab politics, superpower objectives in the Middle East, and the competing nationalisms of Israel and the Palestinians. Course requirements include a midterm and final examinations. (Green)

359/CAAS 351. The Struggle for Southern Africa. Lectures: 2 credits; lectures and discussion: 4 credits. (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 35l. (Kamara-Swan)

391. Introductory Internship in Political Science. One 100-level course in political science, permission of supervising instructor before the internship period, and review by Department's internship adviser. Intended for non-concentrators. (2-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected for a total of 8 credits for both Political Science 391 and 392.

Supervised internship, primarily for non-concentrators. Requires the approval of the instructor and review by the department's internship coordinator. (2-4 each)

395/Econ. 395/REES 395/Slavic 395/Hist. 332/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

402. Development of Political Thought: To Modern Period. Junior standing or two courses in political science. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is two-fold: (1) to give the student a sense of the history of political philosophy from the ancient Greek period to the end of the sixteenth century, and (2) to help the student become aware of the complexities and assumptions entailed in the articulation of a coherent political theory. We will be reading the works of such major political philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Machiavelli. We will be concerned with such issues as the basis for obligation, the sources of legitimacy, the role of the individual in the political community and the value and purpose of political life. Readings will be from primary sources. (Gondek)

408. Communist Political Thought: From Marx to the Present. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to Marxism and its development from Hegel to contemporary schools. Emphasis is placed on a thorough exploration of the basic ideas and concepts presented in the writings of Engels and Marx as well as on unresolved questions and contradictions in the Marxist heritage. Readings include extensive assignments from the writings of Marx, Engels, and Bolshevism. Each student is expected to write a major paper on a pertinent topic of the student's choice. The class format is a lecture/discussion combination. (Meyer)

409/CAAS 456. Comparative Black Political Thought. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a comparative analysis of Black political thought with the following themes: Africa and the Black Diaspora; A Vortex of Ideas; Pan-African and Pan-Black Movements; African Thought and the Legacy of Slavery; The Warrior Tradition in Black Political Cultures. Other topics include: Negritude, Nostalgia and Sacred Origins; Religion and Black Political Thought; Language, Literature, and Black Political Thought. Select Black thinkers, chosen from African, Caribbean and Black American writers and ideological leaders will be studied. (Mazrui)

410. American Policy Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

This is a course about American public policies what they are, how they develop, and what difference they make. The purposes of the course are, first, to help students understand the enormous scope and variety of actions taken by the 80,000 or so American governments, and second, to help students learn how to think about public policy in the United States.

411. American Political Processes. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS).

My aim in this course is to acquaint you with the political behavior of individuals, as it is conventionally studied in American political science. We will start by examining some of the assumptions that are the foundations for political science work investigating these matters. These foundational considerations cover normative proposals recommending criteria that desirable political systems ought to satisfy, factual observations concerning the institutional context in which ordinary individuals live and act, and theoretical proposals offering ways these matters can be studied. Then, though not really in strict sequence, we will examine some research covering several interrelated areas of political substance: political belief systems and political ideologies; partisanship; electoral (vote) choices; democratic political participation; and the nature of personal involvement in political affairs. My hope is that this way of introducing this field will both enable you to decide for yourself how adequate you think the usual political science treatments of individual political life are, and provide you with tools with which to articulate ways its approaches might be improved. Prior familiarity with political science work in these areas will be helpful, but it is not necessary. (Mebane)

412. The Legal Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Legal process will concentrate on the formal structure of the American court system, as well as on its rules, roles, and responsibilities. Our first aim will be descriptive, to depict as accurately as possible the innerworking of the state and federal courts. Our second aim will be theoretical, to understand the fragile nature of legal legitimacy, the reliance of law on complex social customs, the reconstruction of reality in a legal context and the relation between legal logic and other forms of reasoning. This course will require of the student a large commitment for reading and it will assume its students have flexible and critical minds. (Schepple)

414. The Politics of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on the law of civil rights and liberties as it is derived from American constitutional interpretation. Attention will be devoted to (a) theories of civil liberty appropriate to a liberal democracy, with (b) application of such theories to specific areas of civil rights law drawn from the following: freedom of expression, political participation, and religion; equal protection and rights of minorities; rights of the accused; privacy, "life-style" issues, and control of personal information; as well as issues like access to the news media and private abridgment of freedoms.

415. The American Chief Executive. Pol. Sci. 111, 410, or 411; or junior standing. (4). (SS).

An advanced survey of the American presidency. Topics include the development of the institution, the selection of the President with special emphasis on the current election, installation and operation of the new administration, and the development of selected executive policies. A basic knowledge of American government and politics is requisite. In addition to the final examination, two one-hour examinations (one of which may be replaced by a term paper) are required as part of the grading pattern. There are two textbooks. Readings are required and extensive. (Grassmuck)

417. Legislative Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course describes the behavior of legislators and seeks to explain their actions. There is some emphasis on the U.S. Congress. Topics include decision-making in committees and on the floor, the informal legislative folkways, the place of political parties and leadership, and the relationships between legislators and constituents, interest groups, the executive branch, and the press.

423. Politics of the Metropolis. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the major demographic, social and economic trends in metropolitan areas and analyzes the governmental responses to these trends. The course will discuss urban elites, race and ethnicity, governmental forms, and conventional and nonconventional modes of participation.

431. Public Administration. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The focus of this course will be public bureaucracies and various ways of talking about them. The course will begin with an examination of what we mean by bureaucracy. Then, metaphors of bureaucracies (as systems based on expertise, as systems oriented to internal functioning, as systems oriented to external interest groups) will be explored. The readings will focus primarily at the national level, but the course itself will cover aspects of bureaucracies common to all levels. One or more papers, a midterm and final examination will be required. (Feldman)

438/Amer. Inst. 450. Ethics and Public Policy. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 450. (Chamberlin)

439/Econ. 425/Amer. Inst. 439. Inequality in the United States. Econ.. 201 or Poli. Sci. 111. (3). (SS).

See American Institutions 439. (Corcoran & Courant)

440. Comparative Politics. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course provides an analysis of politics in contemporary western democracies, communist systems, and developing countries. The emphasis is on common patterns of governing, political behavior, emerging trends in different political systems. (Barnes)

441. Comparative Politics of Advanced Industrial Democracies. Any 100-level course in political science or upperclass standing. (4). (SS).

This course will examine a set of ongoing trends that are transforming advanced industrial societies, including the U.S., Western Europe and Japan. We will deal with changes in the culture and values of these societies; changes in the ways people are organized, and how they participate in politics; and will examine the thesis that these societies may collapse within the next 50 years or so due to exhaustion of energy and mineral resources. The reading list consists of seven books, six of them paperbacks; a midterm and final exam and one term paper will be required. (Inglehart)

448. Governments and Politics of Latin America. Pol. Sci. 140 or 440; or a course on Latin America elected through another department. (4). (SS).

An introduction to the study of social and political conflict and change in contemporary Latin America. The class combines attention to major issues and trends with in-depth analysis of selected cases. Among the issues and cases to be considered in Fall 1984 are the following: the changing role of the Catholic Church, the expansion of the state, patterns of economic transformation and their political implications, formation and mobilization of peasantries, international influences on domestic politics. Detailed attention will be paid to cases such as Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Columbia. Class format combines lecture with discussion. This course is being offered in Fall 1984 as an upper-level writing course to satisfy ECB requirements. The writing requirement can be fulfilled either through preparation of a series of short papers with commentary and rewriting, or through preparation of a research paper. If the latter option is chosen, students will be expected to present a prospectus and outline, a bibliographical essay, and a draft of the paper before submission of the final paper. There will also be a midterm examination and a final examination. (Levine)

455. Government and Politics of China. (4). (SS).

The Chinese government is guiding nearly one-quarter of mankind through the industrial revolution. This historically unprecedented effort is being directed by a revolutionary party that gained power through a massive rural insurgency in a country that had over the centuries made world renowned achievements in culture and statecraft. Government and Politics of China uses these three broad dimensions China's traditions, the revolutionary history of the Chinese Communist Party, and the strains of the transition to industrial society to analyze the politics of the People's Republic of China since 1949. In addition to providing a detailed political history of the PRC, this course focuses on two efforts: (1) explaining key decisions in terms of both the political forces at play and the decision making processes themselves; and (2) understanding in depth the substantive issues on the current Chinese political agenda. There will be some treatment of foreign affairs, but the major effort centers on domestic politics. This course complements rather than overlaps with Political Science 428 but Poli. Sci. 428 is not a prerequisite for Poli. Sci. 455. Grades are based on a midterm and a final examination, and a paper. (Lieberthal)

456. Government and Politics of Japan. Pol. Sci. 140, 440, or 450; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course provides an overview of Japanese politics, mainly contemporary, with rather little technical political science. Special attention is given to the changes of the Occupation period, social patterns, political behavior, the decision-making process, and patterns of domestic and foreign public policy. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination and a paper (about ten pages for undergraduates). Enrollment is usually low enough to hold rather informal meetings and to respond to individual interests. Many students who elect the course have no background either in Japanese studies or political science and seem at no great disadvantage. (Campbell)

460. Problems in World Politics. Any 100-level course in political science. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice with permission of the instructor.

This course deals with the shifts in superpower relations during the post-1945 period, and, in particular, their effects on the international system. The historical record of détente and confrontation as well as explanations for changes are important. The impact of changes on arms control, disarmament, armaments and arms trade are included. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the relationship for local conflict patterns, conflict resolution alliance cohesion and internal political developments. European and Third World perspectives on superpower relations are covered as are general problems of measurement and causal explanation.

465. Political Development and Dependence. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to review major theories of political development. The course is divided into five parts: (1) Major Approaches to Political Development; (2) Agrarian Movements; (3) Revolutions Left and Right; (4) Varieties of Authoritarianism; and (5) International Dependence. The work for the course involves writing three papers each of about l0 to 15 pages. They are due at regular intervals during the term. (McDonough)

469. Politics of International Economic Relations. Pol. Sci. 160 or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course will deal with the interplay of political and economic considerations in international relations. Although the two are usually dealt with separately, there is an obvious interdependence of politics and economics in the international movements of goods (trade), capital (investments) and aid. Apparently political phenomena such as wars and arms races also have a strong economic foundation. The purpose of the course will be to provide students with the conceptual tools and substantive knowledge needed to analyze such instances of political economic interplay.

471. The American Foreign Policy Process. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The course is designed to provide the advanced undergraduate student with: (a) an understanding of the global and domestic context within which US foreign policy is formulated, executed, evaluated, and modified; (b) alternative interpretations of the policy process and context; (c) methods by which these interpretations can be compared and tested against the empirical evidence; and (d) the ability to evaluate past policy decisions and propose future ones. In pursuit of these objectives, we will examine and discuss some case histories (World War I and II, formation of the UN, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, SALT negotiations, GATT agreements, etc.), along with memoirs of participants and scholarly analyses of the cases. Equally important will be the efforts of scholars to generalize from such cases, using methods that range from the impressionistic to the highly quantitative. We will meet twice per week for lectures and discussions combined, and there will be assigned as well as suggested readings each week. Evaluation will rest on take-home final exam, several brief memos during the term, intelligent participation in discussion, and additional work of an optional nature. Prior work in scientific method is desirable but not essential. Texts not yet selected. (Singer)

472. International Security Affairs. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course covers defense, deterrence, and arms control in the contemporary context. Special emphasis is given to the policies, perspectives, and capabilities of the United States and the Soviet Union, but consideration is also given to Western Europe and China. Illustrative issues are alternative strategic nuclear doctrines, prospects for arms control, conscription, organization of the Executive Branch for foreign and military policy formation, and interalliance politics. (Tanter)

474. International Relations of India and South Asia. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

The primary focus will be on external relations of South Asian countries with their neighbors, the super powers, China, the EEC, the Comecon, Africa, Latin America. The course will concentrate mainly on India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, while other countries will be dealt with briefly. (Ahsani)

475. International Relations of the Soviet Union. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This is a course on Soviet foreign policy since World War II. For additional information call on the instructor, Prof. A. Yanov (5620 Haven Hall, tel. 764-6386) (Yanov)

477. Southeast Asia: International Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on the international relations of Southeast Asia. Special emphasis is given to the policies of major outside powers like the United States, China, the Soviet Union, and Japan toward the area. Also considered are the foreign policies of the nine countries of Southeast Asia. In theoretical terms, the concepts of multipolarity, regionalism, and political economy are applied to Southeast Asia.

478. International Relations of the Far East. Pol. Sci. 160 and one other course in political science; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course examines the interplay of the Great Powers in East and Southeast Asia China, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the United States from the 1840's to the present. The course is rooted in the assumption that contemporary international relations can only be understood through a sound knowledge of history. We will examine how the Great Powers repeatedly have competed for influence in Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam. We will trace the complicated linkages between shifts in the balance of power in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East and developments in East and Southeast Asia. We will trace continuities and changes in the nature of interstate relations in the region over the past 150 years. Our approach will be chronological. This is a demanding course aimed at the serious and mature student of world affairs. The required readings are considerable. Grades will be based on a take-home, open-book exam. (Oksenberg)

479/CAAS 479. International Relations of Africa. (4). (SS).

Africa as an international subsystem; the foreign policies of African states; aid and trade in African international relations; race and culture in African diplomacy; alliances and alignments in world policies; the political economy of dependency, liberation, and development. (Mazrui)

481. Junior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with junior standing. (4). (SS).

This is the first seminar in the Political Science Honors program. It has two aims. First, it will alert students to the scope and method of the study of politics through a critical discussion of key concepts and their function in some of the classics of political theory. Second, it will introduce students to the range of specialized interests and methodological skills of the University's Political Science faculty. The purpose of this is not only to help students see what forms the age-old questions about politics take in contemporary research, but also to help them find faculty supervisors for their Honors theses. Open to Honors concentrators in Political Science. There is no prerequisite; but Political Science 101 or 400 might be useful preparations. (Meyer)

483. American Political Parties and Electoral Problems. Political Science 111, 140, 410, or 411; or permission of instructor. instructor. (4). (SS).

This course examines American political parties within a comparative context. After a brief discussion of the historical development of the American party system the following topics are considered: party organization, party leadership, campaigns and party finance, leadership recruitment, nominations and the national presidential convention and primary systems, elections and voting behavior, and party leadership in the policy process and in government. Much time is spent in analyzing the system from the standpoint of (1) where is it going is realignment taking place? (2) how "democratic" and responsive is it? and (3) what is the impact of the party system and its activities on the public and on society? The distinctive features of the American system in contrast to other systems are discussed as well as the factors responsible for producing the American system. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the system, to discuss its defects as well as its strong points, and to suggest types of reforms that might be introduced. A research paper from 10-15 pages in length is required as well as one or two one-hour examinations and a final. There are also required readings, a text, and recommended readings. Students are often involved in a Field Survey Project in which they interview party leaders and/or citizens concerning their attitudes toward, and participation in, parties and campaigns. (Eldersveld)

486. Public Opinion, Political Participation, and Pressure Groups. One course in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course focuses on (1) the formation and nature of public opinion and mass political participation and (2) the links between public opinion and participation and public policy. It will familiarize students with survey and other methods for generating opinion and participation data. Particular attention will be given to the effects of socio-economic structure, gender, personality, life cycle, family, peer group, school, work environment, groups, and political institutions on public opinion and participation. Course requirements include a final exam, midterm and an optional research paper (30%). (Langton)

487. Psychological Perspectives on Politics. Two courses in political science or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Explanations of political phenomena often rest on psychological assumptions. Studies of leadership, decision-making, socialization, public opinion and voting, violence and revolution, propaganda and persuasion all have a psychological base. The purpose of this lecture course is to survey major currents of theoretical and empirical work in the psychological analysis of politics. Extensive background in political science and psychology courses is not required, nor is the course part of a departmental sequence. Grades will be based on examinations and at least one paper. (Kinder)

491. Directed Studies. Two courses in political science and permission of instructor and the Director of Undergraduate Studies. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). Political Science 491 and 492 may be elected for a total of eight credits.

A directed study on any subject agreed upon by a student and an advising instructor that does not duplicate a regular course offering. May be elected for 1-6 hours; a maximum of 4 credits may be applied toward the concentration core in political science. Students wishing to enroll for a directed study course are urged to work out the details of the course before the start of the term.

493. Senior Honors Proseminar. Open only to Honors concentrators with senior standing. (4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Open to seniors with Honors concentration in Political Science. Thesis writing course. (Meyer)

495. Undergraduate Seminar in Political Theory. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Recent Theories of Liberalism and Justice.
A critical exploration of the recent philosophical debate on liberalism and justice. Are the current economic policies of liberal states just? Is radical redistribution called for? Or should we restore a fully free market? Is liberalism in fact incurably depraved? Readings include John Rawls' A Theory of Justice, Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Bruce Ackerman's Social Justice in the Liberal State, Alastair MacIntyre's After Virtue, Michael Walzer's Spheres of Justice, and scattered articles. A background in political theory or philosophy will be quite helpful. Students will be graded on participation in seminar as well as three 5-page papers and one 10-page paper. (Herzog)

Section 002 Freud and Political Philosophy. In this seminar we will study the Freudian conception of human nature, with particular attention to its possible relevance to the understanding of political phenomena. The course will begin with an overview of Freudian psychology, drawing on Freud's Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis, The Interpretation of Dreams, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, and The Ego and the Id. We will then undertake a systematic study of Freud's social psychology, during which we will read Totem and Taboo, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, The Future of an Illusion, Civilization and its Discontents, Moses and Monotheism, and various shorter works dealing with moral, cultural, and political issues. No previous knowledge of Freudian psychology will be assumed; some familiarity with the history of political philosophy is highly desirable. Each student in the seminar will be expected to prepare a brief (fifteen-minute) oral presentation once during the term, introducing the reading for the week. Apart from active participation in seminar discussion, the only other requirement will be to write a term paper of approximately twenty pages. (Schwartz)

496. Undergraduate Seminar in American Government and Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001.
An advanced seminar in the field of American Government and Politics.

Section 002 Decision Making in Organizations. This course will examine decision making as part of the behavior in which organizational members engage. Thus, we will begin by exploring briefly some common ways of thinking about decision making (as rational behavior, as routine-following behavior, as political behavior, as symbolic behavior). Participation in class discussions will be an important basis for evaluation. One or more papers will be required. (Feldman)

Section 004 Politics of the Bureaucracy. This course should familiarize students with political and organizational "facts of life" facing policy analysts and managers in the federal bureaucracy. Political analysis matters because public policies are made in systems of widely shared power by participants with diverse goals, only one of which may be policy effectiveness. Organizational analysis matters because public policies are formulated and implemented by large organizations whose behavior is often unexpected. Illustrative material will draw heavily on the recent reform of the federal civil service system. Primarily readings will be available at the Undergraduate Library. In addition, books have been ordered through local bookstores and are recommended for purchase. Seminar requirements include one oral presentation, participation in class discussion, examinations, two short papers on topics assigned, and one more extensive paper on a topic chosen by the student and approved by the instructor. (Goldenberg)

497. Undergraduate Seminar in Comparative and Foreign Government. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 002 Political Problems of Advanced Industrial Democracies.
This seminar focuses on the emerging political problems common to the democracies of Western Europe and the U.S. Special attention will be devoted to the crisis of the welfare state, the expansion of participation, including unconventional as well as conventional forms, and changing belief systems. Within this framework, special interests of participants will be accommodated. A term paper is required. (Barnes)

Section 004 Nikita Khrushchev, The Soviet Reformer. A Case Study. Khrushchev's was a stormy rule. It included such major and contradictory domestic and international events as de-Stalinization and the Budapest massacre, the reduction of Soviet conventional forces and the Berlin Wall, far-reaching political and economic reforms, the Cuban missile crisis, and the strategy of "minimum deterrence" designed to halt the arms race. How was this almost incredible combination possible in one regime and one leader? And how come that Khrushchev's strategic doctrine had been actually much closer to that of Admiral Burke's (Chief of Naval Operations of the American Navy), than to his own comrades and successors like Brezhnev or Kosygin? Along with trying to answer these questions, the students will be asked to explore another one: how Western intellectual perceptions affected the fate of Krushchev's regime? Has the West lost or gained from its dramatic demise? How should it act in case a new reformist regime emerges in Moscow in the 1980's? The principal method of instruction will be discussion of students' presentations. Apart from the presentations there will be one exam. (Yanov)

498. Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics. Permission of instructor. Intended for senior concentrators. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Undergraduate Seminar in International Politics.
An advanced seminar in the field of international politics. Students do research on selected general topics.

Section 002 Ronald Reagan and the Middle East. The seminar considers the evolution of Ronald Reagan's ideas about the Middle East from the presidential campaign of 1980 until the present. One overall theme concerns how the shift from domestic political concerns goals affects U.S. policy toward the Middle East. Examples are drawn from the President's Spring 1981 decisions regarding AWACs and related equipment for Saudi Arabia and the President's Middle East peace initiative of September 1982. In the context of rising tensions, undesirable trade-offs have to be faced among competing national interests. The widespread belief in the bureaucracy that only in the context of a movement towards peace and security are America's conflicting goals in the Middle East reconcilable will be assessed in relation to the war in Lebanon, June through September 1982. There is a great emphasis on consensus-building and coalition-building and on the isolation of dissenting views in the national security decision process. With respect to the Middle East, even presidents have great difficulty imposing their personal views if they are outside the main stream. Bureaucratic politics can be seen as a dynamic search for agreement among principals who constantly move from coalition to coalition depending upon their perception of the personal and national stakes involved. In connection with a controversial area such as the Middle East, there is an even greater effort to gain consensus before embarking on policy changes. (Tanter)

514. The Use of Social Science Computer Programs. Pol. Sci. 499 or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to the computer and to campus software systems. Topics considered include how the computer can be used to analyze social science data. Instruction will be provided in the use of a decwriter terminal and a display (CRT) terminal. The primary software system covered by this course is MIDAS, but students will also be introduced to OSIRIS and to basic MTS commands.

591. Advanced Internship in Political Science. Two courses in political science at the 400 level or above and concentration in political science; or graduate standing. Permission of supervising instructor and review by the Department's internship advisor. No more than 4 credits of internship may be included as part of a concentration plan in political science. (2-6). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). With approval, may be elected for a total of 8 credits for both Political Science 591 and 592.

Advanced Internship requires careful, individual planning between senior students in Political Science and individual faculty members who approve the internship and provide instruction. To register for the course, the student must complete the internship form and obtain an override to enter the course. The form is available in 6619 Haven Hall.

Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. Students with inadequate preparation for University studies should find this course to be helpful as a background for studying other courses. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, schema and semantic memory; cognitive skills; language generation; problem solving; creativity; learning styles; motivation, anxiety and attributions; learning in groups; and, behavioral control: self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and a weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about areas of psychology which emphasize a study of the brain and behavior from a scientific perspective. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Each section is taught individually by a graduate teaching fellow who has complete responsibility for his/her section. Because there are substantial variations among sections in content and teaching style, students are encouraged to sit in on several sections during the first week of classes before making their final choice.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a time slot ONLY (sections 001-010). Students should check the TIME SCHEDULE (final edition) for the day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-010). During this first meeting, the instructors present their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. Students, then, apply to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to the instructor at this first meeting. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych. 171. Wait list (section 099) students must attend the special meeting listed in the Time Schedule. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-010) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR to the meeting to retain their space in the course or on the Wait List.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170, 171, or Univ. Course 189 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 192, or Univ. Course 189. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. The major objectives of the course are to increase knowledge concerning causes of behavior and to develop an ability and desire to learn more about behavior, especially human behavior. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, creativity, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation and human sexuality, emotion, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy, interpersonal relations, aggression and violence, and environmental psychology. The discussion sections provide an opportunity to pursue particular topics in greater depth and detail, to share experiences with others, and to learn from this sharing. There is a single text for the course, but the discussion sections require some additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects or film critiques. The final course grade is based half on several course-wide examinations and half on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. (Morris)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 002.
This section of Psychology 192 is taught on a "mastery system". Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any students who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. Generally speaking, students must put their names on the wait list for one semester in order to be admitted to the course the next semester, since the demand for the course is great. (McConnell)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Two credit projects require six hours of work per week including four hours of fieldwork, log writing, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Information regarding registration, lecture/discussion times, and field work will be available at a MASS MEETING ON MONDAY, MARCH 26 AT 7 PM. Students attending this meeting will be given priority in setting placements. For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two settings of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R. D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300 309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300 309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300 309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300 309.

Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with biological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. The organ responsible for these functions is the brain, and therefore much of the course deals with brain-behavior relations, but other biological influences, including hormones, will be considered. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), sleep and waking states, sexual behavior, regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), and learning and memory. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores only. One cannot obtain credit for Psych 331 and 431. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Robinson, Holmes, Valenstein, Uttal)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include organizational design; motivation; work-related attitudes; leadership; decision-making; group behavior; organizational change; work and health; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be two general lectures and one small group discussion section. The discussion sections will review the materials of the texts and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (A. Tannenbaum)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Wilber, Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Field. There will be two small papers and two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a critical overview of problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. Consistent with the underlying paradigms of the area, the course emphasizes understanding of social problems from the perspective of person-environment interactions and an ecological and general systems approach. In this framework, it examines the nature of community and community systems, aspects of helping and helping services, dynamics of social services institutions and community mental health, and emerging models of social and community intervention. Through widely varied readings, guest presentations, and class projects, the course explores issues of pro-active and preventive social programming, self-help and social support, empowerment and community actions, and community-based research and social change. Student learning and grading will be based on active class participation, a series of short papers, one major term project, and a take-home examination. Students are encouraged, but not required, to participate in volunteer field-work related to course content, and will be allowed to utilize that experience in addressing course requirements. (Kieffer)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course was designed primarily for persons interested in pursuing programs that would involve direct work with families. Its thrust is decidedly "clinical" as opposed to "social survey" or "cross-culturally comparative". These latter topics will be touched on only insofar as they enlighten what is happening (or not happening) to the family in contemporary American society. Thus, the course will deal with the history of socio-clinical concern with the "plight" of the American family in the last 20 years. The conceptual orientations in the course will be distinctively those of "general systems theory" and "symbolic interactionism". The sociology of deviance within the family system will receive major emphasis psychopathologies will be reconstrued within a family systems context. The organization of the course will, in fact, be developmental. That is it will trace the life cycle of families from mate-selection through developmental crisis to dissolution, single parenthood, remarriage, family reconstruction, and do so with a continual awareness of social context. Contrasts and parallels with other "clinical" theories and therapies (i.e., psychoanalytic) will serve as constant counterpoint, and be used to highlight implicit and/or explicit assumptions about family dynamics, as well as ethical concerns about how, why and when one intervenes in family systems. Concomitantly, social modes of "researching" families in today's society will be considered on ethical, heuristic, political and presumptive grounds. Dilemmas for the "researcher" and the "researched," the "treated" and the "treater" will be considered. Required texts are Goldenberg and Goldenberg (eds.), Family Therapy: An Overview, Bermann, Scapegoat: The Impact of Death Fear on an American Family , Napier and Whitiker, The Family Crucible and a course pack. Grading in the course is based on class presentation and discussion (15%), a midterm exam (20%), a final exam (30%) and a term paper. (Bermann)

Section 002. The course will consider marriage and the family as social institutions, as small social organizations, and as interpersonal systems. We will look at variations in the form and function of families over time and across cultures. We will discuss various theories about family interaction and empirical approaches to marital and family exchange. (Douvan, Veroff)

Section 003. The purposes of this course are to familiarize students with family theories, assessment procedures and interventions; to explore conceptualizations of effective and ineffective family functioning; and to acquaint students with major stressors affecting family life and the ways families organize themselves to respond to those stressors. Topics included in the course are theoretical approaches to families including general systems, structural family, psychodynamic and behavioral. Also included are empirical theories regarding marital relationships and a review of several major stressors including work, divorce, family violence and chronic illnesses and the impact that these stressors have on family life. The course will use both lecture and discussion formats. Evaluation of student's performance will be based on two short multiple choice exams, several take home essays related to lectures and reading and a three-part family assessment. Goldenberg and Goldenberg, Family Therapy, An Overview and journal articles will comprise assigned readings. (Barbarin)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning March 26. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward of the Neuropsychiatric Institute at University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examination, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

Section 002. The focus of this course will be on research strategies and methods which are brought to bear on understanding the nature and treatment of psychopathology. Special attention will be given to the integration of clinical and research data. As part of this course, students will serve as part-time research assistants (approximately two hours/week) to faculty members in order to gain "hands on" clinical research experience. This may include interviewing subjects, coding fantasy material or results of psychological tests, participating in the design of questionnaires, etc. In no case will students be asked to do drone-like work. The aim is to become an active member of a functioning research team. In addition to this experiential component, the course will cover readings drawn from the areas of general epistemology, research methods, and theories of psychopathology. Two papers (each approximately 2-3 pages long) and a final paper (5-7 pages long) focused on evaluation of published clinical research round out the formal requirements. The course is intended for students planning graduate work in either the social sciences (e.g., clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology) or in areas in which such sophistication in understanding reports or clinical research is helpful (e.g., medicine, certain areas of law, education). Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning March 26, l984. (Kalter)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; or Biol. 100, 105, 112, or 114; or Physiol. 101. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology or Physiology. (3). (NS).

This lecture course surveys the field of physiological psychology, emphasizing the study of central nervous mechanisms of behavior, cognition and perception. Following background lectures on neurophysiology, neuropharmacology and neuroanatomy, the course will deal with neuromechanisms of sensory processes and of motor control (movement and posture). Other topics include brain mechanisms of sleep and waking states, motivation, learning and memory. Much of the material comes from studies employing animals. However, whenever possible, research dealing with human brain function and behavior will be discussed, as in topics dealing with the neuropharmacology of psychiatric disorders and specialization of function in each of the cerebral hemispheres. Prerequisites include Introductory Psychology and Zoology or Physiology. Several objective examinations will be given during the term, as well as a final examination. (Butter)

435. Sensory Functions. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310; and an introductory course in Biology, Zoology, or Physiology. (3). (NS).

All information about the world around us as well as within us is made known through our various senses (vision, hearing, smell, etc.). Our sensory capacities, as revealed by our behavior in the detection and discrimination of different environmental events (visual, auditory, olfactory, etc.), and the manner in which the senses receive and transmit information to the central nervous system and brain form the subject matter of this course. Sample topics include color vision, depth perception, sound localization, and sensory disabilities such as color blindness and hearing loss brought about by exposure to loud noise. Evaluation will be made by three midterms and one final exam. Instruction is by lecture-discussion format. Discussion is encouraged. (Uttal)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course emphasizes scientific study of motivation. It considers principles of motivation in depth. It aims to encourage further development of an understanding of science in the context of studying some intrinsically interesting problems: the methods employed to measure individual differences in personality that influence motivation, and the details of the motivational process that underlies behavior. The analysis of personality-motivation-action focuses mainly but not exclusively on the inevitable conflict between the hope of success and the fear of failure arising in efforts to achieve and what has been learned in extensive studies of motivation to achieve. Much of the lecture/discussion concerns algebraic models of motivation, evaluation of experimental findings, even computer simulation of motivational problems. Generally some background in several psychology courses and statistics is recommended but not required. Students having only introductory psychology are not advised to take this course unless they feel competent and comfortable with algebra and have a strong interest in scientific psychology. Assignments involve a combination of text and reserve or course pack readings. Final grade is based on several hour exams and written work (problems or essays) submitted during the term. (Atkinson)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course reviews psychological research on higher mental processes, and relates it both to psychological theory and to practice. A number of specific topics are covered, including the organization of knowledge, concept acquisition and use, induction, logical reasoning, mathematical reasoning, language and thought, analogical reasoning, mental imagery and visual thinking, individual differences in thought processes, creative thinking, and problem solving. There will be lectures, in-class discussions, and small-group discussions on these topics. Three exams are given, each covering one-third of the course. There are also a series of short written projects linked to the course content. Textbooks will include The Minds Best Work by D.N. Perkins and Conceptual Blockbusting by J.L. Adams. (G. Olson)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).

The focus of this course is adult human memory. We shall examine a large body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning material, storing it away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material in the course that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other than humans. Course requirements will likely include three examinations, and perhaps, a paper. The format of the course is lectures interspersed with demonstrations, experiments, and limited discussion where appropriate. The class typically has a large enrollment, with a majority of students in their junior or senior years. (Jonides)

451. Development of Language and Higher Mental Processes. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course will examine how children acquire their first language, and closely related topics in cognitive development. Through lectures and discussion, we will cover: the development of word meaning, concepts, and categories; early grammars; the relationship between language development and cognitive development. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary research and theory. Students will be evaluated by two exams and a paper. (Gelman)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will cover basic theories in personality psychology psychodynamic, trait, social learning, and cognitive theories. We will look at both theory and research concerning individual differences in behavior and personal interests, goals and feelings. The course will review a range of methodologies for measuring individual's personalities, including case history approaches as well as survey and experimental approaches. Contrasting positions as to the relative contribution of hereditary and environment in shaping individual's behavior will be considered. Evaluations will be based on two exams covering material in the lectures, textbook, and case histories and two summaries of research articles. This section will be helpful for students interested in further advanced courses in research in personality (e.g., Psychology 519 Laboratory in Personality). (Cantor)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
The primary purpose of this course is to expose students to the theories and research findings relating to the processes by which an individual becomes a social being. An attempt is also made to make the course personally meaningful so that students gain some insights into their own social development so that they can develop practical applications of the material. For psychology concentrators, some time is spent critically examining research methods and suggesting problem areas needing further investigation.

454. Analysis of Interpersonal Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).
Sections 001-004.
The purpose of this course is for students to gain an understanding of interpersonal relations as they develop in an unstructured group setting. As members of the group, students observe and attempt to understand the processes of their own group. What caused the group to take the turn it did? Why is its mood different today? What norms are emerging? Who are its leaders formal and informal? What myths, fantasies, or assumptions seem to underlie group moods or behaviors? What role does each of us play in the group? These are some of the questions we try to answer. In brief planned sessions students analyze the previous session, and apply concepts and insights from the literature on groups in the effort to understand this group's history and development. In longer unstructured sessions students interact and reflect on the process. Three papers during the term each include: (1) an analysis of a third of the sessions' key events, meanings, myths, mood shifts, norms, leaders, etc.; (2) further analysis of these sessions in terms of theories and concepts from readings; (3) an analysis of one's own part in the group. Psych 454 provides in depth, experiential learning about groups through participation in a self-analytic group limited to twenty people. (J. Mann)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course considers the physical, cognitive, and emotional-social development of children from conception to adolescence. Methodologies and theories are evaluated. The emphasis is on the development of normal children in western cultures, although some cross-cultural data and factors making for difficult development are also considered.

458. Gender and the Individual. Introductory Psych. (3). (SS).

In this course, we will explore the existence of sex differences in roles, behaviors, and beliefs; discuss the possible origins of these differences from a biological, psychological and sociological perspective, and explore the implications of sex differences and gender roles for men's and women's lives. The course will include two lectures and one discussion group meeting each week. Performance will be evaluated in terms of participation in the discussion group, two midterm exams, and a term paper. Students should have some background in either psychology, biology, or women's studies. (Eccles)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. Credit for Psychology 459 is not granted to students who have earned credit for Course Mart 383 (Dimensions of Human Aging), Public Health 595, or both University Course 435 and Education H520. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes in adulthood and old age using a life span developmental perspective. Special emphasis is given to such topics as continuity across the life span; men and women in middle age; normal biological aging; aging, health and health behaviors; intelligence over the life course; housing issues among the elderly; retirement; common psychological problems of the elderly; death, dying and grief. Time permitting, additional special problems of the elderly will be considered as well as the future of aging and a life-long perspective on aging. The course consists of both lecture and discussions. The students are required to complete assigned readings, class exercises, and/or projects. Evaluation will be based on the above in addition to examinations and written paper(s). (Antonucci)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories of group behavior-formation and development, decision-making and problem-solving, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the use of groups in the design of organizations and methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experimental and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from the contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. The third section of the course involves observing a work group, applying the methods and theory covered in the first two parts of the class, and working independently. (Denison)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines a wide spectrum of deviant behavior, including normal variants of functioning, neurotic difficulties, character pathology, and the psychoses. Selected additional topics vary somewhat, but can include childhood psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, multiple personality, manic-depressive disorder, and the issue of the criminal insanity defense. The possible causes of the various forms of psychopathology are examined, with emphasis on psychological causation; attention is also given to recent advances in psychophysiological correlates of mental illness. Treatment modalities are addressed, including forms of psychotherapy, behavioral methods, and psychopharmacology. Finally, there will be discussion of social and legal issues relevant to the deviant individual. This is a lecture course, with a recommended discussion section. Students will be evaluated primarily on the basis of examinations. (Ludolph)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 attracts students from a variety of fields; many of them are professionals in environmental design and planning. The course focuses on information processing and its evolutionary background, on human needs in terms of informational requirements, and on the way the environment supports or hinders the processing of information. Such topics as trust and community, territory and privacy, and the role of identity are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Course requirements include a midterm and a final examination, as well as several small projects carried out by cross-disciplinary student groups. Admittance to Psych 476 is by application only. Forms are available in the Undergraduate Psychology Office, 580 Union Drive, K-106. (S.Kaplan, J.Talbot)

482/Soc. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on the interaction of social roles and personality. Selected life roles such as marriage, parenthood, and work are studied not so much from the point of view of their sociological significance but of their impact on people's motivations, attitudes, and feelings. The course first examines the general analytic problem of thinking about personalities in interaction with social systems. Then it examines each of the three life roles. Empirical findings rather than theoretical analyses are highlighted and sex difference in these roles are emphasized. A course pack of varied articles and chapters from books plus Worlds of Pain are read and discussed. Course requirements allow a choice of writing integrated essays or a short answer examination. Two such evaluations are required. An empirical research effort is also required as a term project. Students select a life role (e.g., a specific occupation or a husband/wife or mother/father role) and obtain firsthand data on how that role affects the experience of people in that role. Group projects are encouraged but are not mandatory. (Veroff)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The course provides a survey of research on attitude and belief formation and change, with special emphasis on the role of inference processes in producing beliefs and on the role of social inference in altering beliefs. The question of people's awareness of their beliefs and inference processes is discussed at length, as are questions of the degree to which, and the manner in which, beliefs influence behavior. Psychology 382 would be helpful, but not essential, background.

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. (2-4). (SS).

| Section 001. Introduction to Health Psychology is designed for upper-level undergraduate students who are interested in the specific contributions of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, and to the analysis and improvement of the health care system. The goals of this course are to (a) identify those areas of health, illness, and treatment delivery which have been studied by social science researchers; (b) explore and evaluate psychological contributions to these areas; (c) consider ways in which psychological research can be used to improve the health care delivery system. A background in psychology is helpful, but not required. There will be a reading assignment for each class period. Students are expected to come to class prepared to discuss the assigned readings. GRADING will be based on three exams and one paper. Material for the exams will come from the reading assignments as well as class presentations. The paper will take the form of a research proposal and will be due by the end of the term. (Emmons)

Section 002: Economic/Work Conditions, Family Life, and Child Development. The purpose of this course is to explore and highlight the ways in which social-structural features related to work and the economy impact on family dynamics, especially as they relate to the socialization of children. A major assumption underlying this course is that the socialization process is limited to neither innate factors which emerge in the course of biological maturation nor those people who raise the child from infancy. A third factor, society, intrudes itself into the socialization process. Indirectly, its effect is felt by its shaping of the broad environment within which socialization agents and children function. It is this factor, as it relates to work and the economy, on which this course focuses. First, we will explore how occupational milieu and various aspects of the structure and organization of work life shape family dynamics, parental childbearing values, and, in turn, children's personality development and behavioral orientation (e.g., academic achievement). Second, we will examine the effects of maternal employment on children, with special attention given to dual-career families. Third, the ways in which poverty and associated conditions (e.g., female-headed households, welfare) affect the psychological and physical development of children will be examined. Finally, we will explore the ways in which unemployment affects family functioning and the child's physical and mental health. The social policy implications of existing research and theory about each of these four major issues will be discussed. Readings will consist primarily of review chapters and data-based journal articles. Students will be required to complete two take-home essay exams. Seminar format. (McLoyd)

Section 003 Families and Loss. A developmental framework of attachment and loss theory will precede an examination of issues and theories related to mourning, including a critique of stage theories of grieving, the concept of chronic sorrow, and children's understanding of loss and the ability of children to grieve. A family systems approach will explore the impact of significant loss on the family and its marital, parental, and sibling subsystems. An overview of losses arranged on a life cycle continuum will address the following: infertility; pregnancy loss; premature birth; death of a child; death of a parent/spouse; chronic illness and disability; divorce; and other situations of family loss. An in-depth study of the following selected family losses will then be undertaken; death of a child/sibling; death of parent/spouse; divorce; infertility and pregnancy loss. The importance of social support, the role of formal and informal interventions, the availability of various coping strategies, and the meanings and roles of hope, faith, and a sense of continuity will be explored. The format will include lecture, presentation, selected films and videotapes, and discussion. Student evaluation will be based on consistent and active participation in class, completion of readings, three short written projects, a major paper, and a final exam. (Mikus)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 266: Research on Family Assessment.
This research laboratory course will acquaint students with structured methods of family assessment, especially methods which use self-report scales, observations and simulations. In the course, students will get an overview of assessment techniques widely used in family research and intervention. In addition, students will learn how family measures are constructed and validated, how measures relate to family theory, how to evaluate the psychometric properties of existing family measures. The course will examine the use of Cronbach's Alpha and Cohen's Kappa to estimate internal consistency and inter-rater reliability and Campbell's approach to construct validity. The course will rely on lectures, demonstrations, readings and discussions to cover course material. Using a team approach, students will design and conduct a validity study of a paper-and-pencil measure of family process. Evaluation of student performance will be based on class participation and on the final written report of the results of the validity study. Throughout the course emphasis will be given to several family assessment techniques widely used in clinical intervention and research (viz., Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Process Scales, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and SIMFAM) and to problems of evaluating families in special situations e.g. divorced, single parent, seriously ill, culturally different, etc. (Barbarin)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

512. Advanced Laboratory in Motivation and Behavior. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 442. (3). (SS).

This advanced lab is designed for students who have already taken Psychology 442. It will emphasize computer simulation of motivation and the role of the computer in planning empirical investigations and in spelling out the behavioral implications of the theory of motivation. Each student will have an opportunity to explore some unresolved problem at the frontier of the science. The work will culminate in a report including the design for an empirical study and plan for statistical analysis of expected results. Background in computer programming is helpful but not required. Students with unusually strong academic records may request permission to take this lab concurrently with Psychology 442. (Atkinson)

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (SS).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. Finally, each student critically reviews a published test or inventory, evaluating its psychometric characteristics and applicability. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).

Purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. During the first half of the term students do an already designed survey, field study, and experiment. In the second half of the term, students design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work three-four hours each week outside of class to complete projects. Grade based on final examination (25%) and individual research reports (75%). (Burnstein)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459, and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. Application blanks are on the bulletin board near 3406A Mason Hall. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in class projects during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (SS).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

530. Advanced Comparative Psychology. Psych. 430. (3). (Excl.).

The comparative biology and psychology of animal communication, from insect signals to human speech, will provide the subject matter for this course. The major focus will be on the evolved relationship between communication and perception that is, on the perceptual specialization that animals, including humans, have developed for the communicative signals of their own species. Although the emphasis will be on behavior in both field and laboratory studies, some attention, will be paid to the anatomy and physiology of the targeted sensory systems. Class discussions and presentations will be a major part of the course. Two papers are required; the first will be a shortened first version of the second; the second, due at the end of the course, will be a revised, improved, and more complete version of the first. Upper level undergraduates with consuming interests and some background in psychology, zoology, biological anthropology, or linguistics are encouraged. (Stebbins)

531. Advanced Physiological Psychology. Psych. 431. (3). (NS).

In-depth discussions of selected topics in physiological psychology including: hormones and behavior, evolution and ontogeny of hemispheric specialization, sex differences, mechanisms underlying physical and emotional pain, physiology of motivation, biological approaches to psychiatric disorders, memory and learning, etc. Selected articles will be assigned. Midterm and final exam. (Valenstein)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

Students in this course are assigned to various institutions where they work with a group of children, adolescents, or young adults for about three to four hours a week. There are also weekly class meetings to provide for the discussion of relevant material and for group supervision opportunities. Assignments include readings about development and the effects of institutionalization, weekly logs, and a final paper. Lab fee. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

To educate students about: (1) application of scientific study of human behavior and experience; (2) principles of developmental and social psychology; (3) effects of ADOLESCENCE, a period of rapid biological, psychological and social change. Intended to contribute to students' liberal education by providing concepts which may enrich students' appreciation of scientific and cultural materials and help them lead more self-conscious lives. The approach to adolescence will be BIO-SOCIAL: focusing on development of adult sexual capacity and on socialization into adult social roles. Teaching methods will include lectures, discussions, films, autobiographies, textbook, research articles, field experiences, four short-essay take-home examinations, and a term paper. No regular lectures will be delivered during class hours; lectures will be on tape cassettes on reserve at UGLi. In addition to discussions of assigned readings and lectures, class meetings will be devoted to topics about adolescence in which the class expresses particular interest. Students may also participate for credit in Outreach projects with adolescents or in ongoing research on adolescence. (Gold)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

This course will trace some of the major and better-known Western ideas concerning the mind and behavior from the ancient Greeks, through medieval thinkers, 18th and 19th century philosophical schools to the beginnings of modern psychology. Subsequently, 20th century trends in psychology and various schools of psychology will be discussed and evaluated in a framework of the social and scientific ideas of the time. Evaluation will be based on a single term paper and a final exam. (Butter)

579. Modern Viewpoints in Psychology. For juniors, seniors, or graduate students with several courses in psychology. No credit granted to those who have completed 390. (3). (Excl).

The biggest strides forward in modern psychology seem to be in developmental, physiological and cognitive psychology. These will be the major topics and we will examine what recent theory contributes to the old questions about mind, brain and behavior. We will range broadly rather than deeply over these areas and issues. The purpose of the course is integration of viewpoints rather than isolated descriptions. We will also continually remind ourselves of implications and applications of theories to keep topics from being too abstract. You should have had some courses in psychology but which ones does not matter very much. Readings will be assigned since no textbook exists. I will lecture but we will also stage some dialogues (not debates) so that questions, objections and understandings can surface. There will be two exams on conflicting or integrative issues (brief essays not memory quizzes). A paper will also be required. Student evaluations will be based on the paper, exams and the dialogues. Comments and suggestions on the course will be welcomed. (Withey)

590. Honors III. Psych. 390 and permission of departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Weintraub)

Section 002. See Section 001. (Zajonc)

Courses in Psychology/Speech and Hearing Science (Division 229)

253. Introduction to Speech and Language Pathology. (2). (Excl).

The course is concerned with disorders of human communication. It is designed to provide information concerning the disorders and their etiologies. Details of diagnosis and treatment are covered in succeeding courses. By the end of Speech 253 students will have basic information concerning the characteristics and causes of delayed speech and language development, articulation disorders, voice problems, cleft palate speech, communication problems of cerebral palsied, aphasia, stuttering, and the effects of hearing loss on speech and language. This course is not presently required as part of a sequence. Two examinations are given; objective midterm and final. Lecture is the primary mode of instruction. The text is Speech, Language, and Hearing, by Skinner, P. and Shelton, R., Addison-Wesley, Co., 1978. This course is of particular interest to nurses, teachers, special educators, psychologists, counselors, and others who have an interest in communication and its disorders. (Daly)

254. Fundamentals of Speech Science. Sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

Introduction to the fundamentals of speech production, transmission, and perception. No special background is required. The course is required in the Psychology/Speech and Hearing Sciences concentration. Material is presented in lecture form with objective examinations after selected units. Required text: Minifie, F., Hixon, T., and Williams, D., Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing and Language, Prentice-Hall. (Watkin)

457/Education D442. Methods in Speech Correction: Diagnosis and Treatment of Articulatory and Language Disorders. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course describes general diagnostic and treatment methods for articulation and language problems. Lectures focus on identifying assumptions underlying current evaluation and remediation procedures, and on describing specific procedures used in diagnostics and therapy. The procedures discussed include collecting and analyzing speech and language samples, administering and scoring standardized tests, designing and implementing nonstandarized elicitation procedures, altering response rates, and establishing new behaviors. Student behavoir is evaluated by midterm and final examinations, and on a paper. The required text is: F.L. Darley, Evaluation of Appraisal Techniques in Speech and Language Pathology, 1979, and selected readings are assigned. s-254 is required and s-450 is recommended as prerequisite coursework.

460. Introduction to Audiology. SHS 253 and 264. (3). (Excl).

Introduction to Audiology is the first course in the undergraduate-graduate offering in Audiology the study of hearing and hearing disorders. It is a survey course which reviews in depth the basic audiological battery of (1) pure-tone air-conduction and bone-conduction thresholds; (2) speech thresholds; and (3) speech discrimination efficiency. In addition, audiological interpretations are made from case observations, and disorders of hearing are reviewed. An overview of remediational approaches for subjects with irreversible hearing disorders or deficits is included. (Tait)

Courses in Religion (Division 457)

201/GNE 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

An introduction to the major religious traditions of the Near East, with emphasis on the development of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. This course will first survey the political, social, economic and religious aspects of the Ancient Near East, including Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, Iranian religious developments, Ancient Israel and the historical background of the Bible. The second half of the course will deal with the emergence of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, including hellenistic civilization and the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism, the ministry of Jesus and the development of the Church, the development of Islamic civilization and the art of the Near East. Emphasis will be on origins, major personalities and sacred texts, as well as on the development of major theological issues in these traditions up to the modern period. This is an introductory course for students who have had no previous course in religion. Students have the option of writing a paper or taking a midterm exam (or the option of doing both and keeping the best grade). There is a short quiz on the reading every two weeks and a comprehensive final exam, the questions of which will be announced during the first week of class. Section 002 is an Honors section open to any student prepared to do more work in return for a lot more personal attention. This course is offered Fall term every year. For further information please contact The Program on Studies in Religion, 468 Lorch Hall. (Freedman)

312. Church and American Society. (3). (HU).

One of the most important features of American society is the impact which religion has had upon the society. The emergence of a powerful religiously based right makes the question of what happens when religion and society clash more important. This course is a survey of the ways in which religion and society are influenced by each other in America. The course is divided into three sections. Section one explores the religious underpinnings of American society. Section two explores the changing nature of American society as a result of urbanization, secularization, and changing ethics. Section three looks at how religious groups have tried to come to grips with the contemporary American society. It will cover a number of different responses, from the positive thinking of Norman Vincent Peale to the evangelical revivals of Oral Roberts and Billy Graham, to the social and political activism of Martin Luther King and Jerry Falwell. The role of newer personality cults will also be explored. The course will be conducted in a lecture format with large blocks for discussion. Films and research projects will round out the offering. Class meets once per week. (Miles)

320/Asian Studies 320/Buddhist Studies 320/Phil. 335. Introduction to Buddhism. Religion 202 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

See Asian Studies 320.

324/History 324. The Biblical and Patristic Roots of Christian Mysticism. (3). (HU).

This course will present the biblical sources for mystical theology and the most influential of the patristic mystics, concentrating on Augustine, Gregory the Great, and Barnard of Clairaux. The writings of these guides to the contemplative life will be read in English. Brief essays in response to each of the readings will be required, as well as a long paper tracing the influence of one of the Fathers on later Western mystical thought and an annotated bibliography and class presentation on the topic of that paper. The course will combine lecture and recitation. This course is the first half of a sequence which concludes with Religion 325, Mysticism and the Early English Mystics. No special background is required. (Dutton)

350/ABS 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustus (4). (HU).

An exploration of the beginnings and development of Christian thought from the first through the sixteenth century, with special reference to the seminal ideas of Paul, Origen, Tertullian, Augustine, Anselm of Canterbury, and the early church reformers. No previous work in history, philosophy, or religious studies is assumed. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a midterm examination and a final, and may, if they wish, write a term paper on a subject of special interest. (Hoffman)

354/Women's Studies 354. Women and Religion. (3). (HU).

This course considers the issues of women in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, focusing on the formative period. The course content is divided into four periods: (1) Background in the ancient Near East: the role of goddesses in religion, goddesses as archetypical female images, the mother goddess and the virgin goddess. (2) Women and the Hebrew Bible: the role of women in the Biblical world, their legal position in theory and actuality, their religious roles; the conception and images of women in the Bible; female divine metaphores, the use of gender in divine-human imagery, the "feminization" of God. (3) New Currents in Religious Thought: the intertestamental period, changing view of sexuality, the mind-body split and its implication for the image of women. (4) Women in the New Testament: view of women, the figure of Mary, early Christianity. This course is the first of a two-semester sequence, to be followed by "Women and Religion: Judaism, Christianity and Beyond". Each course can be taken separately, and no special background or prerequisites are required. The course is designed as a lecture class with some time devoted to class discussions. There will be a quiz after each unit, and a small written paper is required. (Frymer-Kensky)

369/Psych. 370. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

See Psychology 370. (R. Mann)

387. Independent Study. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.

This course is designed to accommodate students who may be unable to take listed offerings or have special reasons for undertaking directed readings. Course content and requirements are worked out individually between the student and the instructor.

425. Great Mystics of India of the 19th and 20th Centuries. (3). (HU).

India has long had a tradition of men and women who have developed their spiritual power to the ultimate. Our study will include the lives and teachings of Ramakrishna, Sarada Devi, Yogananda Paramahamsa, Sri Aurobindo, Ramana Maharshi, Sai Baba, Mahatma Ghandi, Swami Muktananda and Anandamayi Ma. What is the nature of the spiritual journey of these great mystics? What are their states of awareness, and what may be gained by those who follow them? What commonalities and differences are there among their paths and practices? What aspects of their experience derive from the religious and cultural tradition of Hinduism, in what ways are they related to other religions such as Christianity, Jainism and Islam, and what do their lives imply about the universal spiritual potential of human beings? These are some of the questions we'll pursue through brief lectures, much discussion, and short oral and written reports. Students will become familiar with several lives and some cultural background before selecting one life to explore in a final paper. No prerequisites. (J. Mann)

455/Soc. 455. Religion and Society. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 455. (Heirich)

468/Class. Civ 466. Greek Religion. (3). (HU).

See Classical Civilization 466. (Koenen)

485/GNE 485. Islam and the Muslims: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 485. (Mir)

487. Independent Study. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.

This course is designed to accommodate students who may be unable to take listed offerings or have special reasons for undertaking directed readings. Course content and requirements are worked out individually between the student and the instructor. This course is also approved for graduate students.

489/ABS 484. Introduction to the New Testament. (4). (HU).

See Ancient and Biblical Studies 484. (Hoffmann)

Residential College Courses

Most RC courses are open to LS&A students and may be used to meet distribution requirements.

Core (Division 863)

Written and Verbal Expression

105. Logic and Language. (4). (N.Excl).

Argument is the focus of this course, both in symbols and in language. We deal with the forms of arguments, the applications of them, what makes them valid or invalid, weak or strong. We do this in two concurrent ways: a) Microcosmically, we examine the structure of arguments, what makes them tick. In the deductive sphere we deal with the relation of truth and validity, develop logic of propositions, and enter the logic of quantification. In the inductive sphere, we deal with argument by analogy, and causal analysis, and with elementary probability theory. b) Macrocosmically, we do the analysis of real arguments in controversial contexts, as they are presented in classical and contemporary philosophical writing: ethical arguments (in Plato); argument about religion (in Hume) and about knowledge (in Descartes); political argument (in J.S. Mill); and legal arguments as they appear in Supreme Court decisions. In all cases both substance and form are grist for our mill. Time demands on students are substantial. Class periods (two 1-hour meetings and one 2-hour meeting each week) are a mixture of lecture and discussion. Open to all LS&A students. (Cohen)

300. Writing and Theory. Not open to freshmen. (4). (HU).

This course is designed for students interested in improving their expository writing. It is not a creative writing course; rather it emphasizes the communication of ideas, insights, opinions, analysis, and personal narrative clearly, honestly, and effectively. Students will be encouraged to write from the first person point of view in the active voice. To help achieve satisfying improvement in written communication, students will look critically at selected writing of others (e.g., Orwell, E.B. White), examine carefully their own writing and that of their colleagues, and write, write, and rewrite. Students will submit written material every week and will consult at least once every two weeks with the instructor for custom built help and encouragement. Students should purchase copies of Strunk and White's Elements of Style and Eight Modern Essayists, edited by William Smart. Prerequisite: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. This course will also count as an Honors course. (Robertson)

190. Intensive French I. No credit granted to those who have completed French 100, 101, 102, or 103. (8). (FL).

Intensive courses meet twice a day in lecture and discussion, four days a week. Students may also become involved in language lunch tables, coffee hours, and other social events. There is a language laboratory in the College, and the language teachers are available for counseling and additional help. If a student begins a new language, proficiency is normally attained in one year through the Residential College program. The goal of this course is to provide the student with a basic but solid knowledge of grammatical structures and syntax, a functional vocabulary, a familiarity with intonation patterns and native pronunciation, and practice in speaking and writing. Upon completion of this course the student can understand simplified written texts or short spoken passages without the aid of a dictionary, and carry on a short, elementary conversation.

191, 194. For information on these intensive language courses (191: German; 194: Spanish) see description for 190 (above).

290. Intensive French II. Core 190. No credit granted to those who have completed French 230, 231, or 232. (8). (FL).

The goal of this course is to expand vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures and syntax to the level of competency required to pass the Proficiency Exam. This entails communication with some ease in speaking and in writing with a native speaker and understanding the content of a text of a non-technical nature (written and spoken), and presenting a general (non-literary) interest.

291, 293, 294. For information on these intensive language courses (291: German; 293: Russian; 294: Spanish) see description for 290 (above).

320. Seminaire en français. Proficiency test. (4). (HU).
Section 001 The Theme of War in Modern French Literature.
Since 1870, France has been invaded three times. Since l945, wars of decolonization (in Indochina and Algeria) have made the French aware that they, in their turn, have been occupiers of other people's territory. Not surprisingly, the themes of occupying and being occupied which have moral, philosophical, and political ramifications well beyond questions of warfare itself have been dominant in French thinking about war. We will read some key texts that exemplify this thinking, and compare them with the historic experiences of North Americans in the same period. One of the texts, in fact, concerns North American experience: that of a remote village in Northern Quebec during World War II. Class time will mainly be given over to discussion of the texts, but regular sessions will be devoted also to questions of writing, including practice in "re-writing" the texts (so as to bring out their narrative techniques and the options that determine their meaning). Students will be expected to write a total of about 20 pages in French (either analysis and interpretation of texts; or original writing inspired by the texts; or a diary of the course; or some combination of these). Midterm by interview with instructor. No final. (Chambers)

Section 002 Ousmane Sembene: Writer & Filmmaker. A successful francophone Senegalese writer, Ousmane Sembene is also a filmmaker of renown. In this course we shall read several of his short stories (from Voltaique and LeMandat ) and a novel (Xala), some of which Sembene himself has turned into films. (Such is the case with La noire de... and Xala, for instance.) We shall also screen those of his films that are available in the USA. This will be done with a view to gaining an understanding of what accounts for the success this artist, who never went far in his formal education, has met with in Africa. (Ngate)

Section 003 Brittany in Novels and Short Stories. After having situated Brittany in France, we will try to see its originality. Through readings about Brittany we will study its culture and history. We will also see Brittany through its writers, poets and singers. Throughout the term we will have the chance to view slides on Brittany and Chateaubriand's itinerary in Brittany where he was born. We will listen to traditional music and revolutionary songs connected with the M.L.B. (Mouvement de Liberation de la Bretagne). (Masson)

324. Readings in Spanish. Proficiency test. (4). (HU).
Section 001.
In this class the students and instructor will read and discuss Mario Vargas Llosa's lengthy (500+ pages) novel, La Guerra del Fin del Mundo. Since this novel is a fictional account of an actual event in the history of Brazil, and since it is based largely on a Brazilian account of the event (written in Portuguese), the instructor will provide a cultural and historical background to the novel as well as guide discussions on the readings. In addition to regular participation in class discussion, students will write bi-weekly essays on the material read and discussed. (Brakel)

Section 002 The New Song Movement. This course will study the origin, development and characteristics of the New Song Movement in Latin America. It will be based on the example of the Chilean movement, but it will present selected examples of other countries as well, like NUEVA TROVA (Cuba), TALLER DE SONIDO POPULAR (Nicaragua), Daniel Viglieti (Uruguay) MISA POR UN CONTINENTE (Paraguay), etc. The Chilean New Song Movement began in the early sixties almost surreptitiously in "penas" and universities. It developed into a rich and diverse cultural component of a period of social and political change in the country. The songs are, therefore, closely tied to those changes. The songs become social commentaries and sometimes, in major works, they rescue for the listener forgotten or ignored pieces of history. These songs are a wonderful example of the union between word and music as well as a vital and creative new possibility for musical expression which draws from popular tradition as well as folklore. Violeta Parra and Victor Jara are among the individual singer/composers who will be studied. Groups like QUILAPAYUN, INTIILLIMANI and APARCOA will be studied especially in their major works. (CANTATA DE SANTA MARIA and CANTO GENERAL). We will also look into the rupture produced in the movement in the seventies. Some pieces written and composed in exile will be presented as well as a major work created inside Chile and sung, in 1978, in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Santiago: CANTATA DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS. The course will have the help of Cindy Page, a Residential College graduate and a musician herself, to assist with the musical part. (Moya-Raggio)

Arts (Division 864)

269. Elements of Design. (4). (Excl).
New Directions in Fiber Art: Experimental Methods and Materials.
The fiber arts have undergone an extraordinary transformation in the past two decades. There has been a resurgence of interest in traditional, sometimes forgotten, techniques, such as felt-making, Coptic and Peruvian weaving, and twining. At the same time, there has been a proliferation of new processes and materials made possible by technological advances in the 20th century. New processes include color Xerox on fibers, sun-developed dyes, and blueprint on fibers. New materials used by fiber artists cover a broad range, from strips of film to plastic tubing. The focus of this course will be an exploratory, experimental approach to fiber art. Students will learn and utilize new, as well as traditional materials and techniques in the creation of innovative works. Traditional processes will include weaving, plaiting, knotting, basketry, and felt-making, among others. While a number of new processes will be taught, students will be encouraged to develop their own. Unconventional materials such as wire, paper, polyethylene, and plastic tubing will be utilized, as well as traditional fibers such as cotton, linen, and wool. (Savageau)

285. Photography. (4). (Excl). Materials fee.

An introduction to the medium of photography from the perspective of the artist. It includes an overview of photography's role in the arts, the development of an understanding of visual literacy and self-expression as they relate to the photographic medium, and the development of basic technical skills in black and white and color photographs. A visual emphasis is maintained in both presentation and course work, and the student works with the medium towards a goal of personal expression. (Hannum)

287. Printmaking. (4). (Excl). Materials fee.

Developing an understanding of the art of printmaking through lectures, demonstrations, practical studio experience, examples, and individual and group discussions. The course will focus on creating original prints, exploring images, visual ideas, and the possibilities of self-expression. Emphasis will be placed on linoleum cut, wood-block, and silk-screen techniques. Field trips to the School of Art to observe intaglio and lithography, and to the University of Michigan Museum of Art will be a part of the class experience. Approximately eight projects will be assigned. A sketchbook/notebook is required. Class attendance is mandatory, as well as lab time spent outside the scheduled class period. There will be a studio lab fee. (Cressman)

289. Ceramics. (4). (Excl). Materials fee.

This course presents basic problems in forming clay, both throwing and handbuilding techniques, calculating, preparing, and appying glazes, stacking and firing kilns, and operating a ceramics studio. The student is required to participate in the complete process: the assumption of studio responsibilities and regular class attendance are mandatory. The theory, practice, and history of ceramics are integral parts of this study and are used to encourage individual sensitivity to the material. There will be a studio fee. (Crowell)

Humanities (Division 865)

Arts and Ideas

290. The Experience of Arts and Ideas in the Twentieth Century. (4). (HU).
Classic Modernism/Post Modernism.
This course is divided into two parts. In the first, we will examine the creative explosion which took place in Europe around the time of World War I. This is the period of Classic Modernism, the time of the creation of the avant-garde, which set the tone of tragic exuberance, of comic defiance in the arts for the rest of the century. Our exemplars of this period will be: Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness; Alfred Jarry, Ubu Roi; Gertrude Stein, Tender Buttons; Franz Kafka, The Trial; Picasso, Cubist works; Marcel Duchamp, Dada anti-art. The second part of the course will be devoted to the Post-Modern era (1945-1980), and to a group of artists who were engaged in a further exploration of the challenges offered by the Classic Modernists. In this period, the nature of the work of art itself is deeply explored: does art liberate us, release us from the past? Or does it involve us more deeply in antique patterns? Where is the artist in respect to his or her work? Imprisoned? Masked? Metamorphosed? Irrelevant? In this section of the course we will examine Samuel Beckett, Ends and Odds; Bertolt Brecht, The Threepenny Opera; Jean Genet, The Maids; Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths. In the visual arts, Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol, Alfred Hitchcock, and possibly (time permitting) Robert Rauschenberg, Claus Oldenberg, Frank Stella. (Ferran, Kleinfelder, Rohn, Sowers)

311. Intellectual Currents of the Renaissance. Sophomore standing or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).
The Rabelaisian Cosmos.
This course will center on a single work, the five books of Francois Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel, one of the most inventive and truly encyclopedic works of world literature and an almost inexhaustible compendium of Renaissance speculative thought, classical erudition, and popular culture. The course will be divided into five units, each devoted to one Book of Rabelais' quincuncial Work; within these five units is inscribed the venerable triad of Mind, Body, and Spirit. Each book will be considered in relation to other works of Renaissance visual art, literature, and philosophy. The syllabus will include: Literature: Gargantua and Pantagruel; Pico Della Mirandola, Oration of the Dignity of Man; Tomaso Campanella, City of the Sun; John Heywood, Farces; Erasmus, In Praise of Folly. Visual Arts: Hieronymous Bosch; Titian; Breugel, and Durer. (Sowes, Walsh)

330/German 330. German Cinema. (3). (HU).

See German 330. (Zorach)

333. Art and Culture. One History of Art or Arts and Ideas course, or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

This course aims to develop an understanding of the basic differences between the Western and Indian religious traditions, through an examination of painting, sculpture and architecture. Major Old and New Testament Themes will be discussed, both to show how attitudes and interests have changed over the centuries, and to develop a familiarity with the work of major western artists such as Michelangelo, Durer, and Rembrandt. In the Indian tradition, concentration will be on the life of Krishna, as child-god, hero, lover, and sage; but other aspects of Hinduism and Buddhism will be discussed. (Spink)

414/German 414. Vienna 1890-1918. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

See German 414. (Seidler)

Comparative Literature

410. Upperclass Literature Seminar. (4). (HU).
Section 001 Moral Issues in the Novel.
We will look into some questions about the nature of moral actions and the process of moral growth. We will try our answers to these questions on some novels. The idea is to bring fiction out into the practical world to some extent and also to bring some non-aesthetic ways of seeing from the practical world to the work of art. More emphasis on character than plot. We will read selections from Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics, and perhaps selections from recent writers on moral and cognitive growth. Novels include Lord Jim, by Joseph Conrad; Robert Penn Warren's All the King's Men; The Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison; Sinclair Lewis' Babbitt; Morte D'Urban, by J.F. Powers; Portnoy's Complaint, by Philip Roth; Surfacing, by Margaret Atwood, and The Fall, by Albert Camus. Conceivable additions: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, by James Joyce; Ring Lardner short stories; A Flag for Sunrise, by Robert Stone. The class will run as a true seminar. Each seminar member will write a paper every two or three weeks, copies of which will go to all other seminar members before our weekly meeting. No midterm. Final depends on performance of class as a whole. The reading load is moderately heavy. Open to sophomores by permission of instructor only. (Clark)

Section 002 Literature as Dissent in Eastern Europe. In Eastern Europe literature has become a vehicle for exploring political, philosophical, and social issues which cannot be raised more directly and openly because of ideological constraints on public debate. During "liberal" periods, works of fiction addressing such issues have been published. In more repressive times, the writers have developed subtle stylized forms which enable their works to allude metaphorically to actual contemporary issues while appearing to be historically removed in time or place, or to be fantastic, abstractly poetic, or absurd. Finally, there is a large body of underground literature "published" without official approval by using the mimeograph or the typewriter. We will read and discuss a varied sample of recent works by the leading writers of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and the Soviet Union, both from the point of view of their social and political thematics and of their intrinsic aesthetic structure. Evaluation will be based on class discussion and four short (6-7 page) papers. (Eagle)

411. Translation Seminar. Reading proficiency in a foreign language. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

Was Martin Luther right when he wrote that we have to look the common woman, man and child in the mouth to translate well, or is it true as the Italians say, "Traduttore, traditore", a translator is a traitor? Translation is an interpretive act in which the translator must come to terms with all the complexities of a text, its language, structure, meaning, social, and historical context. Yet, as readers of translated works, we often forget how profoundly this process shapes our experience of literature not written in English. This seminar will be concerned with the theory and practice of translation as a means of increasing sensitivity to literary works and developing the critical skills essential to the study of literature. Students will be asked to consider the merits of diverse approaches to translation (from "equivalent" to "free poetic" versions) and the views of practicing authors (whether translations can create a new poetic language or serve merely to tide one over "dry" periods). Participants will engage in translation exercises and undertake a project, such as a translation, a comparison of various translations of a single text, or a paper on translation theory. Tentative readings include various versions of the Bible, stories on the subject of translation (Kafka, Borges, Twain), "imitations" (Pound, Lowell), and essays by writers and critics on the subject of translation (Bassnett-McGuire: Translation Studies, Steiner: After Babel, and others). Prerequisites: Proficiency in a foreign language. (Melin)

451/Russian 451. Survey of Russian Literature. A knowledge of Russian is not required. (3). (HU).

See Russian 451. (Brown)

Creative Writing

220. Narration. Permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

Suggested assignment: 1250 words of prose fiction every two weeks. The class meets as a group up to two hours per week. Collections of short fiction and short novels by established writers are read and discussed. Every student meets privately with the instructor each week. (Hecht)

221. The Writing of Poetry. Permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

The amount of poetry each student is required to submit is determined by the instructor. The class meets three hours per week as a group. Student's poems are presented to the class for appraisal and criticism. In addition, each student received private criticism from the instructor every week. Contemporary poetry is read and discussed in class for style. Students are organized into small groups that meet weekly. (Mikolowski)

222. Writing for Children and Young Adults. (4). (HU).

No prerequisites, however : a thorough reading background in children's books or the willingness to compensate for its lack is presumed. Please do not take this course expecting "lectures" about children's books or child development. This is a writing course emphasizing story-writing skills and aesthetics. (Balducci)

320. Advanced Narration. Hums. 220 and permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

This course is designed for writers of longer fiction who can benefit from instruction and peer feedback. Three 15-20 page short stories or three 20-25 page segments of longer works are due at evenly spaced intervals during the term. Everyone in the class reads everything submitted. The class meets three times a term, as a workshop, to discuss everyone's work. Each student meets with the instructor each week for private discussion of work both completed and in progress. Enrollment is limited to a maximum of six students, usually students who have completed narration and/or tutorials. Permission of instructor is required. (Hecht)

325. Creative Writing Tutorial. Hums. 221 or 320, and permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

Tutorial allow students whose writing has attained a high degree of sophistication to work in an extended project under close supervision. Tutorials also provide an opportunity for students who want to write, no matter how sophisticated their work, to have their efforts recognized both with constructive criticism and academic credit. Reading may or may not be assigned, depending upon the background needs of the individual student. Tutorial students meet privately with the instructor each week. Permission of instructor is required. (Hecht, Mikolowski, Balducci)

326. Creative Writing Tutorial. Hums. 221 or 320, and permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

See 325. (Hecht, Mikolowski, Balducci)

425. Creative Writing Tutorial. Permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

See 325. (Hecht, Mikolowski, Balducci)

426. Creative Writing Tutorial. Permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

See 325. (Hecht, Mikolowski, Balducci)

Drama

280/English 245/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

See English 245. (McNamara)

282. Drama Interpretation I: Actor and Text. (4). (HU).

This is a performance workshop. Class members will train in various methods of contemporary performance technique, and apply them directly to exploration and free adaptation of a classic text (yet to be determined). Participation in an end-of-term production of the final product and two research papers required. (Brown)

389. The Modern Theatre. Hums. 280 or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).
Chekhov and Stanislavsky.
This course is open to juniors and seniors, or students who have passed RC Humanities 280 "Fundamentals of Drama Study". The course will study in depth, by close reading, discussion, scene presentation and experiment, writing, and critical research, the four major plays of Anton Chekhov: The Seagull, Uncle Vanya, The Three Sisters, and The Cherry Orchard. In addition, the chief writing of Konstantin Stanislavsky (An Actor Prepares, Building a Character, and Creating a Role), and selections from other writings on his practice and productions for the Moscow Art Theatre will be read and discussed in detail. Supplementary reading will include: several one-acts and short stories by Chekhov, selected letters, reviews, and descriptions of Chekhov productions from 1900 to the present, and selected dramatic criticism by major commentators. Three analytic papers (3-5 pp. each), several scene presentations (one accompanied by a descriptive-critical piece of writing), and a final project are also required. "Chekhov and Stanislavsky" is intended for serious students of drama and theatre who want to get their teeth well into the artistic accomplishments of these two giants of modern theatre. (Ferran)

484. Seminar in Drama Topics. Upperclass standing, Hums. 280, and three 300 or 400 level drama courses, or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

"Mummers, Mollies, Boogers, and Banshees: An Introduction to the Folk Drama and Calendar Ceremony of Europe and North America." This short course will focus upon masked impersonation and related customs surrounding the great festivals of Autumn and Winter from the late Middle Ages to the present. The English, French, German, and "Celtic Fringe" traditions will be especially emphasized and their survivals in North America will be traced. Attention will also be paid to the influence of these folk practices upon the work of such figures as Rabelais, Bruegel, Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson. The course will proceed calendrically from Harvest Home to New Year. Recordings, slides and films, and folkloric collections will supplement selected readings in the field. The course will feature a full-scale folkloric investigation of East Quad's own, well-established Halloween tradition, as well as a performance of a Yuletide mumming. Prerequisites: permission of instructor. Those electing RC Humanities 311 "Intellectual Currents of the Renaissance" are especially encouraged. (Walsh)

Music

250. Chamber Music. (1). (Excl).

All students who are interested in participating in small vocal and instrumental ensembles can enroll for one hour of credit. Ensembles have included: madrigal singers (meeting time has been M &/or T 6-7:30); mixed ensembles of strings and winds (meeting M &/or T 7:30-9:00); brass quintet; intermediate recorder ensemble; string quartet; woodwind quintet; and some other duos and trios. Responsibilities include 3-4 hours of rehearsal time per week (some individual and some group rehearsal) and participation in one or more chamber music concerts per term, if appropriate.

251. Operatic and Choral-Orchestral Masterworks, 1700 1825. (4). (HU).

This course deals with an in-depth aesthetic and musical analysis of several significant masterworks in which the composer has combined one or more of the other performing and creative arts with the art of music. Opera, orchestral, and choral works, oratorio, and song cycles are among the musical forms studied. Open to all undergraduates.

253. Choral Ensemble. (1). (Excl).

The "Residential College Singers" ensemble is a combination of recitation and lab activities. The group meets for a three hour period each week. Besides rehearsing and performing some of the great choral literature from 1600 to the present, the class studies the historical significance of each composition and its composer and the way in which it reflects the period of history that it represents. A complete musical and aesthetic analysis is made of each work studied. The course may be elected each term for credit and will satisfy the arts practicum requirement.

Interdivisional (Division 867)

350. Special Topics. Concurrent enrollment in an associated course. (1-2) (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Health and Lifestyle.
This is a one credit mini-course consisting of six two-hour seminars exploring concepts of health promotion and personal responsibility for health. The course will cover subjects including: how people make decisions about their health, effective strategies for changing health-related behaviors, identification of areas in which individuals can take charge of treating illnesses, and specific health topics such as stress, nutrition, exercise, alcohol, and smoking. The course focus will be aimed toward students interested in changing personal health habits as well as those who may be considering health-related careers. (McLaren)

355. Nuclear War. (2). (Excl).

Never mind the answers; what are the right questions about nuclear war? This course asks some of them while covering the development of nuclear weapons systems and of the political objectives and military strategies for their use since 1938. It asks in particular about the responsibilities of scientists, and also of statesmen, soldiers, and citizens. It covers the technology of the weapons systems, the effects of their use, and the many consequences of today's arms race, including a look at how that race may end. Readings, discussions, and films in one two-hour and one one-hour class per week; September 10 to October 17 only. No credit to those who took University Course 330 "Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War". For wait list, see RC Counseling Office, 134 Tyler, East Quad. (Collier)

Language (Division 870)

437/French 437/MARC 437. French Culture and Literature in the Middle Ages with Visual Assistance. French 438 is recommended. (3). (HU).

See French 437. (Mermier)

Natural Science (Division 875)

113. Introductory Biology Forum. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 112 and permission of instructor. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This one-hour course addresses historical, philosophical, and social issues associated with the material presented in Biology 112. The main purposes of the course are: to examine the historical and philosophical background to the theories and concepts treated in Biology 112 (e.g., the history of the development of DNA model); to examine social issues associated with theories and concepts of Biology 112 (e.g., the recombinant DNA issue, eugenic theories and their social implications); to discuss the lecture and reading material of Biology 112. In a general sense, the course follows the organization of Biology 112, treating in turn, topics in molecular biology, genetics, and botanical science. Possible readings include James Watson, The Double Helix; Erwin Chargaff, Heraclitean Fire; and Nicholas Wade, The Ultimate Experiment. Students must be concurrently registered in Biology 112.

263/Urban Planning 263. Energy and the Environment. (4). (NS).

This course introduces the concepts of energy and the environment, which then serve as a basis for discussion of pollution, scarcity of resources, possible technological catastrophe, and man's future. Basic science and the political-economic aspects of problems and possible solutions are emphasized. Topics include alternative energy sources, the ultimate limit to consumption of resources, risks associated with nuclear power, and fossil fuel resources. Possible energy futures for America and their implications in terms of life-styles, policies, and ethical considerations are explored through lectures, discussions and simulation games. Only rudimentary concepts in science and mathematical reasoning are assumed. Prerequisite: 2-1/2 years high school math. (Rycus)

Social Science (Division 877)

220/Soc. 220. Political Economy. (4). (SS).

This course is devoted to the comparative analysis of socio- economic systems from the perspective of political economy. The first part of the course will focus on modern capitalism, particularly as it has developed in the United States. We will examine the operation of the capitalist system by drawing on the writings of a variety of different social scientists, emphasizing the work of radical political economists and exploring how their approach differs from more conventional schools of thought. The second part of the course will concentrate on actual and potential alternatives to capitalism in a modern industrial society. Here we will consider a variety of alternative socio-economic arrangements at the societal and the local level, ranging from existing socialist societies to visions of a socialist America. (Weisskopf)

260. Sources of Social Science Theory. (4). (SS).

This course will closely examine selected works of several classic social science thinkers Karl Marx, Alexis de Tocqueville, Max Weber, Èmile Durkheim, and Sigmund Freud. We shall preface our reading of these works with a brief historical overview of some important historical events, the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Our purpose will be two-fold: first, to understand in some depth the specific way in which each thinker views the world; second, to develop a general understanding of human beings as social and historical creatures. The class will emphasize discussion, group presentations and individual writing. Particular attention will be paid to developing the ability to analyze critically the ideas of each of these thinkers. Tentative readings include R.R. Palmer's The World of the French Revolution; selections from Robert Tucker's The Marx-Engels Reader; Tocqueville's Democracy in America; Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism; Durkheim's Suicide, and selections from Freud. (Heirich)

360. Social Science Junior Seminar. Upperclass standing. (4). (SS).
Section 001 Power and Politics in America.
This course addresses the question: who rules in the United States and how? It combines theoretical, historical and contemporary perspectives in an effort to understand power configurations and political dynamics in the United States in the 1980's. Analysis centers on the American state and the role that the state plays in mediating the relationship between capitalism and democracy economics and politics in American society. We will examine the period of Republican hegemony (1896-1932) and the concepts of the promotional state and associative corporatism common to these decades, and the period of Democratic hegemony (1932-1980), and the concepts of state security capitalism common to this era. The last segment of the course will deal with the contemporary situation, the crisis of the Democratic coalition and of the corporate business sector and the relationship of the Reagan presidency to both. Behind this investigation lies the assumption that a study of the state, or of the shifting fortunes of particular politicians or political coalitions, must be rooted in an analysis of the political economy and of the possible configurations or alliances that are available to politicians at any particular moment for the purpose of governing American society. Consequently, there is considerable discussion in the course of political parties and coalition politics and of the relationship between political issues and business interests or economic power in general. (Bright)

Section 002 Gender Consciousness and Social Change. In this course we will explore the lives of women in various cultures and examine the social systems that shape gender beliefs, roles and behavior. Case studies focus on tribal, peasant and urban societies in South America, Europe, Africa, the Near East, and America. We will define and identify social forms of male and female dominance, review the debate concerning matriarchies, and explore the effects of particular social systems and historical trends on gender relations. Concluding sessions present an anthropological interpretation of the contemporary American feminist movement and its opposition. There will be explicit emphasis throughout the course on the development of skills of social analysis and textual criticism. The format will be lecture and discussion, and three short papers are required. (Harding)

Section 003 African Social Movements. During the more than half century when most of Africa was under colonial rule, African people not only felt the impact of external conquest and political control, but of outside intervention in their social and economic lives. Many people, even sympathetic ones, have tended to view African's role in this history as that of passive victims. On the other hand, since most African nations became independent, scholars have been more likely to see every incident in the colonial era as one more step toward the triumph of nationalism. Yet, falling down before colonialism or attacking it was not all Africans had to do. They had to make sense, collectively, of the changes in their lives, and to adjust to or struggle against the changes in their relationships with each other that derived from the economic and social transformations of the colonial era. This course attempts to look at the widest possible range of collective movements in a colonized continent. Reading and discussion each week will cover resistance movements based on the pre-existing social organization of African society, the reaction of peasant societies to economic change, the ways in which religious movements, spirit possession cults, and witchcraft eradication movements tried to come to grips spiritually and emotionally with social change, the ways Western educated came to think of their own role in society and in changing it, the kinds of associations Africans developed to cope with life in rapidly growing cities, and the importance of strikes, riots, and peasant disorders in the politics on anti-colonialism. These sessions will cover only part of the term. The rest will be spent on student projects on particular social movements. These projects will allow students to learn more about materials on Africa including work by Africans as well as about them and to explore further the significance of social organization and action in the non-western world. While previous study of Africa is desirable, it is not required. (Cooper)

460. Social Science Senior Seminar. Senior standing. (4). (SS).
The Internationalization of Labor: Impact on Women and Families.
This course will examine two interrelated contemporary trends that have increasingly drawn Third World people (particularly women) into an international division of labor. These are (1) the expansion of export manufacturing industries abroad and (2) immigration from underdeveloped to developed areas (Caribbean, Latin, and Asian immigrants to the U.S.; "guest workers" in Western Europe). Both trends have triggered significant changes in the culture, work, and household organization of Third World families. We will examine the sources and consequences of these processes with a particular focus on the women who are both employees of multinational industries and consumers in the "global supermarket". We will use case studies (i.e., textiles and electronics) to determine how changes in the economic mode and state policies toward development affect women's lives. We will also look at the impact of corporate domination of media and marketing on the roles of Third World women as traditional providers of health care, food and household needs, as well as on the cultural images and stereotypes of "feminine" behavior (for example, the infant formula controversy). Finally, we will explore the impetus and consequences of migrant labor on women and their families. (Frankel)

Romance Languages and Literature

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French may elect this course only on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department, and in the sections specified for them. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Students with previous French study in high school are not permitted to enroll in sections 001-006.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is not open to students who have begun instruction elsewhere.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 2-3 years in high school) whose proficiency is not yet sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves with a rapid pace, covering about 60 per cent of the French 101 material by mid semester, and about 60 per cent of the French 102 material by the end of the semester. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 per cent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

121. Elementary: Alternate. Permission of department. (3). (FL).

The alternate sequence French 121/122 covers 65 percent of materials studied in 101/102. Upon completion of 122, students may enroll in the regular 102 course for which they receive 3 (instead of 4) credits. The objectives of the regular and alternate sequences are identical: French 121 covers the first 2/3 of the 101 material, 122 the last 1/3 of 101 and the first 1/3 of 102. Classes meet six times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes, written homework to turn in, course-wide midterm and final examinations, and speaking tests. 121 begins during the third week of the term. Enrollment in 121/122 is by special permission only and only those students already enrolled in 101 may be considered as candidates for 121.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track.
The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. In addition, French 231 has a speaking test, and 232, an outside reading test, both given toward the end of the term.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track:
see French 231. seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one semester. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the semester students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 is a minicourses for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).
Section 006.
The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet twice a week in sections varying between ten and sixteen students. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. Also, one weekly lecture on some linguistic problems and cultural aspects of modern France for all sections together, as part of the three hours per week required. (M. Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Course emphasis, however, is on conversation and discussion. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, one novel and one play, simulations, weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (at least one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the semester, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a course in ENGLISH to FRENCH translation. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may be occasionally devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts of different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes and a final examination. The course is viewed as a continuation of French 371 with the specific constraints of an English text. (Mermier)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the language of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company: EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, etc. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. There will be occasional translation exercises, and one simulation. Students will write two medium length papers and take a final exam. Course-pack. No auditors. (M. Gabrielli)

453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with French phonology and morphology from a structural point of view. In phonology, English and French vowels, consonants, syllabic structures, and prosodic features are compared. Students learn to describe French sounds accurately, explain causes of pronunciation problems encountered by speakers of American English, transcribe sentences using phonetic symbols, and read phonetic transcriptions of dialogues. In morphology, the evolution of French sounds and words, and the formation of words through compounding and derivational processes constitute the main topics. The course is conducted in French. No previous knowledge of phonetics is necessary. Class time is divided into lectures and travaux pratiques. There are three one-hour tests. (Hagiwara)

456/Rom. Ling. 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course consists of four main components: phonology, morphology, syntax, and psycholinguistics. In each component, discussions of theories are combined with practical problem-solving. Students are introduced to different fields of linguistics, a contrastive study of English and French phonology, a linguistic method of analyzing the French language, problems of teaching pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary, and an evaluation of different teaching methods, techniques, and available materials. The course is conducted in English. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and travaux pratiques. There are midterm and final examinations and a paper. High proficiency of spoken and written French is required. No previous knowledge of linguistics or phonetics is required. (Hagiwara)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. French 387, 388, and 389 are offered Fall Term, 1983. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and to introduce them to the methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Active student participation will be encouraged. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, Le Cid, Molière, Le Tartuffe, Racine, Phedre, Voltaire, Candide, Rousseau, Les Reveries du promeneur solitaire. Grades will be based on a short paper on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French.

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 19th century. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent at the time, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the particular works were produced, and to introduce them to appropriate methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Balzac, Le Pere Goriot, Flaubert, Trois contes, Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal, Zola, Therese Raquin, Maupassant, Yvette . Grades will be based on short papers on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French.

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

French literature in the twentieth century has mirrored the rapid evolution of some very fundamental notions: What is true? What is good? What is human? As the course traces the evolution of French reflection on these ideas, in works of Gide, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, and one or two others, some more recent questions should arise concerning the worth and the role of human language and of literature. Readings and class discussions in French, with an eye to improving student skills in both. Approximately four short, creatively critical papers and a final examination are required. (Nelson)

437/MARC 437/RC Language 437. French Culture and Literature in the Middle Ages with Visual Assistance. French 387, 388, or 389, or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is open to undergraduate and to graduate students. French 438 is recommended (not required). Class discussions will generally be in French; however English may be used at times. English may also be used for oral reports with the permission of the instructor. Written work: Graduate students: a substantial paper, no final exam nor midterm. Undergraduate students: two written examinations, one midterm and one final, no papers. The course examines through readings and visual assistance the interrelationships which can be perceived between literature and the visual aspects of the work (architecture, sculpture, miniature illuminations etc...). The purpose of the course is to arrive at a better understanding of the "Reality" of the Middle Ages, of the spirit of the times (ideals, frustrations, etc...). The course has four parts; each part illustrated by specific readings. I. The Romanesque period. Medieval Faith; the didactic spirit; hagiography; the spirit of adventure; Crusades; Epic. II. From Romanesque to Gothic: The Age of Romance. The Arthurian Model. Celtic material. The Courtly Idelas. The Troubadours; Chrétien de Troyes. Marie de France. Tristan and Iseult. III. From Gothic to Flamboyant Gothic. From the Mort d'Artu to the Renaissance. Change in intellectual and social values. Social tensions. Satire. The impact of money. Readings from the literature of the XIVth and XVth Centuries. IV. Synthesis: Tradition and change. From the Augustinian view to the Renaissance spirit. Taught in French. (Mermier)

442. Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Under this number the department offers a variety of courses taught by various instructors on specific literary topics and themes such as woman in literature; the hero; etc.... The purpose of this course is to offer students less traditional aspects of French literature, enabling them to study across the barrier of genres and of centuries. Reading, writing and speaking are equally emphasized. The course gives the concentrator as well as others an opportunity to strengthen their language skill as well as to refine and exploit their knowledge of literature. Grades based on class work, written and oral. The course is conducted in French.

444. African/Caribbean Literature in French. A literature course in French, and a knowledge of French. (3). (HU). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The African novel in French is a fairly recent phenomenon: it came into its own only after the Second World War. In this course, we shall try, in lectures and discussions, to trace its development from the beginning and to see what makes it something other than French literature produced by Africans. What are its frames of reference and the nature of its link both to the African oral tradition and the literary tradition of France? How do the writers themselves define their role in the modern African context? The following works will be on our reading list: Laye: L'Enfant noir, Oyono: Le Vieux negre et la medaille, Kane: L'Aventure ambique, Ouologuem: Le Devoir de violence, Kourouma: Les Soleils des independance, Badian: Les Noces sacrees and Mudimbe: Le Bel Immonde. The course will be taught in French and the final grade will be based on oral reports, class participation, two short and one long, final papers. More work will be expected of graduate students. (Ngate)

451. Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Le cours traite de la generation nee vers 1870: Andre Gide (L'Immoraliste ), Paul Valery (Album de vers anciens et Charmes), Marcel Proust (Un amour de Swann ) et Paul Claudel (poemes en prose de Connaissance de l'Est), ainsi que sur l'oeuvre de Guillaume Apollinaire et Andre Breton (respectivement: Alcools et Calligrammes, et Le manifeste du surrealisme et Signe Ascendant ). Le cours pourrait porter comme titre: <<les heritiers du symbolisme et la tentative de depassement operee par le Surrealisme>>. (Muller)

463. Introduction to French Literature of the Nineteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The 19th century in France (as elsewhere) was a period of industrialization, colonial expansion and the growth of capitalism; it was also a time of intense political conflict, as the country dealt with the aftermath of 1879. Literary production was radically marked by these new social conditions, and contributed both to the emergence of bourgeois culture and to the critiques of that culture. The course will explore the principal-isms of the age (romanticism, realism, modernism) in the light of their social context, concentrating on themes like money, machines, madness and marginalization; the poet as exile and as magus; urbanization as the exemplification of modernity, etc. Classwork will be in French and will mainly take discussion form. Students should expect to read up to 100 pages of French per week, and to submit about 20 pages of writing, in the form of three-four short essays, or alternatively a journal of the course. No midterm; no final. Texts ( for purchase): Coursepack (cntg texts by Balzac, Nerval and Baudelaire); Flaubert, Madame Bovary; Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du Mal; Hugo, Les Contemplations; Verne, Les cinq cents millions de la Begum; Zola, La Bete humaine. (Chambers)

487. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course, conducted in French, will focus on the pre-classical period, on those writers who react against the baroque incursion and who begin to define the direction that 17th century literature will finally take. To this end, attention will be paid to the transitional poets at the beginning of the century (namely, Malherbe, Regnier, Saint-Amant), and, more especially, to the tragedies of Corneille and the comedies of Molière . Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write two papers in French of three or four pages (if undergrad) and to participate in discussion. The final grade will be based on the results of written work and on student participation. There is no final exam. (Gray)

491. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).

In the Fall Term of 1984, the course will consider the notion of intellectual history; how to write it and document it, its relationship to political history and to the evolution of literature. Readings in French history, as well as studies of exemplary French "Classical", "Romantic", "symbolist", and "modern" texts will exemplify the principles. In addition to developing a course-related term paper, students will begin preparations for the Honors oral examination and will undertake to define their senior thesis topics. Lecture and discussion. Conducted in French. The course is part of the French Honors sequence. Students who elect French 491 are expected to elect French 492 in the following term. (Nelson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

111. First Special Reading Course. (4). (Excl.).
First Special Reading Course.
Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. All the grammar of the language is covered and extensive reading of critical materials is required. Open to graduates, juniors, seniors: and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LS&A foreign language requirement. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History. (3). (HU).

Through lectures, slides, and films supplemented by readings, this course presents a survey of Italy's cultural achievements in their historical context from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to the present. Students with diverse interests and backgrounds art history, literature, Italian relatives, music, etc. will be able to pursue specialized topics within the general historical outline. Topics include Renaissance art and literature, music and the rise of opera, the unification and industrialization of modern Italy, with some attention to contemporary cinema and Italian-American history. Required are a ten-page paper, a midterm, and a final examination. The course is taught in English, but students with a background in Italian will have the opportunity of reading some texts in the original. (Marsh)

363. Advanced Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Intended to polish the skill students have acquired through the 101-232 language sequence. The organization of the class is flexible in order to accommodate the varying needs and interests of students in each term. Generally, the material presented will concentrate on the culture and the literature of modern Italy; occasional lessons on grammar review. (Olken)

387. Italian Renaissance Literature. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Readings include selections from Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Castiglione, Ariosto, and Tasso. The class is usually taught in Italian although the instructor is always amenable to discussion in English. Grading is based on brief paper, class discussion, a midterm and a final examination (to be written in English). This course along with Italian 388 is a survey of Italian literature from the Middle Ages to the present. The class welcomes concentrators from other Romance languages as well as students who have traveled in Italy and who wish to learn more about Italian culture. Readings are selected with the aim of providing a very broad picture of the literature of Italy rather than with the aim of studying any single author at length. Since the class enrollment is seldom more than eight, the needs and interests of each student can be given attention. Furthermore, such small enrollment usually contributes to a cordial atmosphere. (Marsh)

419. Italo Calvino: A Writer for All Seasons. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU).

The magaic of Calvino is his prodigious talent as a master teller of tales; realistic, fantastic, set in centuries past or the present, his stories form a pattern of all the possible paths men have taken, and all the destinies that have befallen them. Elusively didactic, yet openly vulnerable, Calvino's characters are involved in all the great deeds and dull minutiae of life, exploring themselves and the world around them. This world as Calvino sees and appraises it, has concern with its style and meaning, will be the central topics of this course. Texts will include his first novel, The Path To The Spiders' Next; the fantasy trilogy: The Cloven Viscount, The Non-Existent Knight, and The Cosmicomics; and selected Neo-Realistic novellas and short stories. Class format will be based on lectures and discussion, and standard written assignments. The language of instruction will be English; the texts may be read in English or Italian. (Olken)

472. Italian Theatre from Alfieri to Pirandello. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Discussions of Pirandello's impact on contemporary theater and his importance as an innovator of the modern stage. Study of his major dramatic works such as Sei personaggi in cerci d'autore and the specifically Pirandellian characteristics of his teatro sul teatro -Technique. Study of his major novels (Il fu Mattia Pascal and his short fiction within the context of his theory of humor. The course is conducted in Italian with discussions and occasional summaries in English. (Budel)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (FL).

Portuguese 101 is an introductory course in the Portuguese language as spoken in Brazil and is designed for beginning language students. The approach is audio-lingual and cognitive with oral and written exercises, weekly examinations. Required text: Ellison et al., Modern Portuguese. (Brakel)

231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Portuguese 231 is designed to enhance and develop students' speaking, reading, writing, and understanding of modern Portuguese. It is the sequel to Portuguese 102 and assumes exposure to the grammatical system of the language. Students will read selected short stories and novels by Brazilian authors, do grammatical exercises, write guided essays and converse in Portuguese. There will be bi-weekly examinations. Texts: Magro and De Paula, Leituras Brasileiras Contemporaneas; Jose Mauro de Vasconcelos, O Meu Pe de Laranja Lima. (Brakel)

301. Luso-Brazilian Culture. Portuguese 222 or equivalent. (3). (FL or HU).

In Portuguese 301, the students and instructor will study the development of the Portuguese language from its origin as a regional dialect of Latin to its present status as a literary vehicle and the national language of Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Mozambique and other countries. Beyond the study of the spread and evolution of that language, the class includes analyses of its phonological and syntactic structures, and it will examine the emergence and evolution of Portuguese verse and literary prose. Students should know Portuguese. Lectures and discussions will be conducted in that language. Students will be required to participate actively and will be graded on their participation as well as on midterm and final examinations. Texts: Paul Teyssier Historia da lingua portuguesa and course pack (available in the Fall). (Brakel)

Romance Language Teaching Methods (Division 458)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics, and to attract students to a specialization program. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages: A Linguistic Introduction, and it is supplemented by handouts. (Leonard)

456/French 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See French 456. (Hagiwara)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

Section 014: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for Spanish 102 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to be so. Beyond the five hours a week (see schedule) of regular class, another hour (to be scheduled) will be provided for detailed explanations of central concepts, for additional practice, and for reviews. Also, small group tutoring will be arranged according to individual needs.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements. (Dvorak)

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100, 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on midterm and final exams, other quizzes and written work (including compositions), oral class participation, and an oral/written course project.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).
Section 001.
This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. The course centers around discussion in Spanish of selected Spanish and Spanish-American works of literature. Course grade is based on midterm and final exams, other written work (including compositions) and oral participation in class.

Section 010 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for native speakers of Spanish who have some degree of aural-oral fluency in the language but lack basic reading and writing skills. The class will meet five hours a week.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. (Dworkin)

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. The course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 004 Dworkin; Section 005 Casa)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Vaquero)

453. Advanced Syntax. Spanish 361 and 362. (3). (Excl).

This course aims to improve student understanding and mastery of written Spanish through:(a) detailed analysis of specific syntactic problems, such as the tense structure of Spanish, the subjunctive mood, and the pronoun system (b) extensive grammar exercises, (c) vocabulary building exercises and (d) writing and editing compositions. Student grade is based on three major exams, compositions, and class participation (discussion and correction of grammar exercises). Class meets three times a week. (Dvorak)

Literature

331(431). Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

Literature of the 20th century is, perhaps, one of the major contributions of Latin American culture to the world. Names such as Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Angel Asturias and Garcia Marquez). Jorge Luis Borges, if not awarded with such a distinguished honor is, without doubt, the most influential Latin American writer of this century. This course is designed to offer, through a reading and analysis of major works, an understanding of Borges', Asturias', and Garcia Marquez's literary contributions as well as an understanding of significant dimensions (artistic, ideological, historical) of Latin American Culture. Non specific background is required, although familiarity with the literary world would be encouraged. The course is not part of a departmental sequence. It is, though, a course that may help Spanish Concentrators, although not specifically designed for interdepartmental curriculum. The course will combine lectures, discussions and oral presentations or workshops, depending on the number of students enrolled. Evaluations will be based on oral participation and on three written reports. (Mignolo)

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

A study of Spanish literature in the Medieval and Golden Age periods (1000-1700). Students will read several texts of Spanish literature including Poema de Mio Cid, El Abencerraje y la hermosa Jarifa, and Lazarillo de Tormes. The discussions will center around a broad cultural background including moral and political themes as well as formal aspects of the texts. There will be one short report to be given orally in class, two 3-4 page papers in Spanish on the texts, and one final exam consisting of essay questions on readings. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, exams and class discussion. Methods: lecture/discussion. (Vaquero)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

An introduction to modern Spanish literature, 18th to 20th centuries: Spanish Enlightenment, Romanticism, the rise of the realistic novel, the generation of 1898, the theatre of Garcia Lorca, modern poetry and drama. Authors to be read are: Cadalso, Larra, Perez Galdos, Unamuno, Lorca, Machado, Buero Vallejo. Students are required to write short papers on several of these authors as well as to take a final examination. (Casa)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Spanish 373, titled this semester "Some Versions of Womanhood", is designed first to be an introduction to the study of literature through the analysis of different kinds of writing. The course will consist of novels, plays, stories, and poetry, all of which focus on varied portraits of women. Espronceda, Garcia Gutierrez, and Becquer will show Romantic conceptions of a sublime creature, idealized beyond what any mortal woman could hope to be; of an object of scorn when the male learns the inevitable disillusionment; and the fascinating being of mysterious (and fatal) allure. Two novels of Galdos, La de Bringas and Tristana present a more realistic portrait of women in a bourgeois setting. Unamuno and Garcia Lorca offer twentieth-century conceptions of a dominating female, and in his strange novel, La quinta de Palmyra, Gomez de la Serna shows one woman's pursuit of love. Conducted in Spanish. Papers, hour and final exams. (Hafter)

374. Monographic Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

This course is designed to explore two main orientations in Latin American Literature: (1) the Fantastic, exemplified by such authors as Jorge Luis Borges and Julio Cortazar; and (2) Magical and Marvelous realism, exemplified by such authors as Garcia Marquez, Asturias and Carpentier. Both orientations will be analysed and situated in the context of Latin American Culture and History and in the context of European and North American Literature. Authors such as Edgar Allan Poe, Henry James, Hoffmann, Maupassant and Kafka will be brought into consideration regarding the European and American Context. Regarding Latin American tradition, authors such as Ruben Dario and Holmberg, will be read and commented on in order to illustrate the "birth" of Latin American Fantastic in the context of liberalism and positivism. On the other hand, a strong ideological dimension of Latin American Culture (i.e., the search of "latin american identity", the borders between "indigenous" and "occidental culture") will be called into focus in order to explain the significance of Magical and Marvelous realism. The course will be taught in Spanish. Evaluations will be based on class participation, oral presentations, written exams and final paper. (Mignolo)

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

La Civilizacion de Espana es una muestra interesante de la historia humana: desde las pinturas paleoliticas de Altamira hasta la obra de Picaso, pasando por la presencia de finicios, griegos, romanos y visigodos en la Antiguedad, por la convivencia de cristianos, musulmanes y judios en la Edad Media, por la expansion imperial en la Edad Moderna, y por la reduccion a sus limites actuales en el siglo XIX. Las clases se dictan en espanol y se ilustran con lecturas de textos fundamentales y con proyecccion de transparencias. Los estudiantes realizaran un trabajo de investigacion sobre un tema especifico y examenes parciales a lo largo del curso. (Lopez-Grigera)

381. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Historical Survey of Latin American Literature (19th Century).
Study of the main Spanish American authors of the century in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Andres Bello, Jose Marti, Ruben Dario; Jose Hernandez' Martin Fierro; D.F. Sarmiento, E. Echeverria, M.A. Segura, Florencio Sanchez). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. First course in the sequence 381-382-463. Conducted in Spanish. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) final exam. Reading list: Andres Bello, A la agricultura; Jose Marti, Versos sencillos; Ruben Dario, Azul y Prosas profanas; Jose Hernandez, Martin Fierro; Domingo F. Sarmiento, Facundo; Esteban Echeverria, El matadero; Alberto Blest Gana, Martin Rivas. (Goic)

450. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Special projects in Hispanic studies may be arranged to supplement existing departmental courses, provided the student can obtain permission from an interested professor. Students are discouraged from seeking independent study in semesters when fundamental courses in fields not yet studied are already available during regular class hours. (Goic)

462. Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

A consideration of the major exponents of Spain's Golden Age. Topics to be covered are: the problem of Renaissance in Spain, the influence of Petrarchan poetry, the beginning of the picaresque mode, the fusion of religious and love poetry, the development of the short-story, characteristics of Golden Age drama. Students are required to write papers on three of these topics as well as take a final examination. Topics will be introduced by background lectures. Individual works will be analyzed in class discussions and student presentations. The following authors or works will be read: Garcilaso de la Vega, Alfonso Valdes, Lazarillo de Tormes, Fray Luis de Leon, San Juan de la Cruz, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca. Supplementary readings on other authors complete the course. (Casa)

463. Literatura Hispano-Americana, Siglo XVI a XIX. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The goal of this course is that of exploring some of the most fundamental aspects of the "Description of the Indies" during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Three aspects will be taken into consideration:(a) Seeing and Saying. The impact of the discoveries has generated a conflict between the "eyes" and the "word", between the spectacle presented in front of the eyes of the discoverer and the "limitation" of their own language and world conception to express it, the limitation of communicating to a European audience the characteristics of a new world. (b) Saying and Silence. At the same time that Castilian culture was producing a description of the Indies, the saying of indigenous cultures was reduced to silence. In between saying and silence has emerged a group of illustrated men, sharing both culture and languages, and trying to bridge the gap between the language of the conqueror and the silence of the native. (c) The writing of history and the history of writing. Writing history was not a simple matter. It was believed, at the time, that only cultures with alphabetic writing were able to write history. the "idea" of writing history was strictly tied with the history of writing. In the context of this problematic, the historiographical discourse of the 16th and 17th Century will be examined. This course is addressed to undergraduate (463) as well as graduate students (563). Evaluations will be based on oral presentations, written exams and a final paper. (Mignolo)

485. Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).
Don Quijote
es la obra cumbre de la literatura espanola y una de las mas importantes de la literatura universal. En ella estan presentes tanto los problemas e ideales de la epoca de su autora como los de todos los tiempos. La lectura del Quijote es un ejercicio de la mas alta calidad, reconfortante al mismo tiempo que produce una excepcional emocion estetica. El curso tiene como objeto que el estudiante haga una introduccion a la obra que le permita disfrutar tanto de los mundos ideologicos de la obra como de su grandeza artistica. El espudiante debe leer detenidamente la obra y hacer dos trabajos sobre un tema especifico, establecido de acuerdo con el profesor. (Lopez-Grigera)

Courses in Russian and East European Studies (Division 468)

287/Hist. 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

See History 287. (Sung)

395/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/Hist. 332/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

This course exposes students to a wide range of information on the Soviet Union including an overall perspective of its history, its political and social institutions, its economics, and its culture. This course is offered in the belief that an educated person should have a basic, informed understanding of the second largest industrial and military power in the world and of a country which has undergone the most profound cultural and social upheaval of any nation in this century. The lectures draw on the expertise of University faculty from all the social science departments as well as the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. The course provides students with an informed basis on which to develop and expand an interest in the Soviet Union through further study. The course has two lecture meetings and one discussion meeting a week. (Rosenberg)

Slavic Languages and Literature

Courses in Russian (Division 466)

Language

101. First-Year Russian. No credit granted to those who have completed 103 or 111. (4). (FL).
Section 006
In this course the student learns the basics of Russian pronunciation and grammar. The skills of reading and writing, as well as listening and speaking, are developed rapidly through the use of humorous stories, skits, and classroom rituals. The course material is designed to be interesting and engaging, so that the student enjoys the subject matter about which s/he is communicating in Russian. In each class period, about half the time is spent interacting in Russian: telling stories and inventing humorous skits using the grammar and vocabulary which is being learned. Generally a new story is also told to the class each period. The second half of the period is spent introducing new points of grammar. All the stories told in class appear in the textbook and are also on tape in the Language Laboratory, which is open 8:00 a.m. to 10 p.m. In the Language Lab students practice listening to stories and answering questions orally, and work on grammar drills as well. In addition, personal copies of all tapes can be made for the students. The text is A Russian Course by A. Lipson. Since classes are small (section size is limited to 18), students have ample opportunity to speak each period. Evaluation is based on classwork, homework, unit exams (of which there are three or four) and a final. Note: Russian 101, Russian 103, and Russian 111 are all beginning Russian courses. Credit cannot be granted for more than one of these. (Eagle)

102. First-Year Russian, Continued. Russian 101 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 103, 111, or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is a continuation of Russian 101.

103. First-Year Intensive Russian. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, 111, or 112. (8). (FL).

This course covers in one term what is ordinarily covered in two terms in Russian 101 and 102. The course carries eight credit hours which is over half the average underclass academic load and is designed for highly motivated students who wish to acquire rapid mastery of Russian. (Shishkoff)

111. Special Reading Course. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed to provide a reading knowledge of Russian for purposes of research in science, mathematics, social sciences and humanities. It is open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students. The four hours of undergraduate credit offered for the course do not depend upon subsequent completion of Russian 112. Russian 111 may not be used to satisfy the LS&A foreign language requirement. (Titunik)

112. Special Reading Course, Continued. Russian 111 or equivalent. Credit is not granted for Russian 112 and Russian 102 or 103 without departmental permission. No credit granted to those who have completed 201, 202, or 203. (4). (Excl).

This is a tutorial course in which students increase their reading knowledge of Russian in their specific fields and improve their rate of translation to the level required for the doctoral language requirement. Russian 112 may not be used to satisfy the LS&A foreign language requirement. (Titunik)

201. Second-Year Russian. Russian 102 or 103 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 111, 112, or 203. (4). (FL).

This course acquaints the student with the points of grammar not covered during the First-Year Russian (101 and 102) courses. More complex grammatical structures are introduced and more emphasis is placed on spoken Russian. The use of the language laboratory (or personal copies of the taped material) is required. Current text: Russian for Everybody (editor: V. Kostamarov). (Shishkoff)

202. Second-Year Russian, Continued. Russian 201 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 111, 112, or 203. (4). (FL).

This course reviews the fundamentals of Russian grammar through written exercises and oral drills. Special emphasis is given to 'verbs of motion' and 'verb aspect', and to vocabulary development. Use of the language laboratory is strongly encouraged.

301. Third-Year Russian. Russian 202 or 203 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 303. (3). (N.Excl).

Third year Russian is a continuation of Russian 202, or it can be taken with permission from the instructor. It covers the following: (1) a review of Russian grammar (book: Exercises by the University of Michigan); (2) readings in Russian culture and literature; and (3) modern conversational Russian (book: Speaking Russian by Khavronina). It is a recitation course and students are asked to participate in class discussions. Students are evaluated on the basis of review grammar quizzes in class, translations, and compositions written at home. (Challis)

351. Introduction to Russian Literature. Russian 202 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Helps third year students make the transition from "textbook" Russian to the language of great Russian writers, and gives insight into the main trends of the 19th and 20th century Russian literature. Basic concepts and terminology of Russian literary scholarship are introduced. Conducted in Russian, compositions written in Russian. During the first term prose is presented, and during the second, poetry. Works by foremost Russian authors read in the original. (Suino)

355. Supervised Reading of Russian Literature. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

The course is designed for students who have completed one or more courses in Russian literature and wish to continue, but are unable to enroll in a regular course owing to scheduling difficulties. Literary texts in various genres will be read and discussed, and papers will be required. Permission of chairman.

401. Fourth-Year Russian. Russian 302 or 303. No credit granted to those who have completed 403. (3). (N.Excl).

Prerequisites: three years of Russian (minimum). Course deals mostly with Russian verbs that is the use of perfective and imperfective aspect of the verb; reflexive verbs, verbs with close meaning or synonyms; verbs with different prefix; use and idiomatic meaning of the verbs of motion without prefix and with prefix; participles and verbal adverbs. Students read short stories of different Russian authors, write compositions on given topics and make oral reports. Progress is checked by quizzes and final examination. (Fischer)

415. Analysis of Contemporary Spoken Russian. Russian 402 or 403, or permission of instructor. (3). (N.Excl).

Russian 415 emphasizes difficult aspects of the Russian language, such as colloquial Russian, idioms and set phrases, use of the polite form in Russian speech, and practical stylistics as an instrument of style, synonymy of short and long adjectival forms, use of particles in spoken Russian, and analysis of different styles. Progress is checked by term paper. Students read short stories by different Russian authors, plays, articles from newspapers and magazines, and write compositions and give oral reports. (Fischer)

Literature

220. Modern Russia Through Her Writers. (2). (HU).

This course will examine life in the Soviet Union as it is represented in works of short fiction. It is designed to provide an understanding of how Russians think and live, the problems they face and their views of the world. Frequent comparisons with and contrasts to the American experience and way of life will be made. The readings have been selected primarily for their human interest, and for their portrayal of ordinary and extraordinary Russian scenes and people. Most of the stories to be read and discussed are of quite recent origin, although historical perspective will be provided by a few works written between 1920 and 1970. Readings will include humor and satire, as well as stories of a more sober nature. (D. Brown)

449. Twentieth-Century Russian Literature. A knowledge of Russian is not required. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of prose and poetry from 1900 to 1930. It embraces both the prerevolutionary "Silver Age" of Russian literature and the new literary movements of the first decade following the October Revolution. Approximately two thirds of the course involves prose fiction, and one third involves poetry. We study novels and short stories by the following authors: Sologub, Bely, Gorky, Zamyatin, Babel, Zoshehenko and Olesha representing a great variety of themes, attitudes and styles. In poetry we concentrate on the Symbolists, Acmeists and Futurists, with special attention to such outstanding poets as Blok, Mandelstam, Akhmatova and Mayakovsky. The course combines informal lectures and class discussions. Occasionally students are assigned individual poems on which to comment in class. (Brown)

451/RC Hums. 451. Survey of Russian Literature. A knowledge of Russian is not required. (3). (HU).

This course is a survey of Russian literature in English with primary emphasis upon prose fiction of nineteenth-century authors such as Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. Lectures focus upon the prose art of these authors with emphasis upon the evolution of psychological realism. Biographical details, social and political circumstances, and Russian cultural and historical particularities are also included. (Brown)

Courses in Czech (Division 355)

480. Supervised Czech Reading. Permission of instructor. (1-4). (HU). May be elected for credit twice.

Readings in literature and special subjects, according to the students' needs and qualifications. Readings are done in the Czech language.

Courses in Polish (Division 447)

Language

121. First-Year Polish. (4). (FL).

Introductory course presenting basic grammatical information and vocabulary. Constant oral drill and practice. Regular use of language laboratory. During the second term short Polish stories and poems are read as part of the classwork, and conversations and discussions in Polish are introduced at an elementary level. (Borysiewicz)

221. Second-Year Polish. Polish 122 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course builds on work done in 121-122, First-Year Polish, and assumes a good knowledge of the grammatical structure of the language. Emphasis is placed first on reading Polish and second on developing increased competence in speaking and writing. (Carpenter)

Literature

425. Polish Literature in English. (3). (HU).

The course surveys the development of Polish literature in terms of individual authors and major literary movements. Individual critical analyses of texts required. A knowledge of Polish is NOT required. All readings in English translation. Can NOT be taken as tutorial. (Carpenter)

450. Directed Polish Reading. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Reading selected texts in Polish. At least two years of Polish or the equivalent required. There will be both oral and written reports. The purpose of the course is to enhance reading ability in Polish.

Courses in Serbo-Croatian (Division 473)

231. Second-Year Serbo-Croatian. Serbo-Croatian 132 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course builds on work done in 131-132, First-Year Serbo-Croatian, and assumes a good knowledge of the grammatical structure of the language. Emphasis is placed first on reading Serbo-Croatian and second on developing increased competence in speaking and writing. Opportunities are provided outside the classroom for conversation as well as for cultural activities (film, folk dance, etc.) (Stolz)

436. Modern Serbo-Croatian Literature. (3). (HU).

A survey of Serbo-Croatian literature from the origins to the present day with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Readings are in English, but qualified candidates will be expected to analyse part of the material in the original. (Stolz)

439. Directed Reading of Serbo-Croatian Literature. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

This course is designed to provide an opportunity for extensive reading in Serbo-Croatian of a variety of materials at an advanced level. The amount and type of subject matter covered is dependent upon preparation and interest of the individual student. Texts range from belles-lettres (short stories, novels) through journalism and history. (Stolz)

Courses in Ukrainian (Division 474)

151. First-Year Ukrainian. (4). (FL).

Introductory course in Ukrainian language including grammar, extensive drills both oral and written, reading of dialogues and supplementary materials. Some work should be done in the language laboratory. The textbook to be used is Modern Ukrainian by Professor Assya Humesky. (Humesky)

152. First-Year Ukrainian. Ukrainian 151. (4). (FL).

See 151.

251. Second-Year Ukrainian. Ukrainian 152 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course involves reading, composition, and grammar review. Texts will include contemporary Ukrainian prose and poetry. Conducted in Ukrainian. One midterm exam and a final will be given. (Humesky)

421. Directed Reading in Ukrainian Literature. Open to non-concentrators. A knowledge of Ukrainian is not required. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.

No background knowledge of Ukrainian literature is required. Plan of study is worked out with each student on an individual basis. Hourly discussion sessions are held once a week and a number of written essays are assigned per term (one for each credit earned). (Humesky)

Slavic Linguistics (Division 474)

171/Armenian 171. First-Year Armenian. (4). (FL).

First-Year Armenian gives a balanced presentation of grammar and conversation. Methods of instruction include lecturing and oral drills. Student evaluation will be based on examinations of the grammar covered and vocabulary quizzes. Course pack provided by the instructor. (Harlan)

271/Armenian 271. Second-Year Armenian. Slavic Ling. 172 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

The course features conversation, reading and composition. Student evaluation will be based on class participation and the quality of the written work. A course pack is provided by the instructor. (Harlan)

Slavic Literatures and Cultures: Surveys and Comparative Courses

395/Econ. 395/REES 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Hist. 332/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union.
(4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

Courses in Sociology (Division 482)

Primarily for Underclass Students

100. Principles of Sociology. Open to freshmen and sophomores. Juniors and seniors must elect Soc. 400. No credit granted to those who have completed 400. (4). (SS).
Section 001.
This course tries to give students a feel for sociology by taking a small number of concrete problems and analyzing them from different perspectives. Historical, sociological and popular readings will be employed to explore the following topics: revolutionary change and its consequences for rural life in the People's Republic of China; the automobile industry and its discontents in the United States and Japan; and the future of American cities (Gypsy Moth and Boll Weevil). In the course of the term, students will have an opportunity to learn what it means to "think sociologically" and will be introduced to the ideas of such theorists as Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber. There will be three bases on which students will be evaluated: a midterm, a set of exercises and a final exam. The midterm will cover approximately the first third of the course. The exercises will center on clarification of sociological concepts. The final exam will cover the final two-thirds of the term. Readings include: Myrdal, Report From a Chinese Village; DeLorean/Wright, On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors; Rius, Marx for Beginners; Rubin, Worlds of Pain; and Kidder, Soul of a New Machine, (R. Thomas)

Section 009. Sociology 100 is designed to introduce students to the sociological study of society. It is also designed to help you better to understand American society. To this end, you will be exposed to important theories, concepts, and methods of sociology and expected to apply them in thinking about American society. Throughout the course, emphasis will be on the vast changes in human societies that have occurred throughout history and the distinctive features of our society.

Section 028. Sociology 100 is designed to introduce students to the sociological study of society. It is also designed to help you better to understand American society. To this end, you will be exposed to important theories, concepts, and methods of sociology and expected to apply them in thinking about American society. Throughout the course emphasis will be on the vast changes in human societies that have occurred through history, and the distinctive features of our society.

101. Person and Society: An Introduction to Sociology Through Social Psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to sociology by drawing on the concepts and perspectives of Social Psychology. It seeks to develop more systematic ways of viewing and understanding social life. Readings, films, and lectures will be used to present and illustrate a variety of useful conceptual frameworks. Three broad content areas will be examined: How people organize their experience of the social world, how they become socialized, and how they interrelate and influence each other. Specific topics include: Social perception and cognition, the development of personal identity and especially gender identity, processes of inter-personal influence and attitude change, conformity and social control. The course will meet for three hours of lecture each week. Grades will be based on a short paper plus a midterm and final. (Modigliani)

102. Contemporary Social Issues: An Introduction to Sociology. (4). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.
Section 001 Ecological Perspectives.
This course will introduce students to sociology emphasizing the perspectives derived from population and human ecology. Particular attention will be given to the relationship between population, organization, and environment at the aggregate level and to the individual behavioral implications of the spatial aspects of ecological organization. The primary orientation of the course will be contrasted with alternative perspectives such as social anthropology and social psychology. Grades are based on several short empirical papers and one classroom exam. (D. Goldberg)

Sections 009 and 018 Introduction to Sociology through Comparative Inequality. Some people have great wealth, health, and opportunities, while others are much less fortunate. To a great extent, inequalities in life chances are not simply a matter of fortune, but are a product of the ways in which societies are organized. How great are the differences between countries in the amount of social inequalities people experience? What explains the existence of such inequality? How much can they be changed? Are there tradeoffs between equality and freedom? How are social classes formed and reinforced? This course provides an introduction to sociology through an in-depth analysis of such questions. The first weeks of the course will provide a brief introduction to sociology and methods of social research, stressing concepts and methods helpful in studying social stratification and inequality. In the second part of the course, we will study cross-national differences in social organization and inequality in capitalists, social democratic, and Marxist-Leninist societies such as the U.S., Sweden, Yugoslavia, Hungary, the USSR, and China. In the final portion of the course, we will concentrate on social classes and inequalities in the United States. This course will concentrate primarily on comparative class-based inequalities within countries, rather than on inequalities based on sex or race. Course requirements: Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week; two exams, an in-class essay, a couple of outside movies, and a couple of brief reports. (Simkus)

For Undergraduates Only

210. Elementary Statistics. (3). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to provide literacy in the evaluation of quantitative evidence as it relates to the world of alternative, testable ideas. Students are familiarized with a variety of descriptive statistics (interpretation of tables, measures of association, regression, etc.), inductive statistics (theory of sampling, significance tests) and the empirical origin of statistical data (surveys, censuses, observational studies). Several forms of decision-making based on quantitative and non-quantitative evidence are compared and contrasted. No special background or preparation is needed. Students capable of handling arithmetic have all the mathematical skills required for the course. There are two lectures and one lab scheduled each week. Problem sets are routinely assigned to illustrate the concepts of the course. Student grades are determined by performance on three examinations, two given during the semester and the final exam. (Goldberg)

310. Introduction to Research Methods. Soc. 210. (4). (SS).

This course teaches the essentials of reasoning with quantitative data. You learn how to translate arguments about social life into arguments with consequences for counted data. You do exercises on all of the phases of quantitative analysis: How to make an argument, how to translate the argument into a set of assertions about relationships among variables, how to assess the match between data and argument, and how to present the results in coherent fashion. You read examples of research and criticize them, carry out small exercises with real data using the computer, and learn to use some of the statistics you were exposed to in Soc. 2l0. Even if you are not a sociology concentrator you are welcome to take this course; you will not be handicapped by lack of background either in sociology or statistics. (W. Mason)

330. Population Problems. (3). (SS).

This course is intended for a wide range of students who might be interested in learning more about the current population situation and the range of problems associated with it. There are no prerequisites for the course nor is any specific background required although an average ability to read tables and interpret quantitative material will be assumed. The course focuses specifically on social, economic and environmental problems associated with population and on population programs and policy. The course is a complement rather than an alternative to Soc 430 (Introduction to Population Studies) which deals with the determinants of demographic behavior. Soc. 330 and 430 can be taken as a sequence although each is independent and can be taken separately. Soc. 330 is intended to present a variety of views concerning the ways population is perceived as a problem and what should be done about it. The focus of the course is international, dealing both with less developed and more developed countries. Attention is given to population growth, urbanization and migration; population and development; food resources and environmental stress as related to population; age structure, aging and associated problems, and population policy and programs, especially those related to the reduction of birth rates.

389. Practicum in Sociology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in sociology. (2-4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.

The practicum in sociology provides students with the opportunity for experiential learning through volunteer work in a variety of community organizations. Field placements for students are arranged through the programs of Project Community at the University of Michigan. Project Community includes the Inmate Project, the Innovative Tutorial Experience and the Medical Field Project, as well as several smaller programs which may vary each term. In addition to their work in the community, students keep logs of their work experience and write short papers integrating their field activities with sociological analyses. Speakers, weekly seminars and outside readings also are used to promote learning of general sociological principles and to broaden students' understanding of their field work. There is no preregistration for Soc. 389. Interested students should contact the Project Community Office (763-3548, 2204 Michigan Union) at the beginning of the term to add Sociology 389. overrides may be picked up at the Project Community office during September 6-26. (Chesler)

392/Hist. 332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Rosenberg)

For Undergraduates and Graduates

400. Sociological Principles and Problems. For juniors, seniors, and graduate students with no background in sociology. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (3). (SS).

This is a survey of sociology intended primarily for students not majoring in the field, usually in their third or fourth year, and for whom this may be the only course taken in sociology. There are no prerequisites; the course may be used as the introductory requirement for the concentration. We cover the basic perspective that distinguished the discipline, some of its cultural theories and its methods of observation and analysis and introduce briefly a sample of the topics commonly treated in the field. Specific topics covered may include socialization, social stratification, urban society, industrial organization, race and ethnicity, revolution and social change, and population (including the population bomb and world-wide attempts to diffuse it, and gender roles.

423. Social Stratification. (3). (SS).

This course is concerned with three tasks: examining theories that attempt to account for the existence of social inequality, examining evidence regarding the extent of various forms of social inequality in the United States, and considering recent trends regarding changing patterns of inequality. Although the focus will be primarily on the contemporary United States, we will look at recent historical data and place the U.S. in the cross-cultural context. We will look in particular at inequality in economic resources, power and prestige. Special attention will be directed at sex and race-ethnic inequality. Course requirements include two-three short written exercises, and two objective and subjective midterm examinations as well as a final examination. (Reskin)

428. Social Institutions of Communist China. (3). (SS).

The course is a general and systematic introduction to the way Chinese society is organized today, and how it has changed since 1949. The main topics covered are the historical background, political and legal institutions and values, economic institutions, village life and people's communes, the family, educational institutions, cities and stratification. No previous background on China is assumed, and the course attempts to present as thorough an understanding of contemporary Chinese social organization as possible, given the amount of time available. Readings cover a variety of points of view, and include some options for students with particular interests. The course includes a midterm and final examination, with a term paper substitutable for the final. The course attempts to understand Chinese society by frequent comparisons with traditional China, with the Soviet Union, and with other developing societies and their problems. (Whyte)

435. The Urban Community. Credit is granted for only one course from Soc. 335, 435, or 535. Does not meet sociology doctoral requirements. (3). (SS).

The course approaches the analysis of the urban community from several aspects: (1) the natural and social parameters of urban growth (central place theory, demographic trends), (2) the quality-of-life in the city (the debate over urban anomie), (3) the social class and power structure of the city: the poor, working, middle and elite classes, (4) urban social movements (rabble or organized?) and social change, (5) the role of the city in the larger social system (from center of transformation to basket-case?), (6) urban planning and policy as affecting and as a function of the above factors. While focusing on the U.S. perspective: the ancient, modern European and Japanese, Socialist, and Third World cities. We will conclude by considering recent critical theory of the city, and the prospects for deurbanization in the "post-industrial" era. (Broadbent)

440. Sociology of Work. (3). (SS).

Analyzes meaning of work in comparative perspective with particular emphasis on institutional constraints. Special attention is paid to determinants of job satisfaction, management ideology, employee participation in decision making, and labor force trends. Will evaluate alternatives to bureaucratic organization of work. Students will be expected to develop skills in evaluating evidence in support of various positions. Final exam for undergraduates with a few short essays required during the term. Classroom time will include both lectures and discussion.

441. Social Aspects of Economic Development. (3). (SS).

The course is broadly concerned with the emergence of industrialization and western capitalism and its impact on world economic development. Much emphasis is placed on both colonial expansion, imperialist domination and nationalism. The course will focus on an analysis of world economic systems with some special attention to problems of industrialization, agricultural development and income inequalities. Special attention is given to the measurement and social meaning of economic development, and the variety of modern forces - including foreign trade and aid, national development policies, national administrative systems, and population growth which today appear to hold central positions in determining the course of national and world-wide economic development. This is a midterm and a final examination and an optional paper.

444. The American Family. (3). (SS).

An historical and sociological overview of American family patterns that emphasizes change in American family life and the determinants of this change. Major questions include the impact of industrialization, urbanization, immigration, slavery, and social class on family patterns. Course readings will include several books and a course pack. Class meetings will be devoted primarily to lectures, but with discussion and films interspersed. Grading will be by examination plus a short genealogical paper focusing on the student's family history. (K. Mason)

445. Comparative Family Systems. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to introduce students to materials on how family life varies around the world. The first half of the course uses primarily cross-cultural materials dealing with pre-industrial societies. The second half of the course concerns how modern changes (industrialization, urbanization, revolution, etc.) affect family life, and a consideration of recent changes in family life in America. Along the way students will be presented with a variety of theories and studies designed to explain how and why family life varies; why the position of women is higher in some societies than others, why divorce rates are higher in some societies than others, why some societies allow more freedom of mate choice than others, and so forth. The course takes primarily a lecture format, with interruptions and questions encouraged. The readings include some common theoretical and descriptive studies, and sets of choices of books describing family life in particular cultures that students can work on as case studies. (Whyte)

447/Women's Studies 447. Gender Roles and Status. (3). (SS).

A cross-cultural and historical overview of change and variation in gender inequality. The course begins by examining the roots of gender inequality in a stateless society, attempting to assess the conditions under which men's control of women is enhanced or undermined. The course next considers the impact of social change on the status of women in contemporary Third World nations. The final section of the course focuses on gender inequality in the United States, both historically and today, paying special attention to gender in the economy, family and legal systems. Most readings are contained in a course pack. The class meets biweekly, largely for lectures, but with discussion and films interspersed. Grading by examination (term paper required for graduate students). (K. Mason)

450. Political Sociology. (3). (SS).

An examination of the relationship between economy and the polity with particular emphasis on social classes and class conflict. The course will examine the historical development and political effects of the core economic institution of the contemporary world, the large and often multinational corporation, in two related contexts. (1) The rise of the capitalist world economy and its impact on third world societies through colonialism, imperialism, and dependent development. The growth of revolutionary political movements in Southeast Asia, Southern Africa and Latin America and local elite responses to these movements. (2) The development of the concentrated corporate economy, including the development of multinational corporations, in the United States in the twentieth century. An examination of the political and social consequences of corporate concentration and control including political capitalism in the oil industry, oligopoly, surplus and the rise and fall of the American automobile industry, defense contractors and the military industrial complex. Edwards et al., The Capitalist System; Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy; Gunder Frank, Latin America: Underdevelopment or Revolution; NACLA, Guatemala; Baran and Sweezy, Monopoly Capital; and Mills, The Power Elite. (J. Paige)

455/Rel. 455. Religion and Society. (3). (SS).

Ultimate reality (the focus of Religion) becomes understood quite differently as people pursue religious quests within different social contexts. The course uses sociological methods of inquiry to explore the emergence of new religious movements, the ways that organizations respond to extraordinary experiences like mysticism and the ecstatic, the kinds of impact social forces have on organized religion, and the ways that religion, in turn, affects other areas of social life. (Heirich)

461. Social Movements. (3). (SS).

This course is designed for students who wish to engage in critical in-depth analysis of the Civil Rights and white student movements. Basic sociological concepts of power, conflict, class, complex organizations, and race will be explored. In order to get a handle on these movements we will explore relevant sociological theories and research pertaining to "social movements". (A.Morris)

465/Psych. 488. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

An advanced undergraduate or graduate level course that addresses the broad question: how do people become social deviants? Films and simulation games will be used to concretize various types of deviance and deviance-producing processes, and readings will provide theoretical frameworks as well as further case material. Discussions will be the primary vehicles for bringing these elements together, with lectures playing only a smaller role. Students must be prepared to raise questions or else to resolve for themselves the inevitable loose-ends associated with such a discussion-oriented course. Substantively, the course has two major parts. The first will examine in detail the social processes by which individuals are "officially" designated deviant: specifically, how social rules are created, enforced, and adjudicated by legislatures, the police, and the courts. The second will examine some major theories about the causes of deviant behavior by focusing on a series of more specific types of criminal activity: e.g., theft, delinquency, violent crimes, corporate crimes. A portion of the course will also be devoted to student projects entailing analyses of the autobiographies of deviants of the student's own choosing. (Modigliani)

468. Criminology. (3). (SS).

This course will be a survey of recent work in the field of Criminology. Topics will include theories of crime causation, sociology of law, the police, the courts, prisons, and the history of the use of punishment. Lectures will be one and one half hours long, two days a week. (Rauma)

482/Psych. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (SS).

See Psychology 482. (Veroff)

486/Psych. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Psychology 486.

For Sociology Honors Students, Seniors, and Graduates

541. Contemporary Japanese Society: Convergence Theory. Upperclass or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course is intended to provide undergraduates and graduates with a broad overview of contemporary Japanese society. Particular attention is focused on the social changes occurring in major institutional areas. Wherever possible, comparative data is introduced so that comparative evaluations with other industrialized nations can be made. Convergence theory provides the theoretical framework with which we will be operating. Convergence theory presumes that Japanese institutions and values are coming to approximate those of other advanced western nations by virtue of the imperatives of modern technology and other characteristics of advanced industrial nations. We will also assess a more recent variant of convergence theory which asserts that Japan by virtue of its late development has become the prototype for other advanced nations to emulate. Finally, we shall examine the relevance of dependency theory for Japanese development. Class meets once a week for three hours in the afternoon. After the fourth week, one typed three page (maximum) paper will be required for each week thereafter. This paper will be based on critical evaluation of the assigned readings. There will be no term paper and no exams. There are no prerequisite courses. (Cole)

587/Psych. 516. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Soc. 486. (3). (SS).

See Psychology 516. (Burnstein)

590. Proseminar in Social Psychology. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. Some background in social psychology is desirable. (3). (SS).

A graduate-level introduction to social psychology from a sociological perspective. Open to advanced undergraduates as well, but they are advised to consult with the instructor before registering. The course considers major theoretical and empirical contributions to sociological social psychology, including early as well as contemporary classics. Topics covered include social interaction, attitude and belief systems, roles and reference groups, socialization, and social structure and personality. The class will be structured mainly around discussion of reading. Evaluation will be based on several short papers or prelim-type essay exams. (Modigliani)

591. Special Areas of Social Psychology. Soc. 590 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Small Groups.
This course will deal with the topic of small groups. We will examine the dynamics of small groups, as they occur in a variety of settings families, peer systems, work arrangements, therapy settings, change movements, etc. Moreover, we will examine small groups from a variety of analytic levels: as collections of individuals, as a group level reality in themselves, as sub-units of a larger organization or community, etc. Readings will be suggested and lectures given, but the bulk of the instructional design will be a seminar format, with students as a (small) group sharing responsibility for teaching and learning. The course is intended primarily for graduate students in sociology and psychology, but is open to others with permission of the instructor. (Chesler)

596. Special Course. (3). (SS).

This proseminar is designed to bring together individuals interested in or knowledgeable about particular socialist societies, in an effort to study the broad range of socialist states. We will be interested in the recent histories of such countries as China, the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Cuba, and the states of Eastern Europe. What attributes do such societies share? In what ways do these societies uniformly differ from other types of societies? What are the origins and consequences of differences between the societies? We intend to explore both non-Marxist and Marxists theoretical approaches and examine the available evidence in several substantive areas: (1) social stratification, class relations, and inequality; (2) the family and sex roles; (3) social protest movements; (4) political organization, social control, and bureaucracy; (5) self-management and workers' control; (6) sociological aspects of economic reforms; and (7) "socialist culture". The course will be organized as a proseminar, involving a combination of lectures, guest lectures, student presentations, and discussions. The course requirements include a paper, an annotated bibliography, and involvement in course presentations and discussion. (Depending on the wishes of the students involved, it may be possible to negotiate a different meeting time for the seminar than the presently scheduled. Those with a potential time conflict should contact the instructors in advance). (Simkus)

Courses in Statistics (Division 489)

300. Introduction to Statistical Reasoning. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to provide an overview of the field of statistics. Course topics include approaches to the collection of numerical data, methods of analyzing and summarizing such data, statistical reasoning as a means of learning from observations (experimental or sample), and techniques for dealing with uncertainties in drawing conclusions from collected data. Basic fallacies in common statistical analyses and reasoning are discussed and proper methods indicated. Alternative approaches to statistical inference are also discussed. The course emphasis is on presenting basic underlying concepts rather than on covering a wide variety of different methodologies. Applications are drawn from a wide variety of disciplines. Evaluation is based upon class examinations, a final examination, and weekly assignments. The course format is lecture with some discussion.

310. Elements of Probability. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Math. 215. (3). (NS).

This course covers the main ideas and uses of probability: expectation, variance, covariance, distribution functions, bivariate, marginal and conditional distributions, the binomial and related distributions, the Poisson process, the exponential and gamma distributions, the normal sample statistics, the law of large numbers, the central limit theorem. There are regularly assigned homework exercises, two in-class examinations, and a final examination. The emphasis is on problem solving and applications.

311/I.O.E. 365. Engineering Statistics. Math. 215 and Eng. 102, or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 412. (4). (Excl).

Analysis of engineering data associated with stochastic industrial processes. Topics include: fundamentals of distribution analyses; process model identification, estimation, testing of hypothesis, validation procedures, and evaluation of models by regression and correlation. Students are required to use the MTS computer system for problem solving.

402. Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis. No credit granted to those who have completed 412. (4). (NS).
Section 00l.
In this course students are introduced to the concepts and applications of statistical methods and data analysis. Statistics 402 has no prerequisite and has been elected by students whose mathematics background includes only high school algebra. Examples of applications are drawn from virtually all academic areas. The course format includes three lectures and a laboratory (l.5 hours per week). The laboratory section covers some of the data analysis material and introduces the use of interactive computing through the use of MIDAS. Course evaluation is based on a combination of three examinations given Wednesday evenings, a final examination and teaching fellow input. (Rothman)

Section 015: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they develop a thorough understanding of introductory statistics and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts, group problem solving and additional exercises.

403. Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis II. Stat. 402. (4). (NS).
Applied Regression and Analysis of Variance.
This course surveys some intermediate topics in multiple linear regression and the analysis of variance and covariance, stressing applications rather than theory. We particularly emphasize residual analysis in multiple regression and cover such topics as the least squares estimation and tests of hypotheses, prediction analysis, multicolinearity and variable selection. Fixed, random, and mixed models are all discussed in the analysis of variance. Experimental designs studied include randomized complete block, hierarchial or nested designs and the latin square. Three hours of lecture and one and one-half hours of lab per week.

404. Problem Solving in Medical Statistics. Enrollment in Inteflex or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended to introduce students in the medical sciences to the measurement and interpretation of clinically relevant variables. Applications to the design and analysis of clinical trials and diagnosis are presented. The methodology includes some probability theory, classical inference, and curve fitting. Many of the topics are illustrated through current problems in medicine. (Rothman)

405/Econ. 405. Introduction to Statistics. Math. 115 or permission of instructor. Juniors and seniors may elect concurrently with Econ. 201 and 202. No credit granted to those who have completed Econ. 404. (4). (SS).

See Economics 405. (Kmenta)

412. Introduction to Probability and Statistics. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Math. 215 and either CCS 274 or Engin. 102. No credit granted to those who have completed 311 or 402. (3). (NS).

The objectives of this course are to introduce students to the basic ideas of probability and statistical inference and to acquaint students with some important data analytic techniques, such as regression and the analysis of variance. Examples will emphasize applications to the natural sciences and engineering. There will be regular homework, including assignments which require the use of MTS, two midterms, and a final exam.

425/Math. 425. Introduction to Probability. Math. 215. (3). (N.Excl).

See Mathematics 425.

426. Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. Stat. 425. (3). (NS).

This course covers the basic ideas of statistical inference, including sampling distributions, estimation, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, regression, analysis of variance, nonparametric testing, and Bayesian inference. The sequence of Statistics 425/426 serves as a prerequisite for more advanced Statistics courses. Weekly problem sets, two hourly exams, and one final exam.

500. Applied Statistics I. Math. 417 and a course in statistics (Stat. 402 or 426); or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

Review of matrices, multivariate normal and related distributions. Regression and general least squares theory, Gauss-Markov theorem, estimation of regression coefficients, polynomial regression, step-wise regression, residuals. ANOVA models, multiple comparisons, analysis of covariance, Latin square designs, random and mixed-effect models. Applications and real data analysis will be stressed, with students using the computer to perform statistical analysis.

510/Math. 525. Probability Theory. Math. 450 or 451; or permission of instructor. Students with credit for Math. 425/Stat. 425 can elect Math. 525/Stat. 510 for one credit. (3). (N.Excl).

See Mathematics 525.

Courses in Theatre and Drama (Division 492)

205. Introduction to Theatre. (4). (HU).

This course introduces the student to the art of the theatre. Its purpose is to develop in the student a critical awareness and appreciation of theatre as an art form. The course focuses on theatre as performance and emphasizes plays as they have been realized on the stage. Topics include history, acting, directing, and design. In addition to lecture, each student attends one weekly discussion group. Students are required to attend and review current theatrical productions. These performances are as much a part of the course as the printed texts. Evaluation is based upon two hourly examinations, a final, two written critiques, and contributions to the discussion groups. (Burgwin)

211/Res. College Hums. 280/English 245. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

See English 245. (McNamara)

230. Introduction to Oral Interpretation. (3). (HU).

The structure and content of selected prose, poetry, and drama studied with the aim of communicating these works through the special qualities of oral reading. The class format consists of a combination of lecture, discussion, and performance, but emphasis is placed upon the interpretation of literature through performance in class. Course requirements include a midterm examination and a final examination.

231. Acting for Radio, Television, and Theatre. No credit granted to those who have completed 236. Concentrators should elect Theatre 236. (3). (HU).

This course is intended primarily for the non-concentrator who is interested in a course in acting which focuses upon the means of communicating character by the actor and upon the distinction of performance by means of the stage and television. Beginning with pantomime, monologue, and exercises, the student progresses through scenes for theatre and television. Written midterm and final examinations.

232. Black Theatre Workshop: I. (3). (HU).

This course, like Theatre and Drama 233, is intended to serve as an introduction to the art of acting. It concentrates upon the development of acting skills from a Black perspective, and the plays from which scenes are presented are from the Black Theatre. Previous acting experience is not expected. After an examination of the objective of the actor, the course then focuses upon the development of the skills of the actor including the means of achieving the creative state of mind, the development of body and voice, and the foundation of the character from within the script. Basic reading and lecture material provide a background for the presentation of class scenes.

236. Acting I: Fundamentals. No credit granted to those who have completed 231. Concentrators should elect Theatre 236. (3). (HU).

This course serves as an introduction to the practical skills of acting for the theatre. It is a prerequisite for Theatre and Drama 334 and 336 which are in turn required for 400 level acting courses in the theatre curriculum. Instructional methods are largely those of lecture, discussion, theatre exercises, and performance of scenes. Plays are read from a recommended list and serve as the basis for the performance of the scenes. Some instructors may also recommend or require other readings.

250. Production Practicum. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 4 credits.

Special laboratory work in theatre production. No text. No exams. Grades are based on the performance of assigned crew work. (Section 001 Staff; Section 002 Weisfeld; Section 003 Billings; Section 004 Staff; Section 005 J. Ryerson)

421/English 443. History of Theatre: I. (4). (HU).

See English 443. (Bender)

423. History of American Theatre. Upperclass standing. (3). (HU).

This course presents the historical development of the American theatre from its beginnings in the eighteenth century to the present. The focus of attention is placed upon the changing nature of the theatre in relation to its social and cultural backgrounds. Of particular importance is the changing drama from its self-conscious nationalism and provincialism - to a drama of international stature; movement from the Golden Age of the star actor to twentieth-century ensemble playing; the competition of the theatre managers; the evolution of modern concepts of theatre architecture and design; and the many theatre movements of the twentieth century. Although a general knowledge of theatre history is useful, it is not necessary. A midterm examination, a final examination, and a term paper are the basis for grading. The class is conducted largely as lecture. (J. Bender)

434. Voice Theory for the Actor. Theatre 334 and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Voice Theory for the Actor is a second level course focusing on the development and application of basic vocal skills introduced in the 334. Through a developmental series of warm-ups, exercises and, especially, work with text, the actor's voice is freed, strengthened and extended, the speech clarified, energized and focused. Some theoretic concepts of voice production and speech will be introduced and discussed, but the emphasis is on the actual use of the voice in performance.

435. Movement for the Actor. Theatre 336. (2). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course is designed to provide actors with a working knowledge of their bodies with emphasis on relaxation of body tension, flexibility and centering. Exercises and improvisational techniques will aid in developing awareness of the body as an expressive means. Lecture/studio.

436. Acting III: Textual Analysis. Theatre 205, 211, 334, 336, 435, and audition. (4). (Excl).

An advanced undergraduate acting course which places a major emphasis on developing a personalized working process, enabling the actor to invest text choices informed by a variety of explorative processes. Jury required for entrance, continuation in 437 expected. (M. Chambers)

439. Acting Practicum. Theatre 236, 334, 336, 436, and permission of department chairman. Concurrent enrollment in an acting course. (2). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

This course provides credit for advanced acting students for the rehearsal and performance of major roles. New course. For detailed and specific information in individual cases consult the department. (Eysselinck)

441. Directing I: Principles. Theatre 205, 211, 251, and 336. (3). (HU).

This basic course in the art of direction reviews the entire process the director must follow from play selection to opening night. Practical exercises in key phases of the process supplement lecture and discussion. Required for Theatre concentrators. Grade based on exercises, quizzes and class participation. (Burgwin)

445. Stage Management. Theatre 205 and 251 and permission of instructor. (1-2). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of four credits.

This is a course in practical stage management for the theatre. Each student serves either as a stage manager or an assistant stage manager for a fully mounted theatre production. There is one theoretical project in addition to the practicum requirement. The course meets one hour a week as a formal lecture or for individual consultation.

453. Sound for the Theatre. Theatre 351 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

A course in the techniques and aesthetics of sound design and reproduction for the theatre. Lectures stress materials and methods with an emphasis on studio work and introductory room acoustics. Students are assigned several short creative projects and will design or engineer sound for a departmental production. Text: Stage Sound, David Collison. (Pollock)

456. Introduction to Lighting for Stage and Television. Theatre 205 and 251; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on the theory and technique of stage and television lighting as well as on the characteristics and control of light and color and their application to theatre, television, and dance. It is advisable for the student to have completed a basic stagecraft course as a prerequisite. Student evaluation will be based on written examination, lighting design projects, and practical work on productions. Lecture/demonstration. (Billings)

460. Principles of Scenic Design. Theatre 205 and 251; or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 461. (3). (Excl).

This course considers the use of design elements and styles of production in the design of scenery for the theatre. The course is devised specifically for students who have a practical art background. Student evaluation is based on written exams, design projects, and practical work on productions. Basic stagecraft and play analysis courses are prerequisites to the course. (Billings)

461. Scenic Design Theory. Theatre 205 and 251; or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 460. (2). (Excl).

Theory and practice of scene design and its influence on stage directing. For non-technical students. This course is not part of a department sequence, but the student must have had a basic stagecraft course. Course grade is based on exams and design projects; lecture and discussion. (Billings)

472. Stage Makeup. Theatre 205 or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Theatrical Makeup is studied through theory and demonstration with students practicing application of makeup from basic corrective makeups through more complicated character ones as the term progresses. Laboratory, in addition to class practice, includes the crewing of the departmental productions. Evaluation is based on progress, class participation, graded exercises, crew work and final practical exam. Text: Richard Corson, Stage Makeup, 6th edition. (Ryerson)

485. Management for the Performing Arts. Four courses in theatre or permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

An introductory course in the principles of performing arts management including budgeting, promotion, facility planning and organization. Professional techniques with their adaptation to academic and non-professional organizations. A lecture course utilizing guest speakers and discussion. Students evaluated on the basis of class participation and written projects. Texts: Theatre Management by Stephen Langley, and Subscribe Now! by Danny Newman. (Lindsey Nelson)

486. Practicum in Performing Arts Management. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl). May be repeated for credit twice.

A laboratory in performing arts management including box office, publicity, front of house management, promotion. (Nelson)

505. Special Work in Theatre Production and Performance. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl).

This course provides academic credit in appropriate quantity to independent creative work undertaken under faculty supervision. A wide variety of projects may be undertaken with the mutual agreement of student and faculty member.

540. Directing Practicum. Theatre 541 and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This course is a laboratory in which advanced directing students are able to direct a one-act play in the Studio series. Successful completion of Theatre and Drama 441 and 442 and instructor's recommendation required. (Burguin)

577. Costume History and Design I. Theatre 351; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The first half of a two semester sequence covering the history of western dress from classical Greek times through 1485. Application of historical dress to theatrical production and the process of designing for the stage are an integral part of the study. The course is designed for graduate theatre students in all areas, but is the beginning level for graduate costume design majors. Weekly design projects which explore historical research and various aspects of theatrical design plus a 40 hour lab and a production running crew in wardrobe for a department production. The course continues the second semester through 1940 with fewer projects and an intensive final project of costume designs for a theorized production. (Weisfeld)

University Courses (Division 495)

101. Methods of Thinking. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

This course has two aims: (1) to improve the student's ability to read with understanding, to think critically, and to write well; (2) to help the student to achieve a better understanding of the nature of intellectual activity and of education. College work is, and should be, different from high school work, requiring different and more sophisticated intellectual skills and techniques. But almost all courses in college concentrate exclusively on their own special subject-matter. A sociology course concentrates on teaching you sociology, a chemistry course on teaching chemistry, and so on. College instructors rarely teach in an explicit and direct manner the intellectual techniques and frameworks necessary for successful college work. They assume that you have these skills already or can somehow pick them up along the way, while they go ahead and teach their own special subjects. University Course 101 attempts to teach these skills directly and explicitly, to make your college career more successful and to sharpen abilities which will be invaluable in later life whatever field you may work in. This is a course for the person who is seriously interested in intellectual activity. It is not a remedial course and it is not an orientation course. Some of the materials which we will discuss will be complex and profound, and a number of the topics lie on the intellectual frontiers of our time.

The topics for discussion will include the following: the nature of argumentation, evaluation of arguments and positions, methods of reading, types of critical thinking; special intellectual problems in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences problems such as the relation between theory and reality, bias and subjectivity in the social sciences, the nature and justification of the humanities; questions about education, including morality in education, diverse ideals of the educated person, open admissions, reverse discrimination, academic freedom, and the unionization of the faculty. This course will be taught in small sections of no more than fifteen students each, so that students can receive individual attention. Readings will be assigned covering the above topics. We will proceed by class discussion supplemented by some lectures. There will be a number of writing assignments throughout the term. (J. Meiland)

150. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Creativity, Media and Society.
Following a brief exploration of the nature of creativity in the arts and the media, the seminar will focus on the presence or absence of creative effort in television and film today, with special emphasis on their effects on society. Outstanding examples of creative work in both media will be examined in class as springboards for discussion. A few short field trips to studios to watch work in progress may be planned at hours convenient to the group. No previous contact with television or film production is required, nor is this course designed for students who intend to major in radio, television, or film. A reasonable amount of weekly reading and the writing of frequent papers should be expected. (Stasheff)

Section 002 Metaphors We Live By. Metaphor is for most people a device of the poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish a matter of extraordinary rather than ordinary language. Moreover, metaphor is typically viewed as characteristic of language alone, a matter of words rather than thought or action. For this reason, most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the intellect. They also govern our everyday functioning, down to the most mundane details. Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. If we are right in suggesting that our conceptual system is largely metaphorical, then the way we think, what we experience, and what we do every day is very much a matter of metaphor. But our conceptual system is not something we are normally aware of. In most of the little things we do everyday we simply think and act more or less automatically along certain lines. Just what these lines are is by no means obvious. One way to find out is by looking at language. Since communication is based on the same conceptual system that we use in thinking and acting, language is an important source of evidence for what that system is like. from Lakoff & Johnson, Metaphors We Live By. Other principal texts include:Canetti, Earwitness; D. Antin, Talking at the Boundaries; T. Robbins, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues; -, The Medusa and the Snail; B.L. Whorf (Carroll, Ed.), Language, Thought and Reality. (Lawler)

Section 003 The Lost Generation and After. The seminar will examine the relationship between the form of the short story and social change during the early part of the twentieth century. Alienation, disillusionment, expatriation, abandonment of the traditional plot structure, are a few of the ideas to be studied. Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, Joyce, Chekhov are a few of the authors to be discussed. Creative writing germane to the course will be encouraged, and a term paper will be required. (Haugh)

Section 004 Introduction to China. Selected topics in Chinese history and culture, some from traditional China and some from modern China. With an eye toward comparisons to the West, we will read selections in literature, philosophy, and history ranging from the earliest known writings of the Later Zhou dynasty (770-256 B.C) to recent writings of major political and literary figures. Core topics include the three traditional ways of thought - Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; society and culture in the great imperial eras; China and the outside world; the fall of the last dynasty; and the nature of contemporary China. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in class discussions, and develop a research topic during the term. Individual research work can relate to particular interests (e.g., medicine, architecture, women's rights, Tibet, opium wars, Chan Buddhism, communes) and will culminate in a written report and an oral presentation to the class. (DeWoskin)

Section: 005 The Young and the Old: An Exploration Through Literature. Intensive reading and discussion of a number of literary works drama, fiction, biography in which the theme of the relations of youth and age is central. Works read and discussed will be drawn from the ancient and the modern world. Students will be asked for several sorts of papers: analysis of a problem as presented by one of the authors; evaluation of its literary treatment; autobiographical, fictional, or poetic treatment of some generational conflict drawn from their own experience; a critical review of a work other than assigned reading, as of film, television or stage production. Oral presentation will be encouraged as a supplement to written work. Reading List: Sophocles, Oedipus Rex, Antigone, and Elektra; Shakespeare, King Lear, Romeo and Juliet; Edmund Gosse, Father and Son; Henry James, Washington Square; Samuel Butler, The Way of All Flesh; Saul Bellow, Mr. Sammler's Planet; Ivan Turgenev, Fathers and Sons, and D.H.Lawrence, Sons and Lovers. (Firebaugh)

Section 006 Comedy As a View of Reality. Comedy in the popular mind is regarded as primarily an entertainment, however, it is somewhat more than that; it is a way of perceiving reality and in the seminar we shall ask questions concerning the nature of its perception of reality. The seminar will read representative comedies from Aristophanes to Noel Coward and consider them three ways. The first is hierarchial, that is to say looking at comedy as a means of describing or attacking the lowest part of society or of ourselves. The second way is to see comedy as a contrast or incongruity; the third will propose the concept that comedy is an equation and that it tries to show us the higher and lower as one, the natural (rational) and unnatural (irrational) as identities. There will be some supplementary reading assignments in critical theory, but the study of primary texts will receive major attention. It will suffice to consider selections of exponents of each approach Aristotle who clearly states the hierarchial theory, Hazlitt on the comedy of incongruence, and Plato who clearly in his Symposium attempts a reconciliation of the higher and lower. The following is a tentative list of plays to be considered: Aristophanes, The Clouds, Lysistrata; Jonson, The Alchemist, Volpone; Dekker, The Shoemakers' Holiday; Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew, The Merchant of Venice; Farquhar, The Beaux' Strategem; Congreve, Love for Love; Sheridan, The Rivals, The Critic; Molière, The Misanthrope, Tartuffe; Lessing, Minna von Barnheim; Hauptmann, The Beaver's Coat; Schnitzler, Anatol; Molnar, The Play's the Thing; Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest; Pinero, The Magistrate, Coward, Private Lives and Shaw, Pygmalion. (Graf)

Section: 007 How to Read Poems. Fairly close reading of a wide variety of poems in English from Chaucer to the present. The kinds will include dramatic monologues, lyrics narratives, satires, ballads, philosophical and religious poems. There will be possibilities for detailed study of medieval and Renaissance poetry for those interested in that period, while others may concentrate on more modern works. Discussion, even argument, among members of the seminar and between students and teacher will be encouraged. For the first half of the semester weekly one-page explications of a poem will be required in writing; at the end, each student will hand in a term-project in lieu of a final examination. The text will be The Norton Anthology of Poetry: Revised Shorter Edition. (Huntley)

|Section 008 - Introduction to Japan. This seminar will explore the many facets of Japanese civilization from its rich literary and artistic traditions to its phenomenal economic success, from its remote classical origins to the disaster of World War II. It will also look at Japanese society today and will examine the interrelation of the many threads in the tapestry of Japanese culture: religion, philosophy, politics, art, music, taste, values, concepts of self and society. It will go beyond the usual myths about Japan foremost of which is the cliché that Japan is essentially a nation of borrowers and will explore what is surely one of the most dynamic, extraordinary, and colorful of civilizations. Readings will be drawn from a wide spectrum of sources in both the humanities and social sciences, but there will be a special emphasis on literature, including portions of The Tale of the Genji (the eleventh-century amatory tale that is also the world's first psychological novel) and the work of Japan's Nobel laureate Kawabata Yasunari. (Danly)

Section 009 - Good and Evil in Buddhist Perspective. Buddhism is often seen as a spiritual discipline that liberates from social convention and rigid morality. However, traditional Asian Buddhism had a penchant for rules and strict discipline that is in need of explanation. This course focuses on concepts of right and wrong, restraint and unrestraint, good and evil in Buddhist doctrine and practice. At the factual level this is a brief survey of types of Buddhist models for human conduct rules of restraint, rules and models for positive or altruistic action, ideals of perfection. These paradigms are studies in the context of the "higher" doctrines of liberation and conduct "beyond good and evil", as well as within the context of more popular mythologies of reward (paradises), punishment (purgatories), and transcendence. The course also looks briefly at ritual practices and disciplines of self-perfection, and other common Buddhist practices of ethical significance. Lastly, traditional Buddhist rational approaches to human behavior are examined in order to raise various issues regarding ethical paradoxes or contradictions. At the methodological level the course considers the difficulties inherent in any effort at a comparative study of human values. We will examine several problems tacitly recognized by the tradition the paradox of desirelessness, the dilemma of a motivation for selfless love, and the problems of suffering. Students will be required to write two short papers (10-15 pps. each) on the basis of a list of themes for library research. Each student will make an oral presentation on one of these projects. Approximately one fourth of class time will be devoted to these presentations. The rest of the class meetings will be used for the discussion of selected passages from the sacred literature of Buddhism from India and China. There will also be four, very brief quizzes to insure study of factual material that must be mastered before engaging in interpretation. (Gomez)

Section 010 - The Selection and Cultivation of Identities. The seminar will address questions about our identity: Who are we? Who do we want to be, who should we want to be, and in what sense have we just used the auxiliary verb "should"? To provide a broad basis for our discourse, we shall examine the theorem of Pythagoras and its effect on our intellectual orientation, read Old-Testament tales that Sunday schools consider unfit for the ears of the innocent, seek understanding in a Shakespearean play, and study a topic of current scientific interest. Participants may suggest additional projects. Because a strong sense of language is necessary for effective thought and communication, we shall write several essays. Each student will need a copy of The Elements of Style, by William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White. (Piranian)

Section 011 - Imagination: "Participating in the Great I Am. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's phrase does not define a term so much as it requires us to conceive of the imagination as an action involving moral obligation, religious fervor, and perhaps a dangerous Promethean aspiration to steal some of God's fire for human use. In our study we shall keep Coleridge's perception in mind while we examine other statements given us by such remarkable creators as Mozart, Jung, Freud, and Einstein. We shall also read and talk about some modern poems along with short stories. And we will try writing a few poems and a story or two in addition to the four short essays required for this course. Field trips to several University museum and, weather permitting, the Arboretum and one cemetery. (Squires)

151. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (SS).May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Learning to Write for Newspapers and Magazines.
This is a writing course designed to give students practice in the preparation of news and feature stories. Student work will be discussed in the seminar sessions and in individual conferences with the instructor. Subject matter for the written material will be drawn from the arts and sciences activities on campus. Requirements: One piece of writing each week plus a longer term paper due the last week of the Fall term. (Field).

Section 002 From Peasant to Proletarian: Studies in the Impact of Industrial Capitalism on the Lives of Ordinary (and some Extraordinary) European People. The past 300 years have witnessed radical changes in the way Western people live, think, play and work. Western society has been transformed as novel political and economic arrangements have flowed from and compelled changes in technologies, class structures, and individual values. Our modern world did not just happen it was made, for good or ill. We shall try to find out how and why. The technical goal of this course is to teach students to think, write and speak logically and coherently and to sharpen existing skills. Accordingly, we will stress reading, writing, and in-class discussion. Several short essays will be required and there will be one or two longer statements on a specific subject (or subjects) germane to the course material and chosen in consultation with the instructor. There will be no exams unless, of course, public opinion demands them. Readings, both novels and monographs, will include: Laslett, World We Have Lost; Hammond and Hammond, Village Laborer; Thompson, Making of the English Working Class; Zola, Germinal; Marx, Communist Manifesto; Orwell, Road to Wigan Pier; Wylie, Village in the Vaucluse and Schoenbaum, Hitler's Social Revolution. (Peiter)

Section 003 The Year Two Thousand. We will consider what can be called the Age of Turbulence rapid, headlong change and the forces which have created and influenced the vast transformations which are taking place. This has been called the Age of Multiple Revolutions and we shall refer to the following dramatic developments The Research Revolution, Technological Change, the Skills Revolution, Civil Rights, the Women's Movement, the Revolution in Energy, Communications, Ecology, the Population Explosion, and the Revolution in Attitudes. We shall also explore the impact which these developments have had upon the economy, the educational system, leisure, and labor-management relations. Students will be required to become acquainted with the current literature in these areas and to prepare several short papers. (Haber)

152. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (NS).May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Chemistry and Society: Mutual Interaction.
The seminar will examine the development and practice of chemistry and chemical technology as a reflection of scientific response to social needs, pressures and concepts, as well as to how the utilization of chemistry influences our day to day lives, e.g., in respect to the problems faced by society as a result of scientific and technological developments, and, more importantly, as a consequence of the misuse of these developments. Discussion topics will include the scientific method and serendipity, motivations for pure and applied research, the assessment and evaluation of risk and the decision as to safety (with particular reference to energy sources, genetic engineering, and ecology and the environment), the origins of chemistry including the scientific basis for alchemy and the atomic theory, humanistic aspects of the study of chemistry, and the influence of chemistry on literature as exemplified by the depiction of scientific phenomena and scientists and the use of scientific concepts and theories in plot motivation. Background reading material and lists of suggested discussion topics will be furnished. Students will be encouraged to discuss and write on subjects of particular interest to them, which are relevant to the general areas covered by the Seminar. (Elving)

|Section 002 Biographies of Some Notable Scientists or Quasi-Scientists. Carolus Linnaeus, Gregor Johann Mendel, Charles Robert Darwin, Louis Pasteur, Marie Curie, Sigmund Freud, and Margaret Mead. (K. Jones)

330. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Junior or senior standing. (3). (Excl).

History and development of nuclear weapons, potential consequences of nuclear war, the strategic arms race, deterrence theory, dangers of proliferation, prospects for arms control. Format: three weekly meetings, lecture, film, and small discussion groups. Primary references include: Office of Technology Assessment, The Effects of Nuclear War; Ground Zero, Nuclear War - What's in it for You? and What About the Russians and Nuclear War; Harvard Study Group, Living with Nuclear Weapons, and selected journal articles. There will be occasional guest lecturers. There will be two quizzes plus a term paper. (Einhorn)

Courses in Women's Studies (Division 497)

100(200). Women's Issues. Open to all undergraduates. (2). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This course uses small group discussion and the development of supportive group norms to enable students to explore selected topics in women's studies as they apply to their own lives and to contemporary social issues. The course work includes large and small group activities, theoretical presentations, regularly assigned readings, and written assignments. There is a strong emphasis on developing analytic tools taking a critical stance with respect to one's experience, to social issues, and to the assigned literature. Topics include: socialization, work, family; race, class, ethnicity; relationships; current movements for change.

240/Amer. Cult. 240. Introduction to Women's Studies. Open to all undergraduates. (4). (HU).

Designed as an introduction to the new scholarship on women, Women's Studies 240 acquaints students with the key concepts, theoretical frameworks, and interdisciplinary research on women's status and roles in male-dominated or sexist societies. The course will involve cross-cultural and historical analyses as well as consideration of major issues relevant to contemporary American women. The course will seek to provide the student with an explanatory understanding of women's oppression as well as avenues for change. The course is structured around weekly lectures and readings which provide material for discussion groups. Students are encouraged to participate fully in discussion and assume responsibility for sharing their knowledge and insights. We are concerned with academic as well as personal growth, and we want to explore alternatives for women in contemporary American society. The course grade is based on written assignments, examinations, and participation in discussions. (Stevens)

270(370). Women and the Law. (3). (SS).

"Women and the Law" covers selected topics in American constitutional and statutory law which have a special effect on women. The course begins with an historical overview of the struggle for women's legal rights in the 19th century. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, especially the Equal Protection Clause, has become crucial to many current sex discrimination cases, and thus is discussed in some detail. Other legal issues such as family law, rape, spouse assault, employment discrimination, pregnancy discrimination, sexual harassment, and affirmative action are also discussed from a legal standpoint. Required: midterm and final examinations, paper, and class participation in discussion. Strongly recommended: introductory government course. (Benjamin)

315/English 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

See English 315. (Landry)

320. Seminar in Group Process and Gender. Women's Studies 100, 240, another Women's Studies course, and permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the fundamentals of group process and facilitation skills. Its purpose is to train students to facilitate small discussion groups on women's issues (Women's Studies 100). Enrollment in the course is determined by an interview procedure held during the previous term and by permission of the instructor. Facilitators enrolled in this course must attend a group skills seminar every week. For more information contact the Women's Studies program. (763-2047).

341. Gender and the Individual: Transmission and Function of Sex/Gender Systems. Women's Studies 240 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

In Fall Term, 1984, this course is jointly offered with Psychology 458. See Psychology 458 for description. (Eccles)

343. Gender Consciousness and Social Change. Women's Studies 240 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

In Fall Term, 1984, this course is jointly offered with R.C. Social Science 360. See RC Social Science 360 for description. (Harding)

350. Women and the Community. Women's Studies 240 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL).

The goal of Women's Studies 350 is to combine community work experience with an academic analysis of women's status and experience in organizations. Students can choose from 15 to 20 internships in areas such as health care and reproduction, counseling, law reform, government, advocacy, education, day care, media and communications, and women in the labor force. In addition to five hours at their placement, students attend a two-hour class session weekly. The weekly seminar/discussion covers topics such as voluntarism, women's community activities, sexism in the workplace, violence against women, feminist social reforms, organizational structures and processes, and power. Readings are pertinent to the class topics and internships. Students keep an analytic journal of their internship experiences and course material and will complete three or four short assignments. Class meetings will include lecture and class discussion of readings and internship experiences. (Reskin).

354/Rel. 354. Women and Religion. (3). (HU).

See Religion 354. (Frymer-Kensky)

371/History 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

See History 371.

423/Economics 423. The Economic Status of Women. Econ. 201 and 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 423. (Freedman)

430/Amer. Cult. 430. Theories of Feminism. Any of Women's Studies 341-345; or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

In this course on feminist theory we will read and discuss a selection of the most important studies of the nature and causes of, and the solutions to, women's oppression. Authors read will include Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Engels, Virginia Woolf, Simone de Beauvoir, Shulamith Firestone, Mary Daly, and articles from the contemporary women's movement (Adrienne Rich, Gayle Rubin, Nancy Chodorow). This course is required for Women's Studies concentrators but open to other students who have completed Women's Studies 240 and one other 340-level Women's Studies course. There will be several papers required. Seminar format: enrollment limited to 20 students. (Howard)

441. Honors Research Tutorial. Women's Studies 240, junior Women's Studies concentrators. (1). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

This a tutorial course in which the student writes a thesis. It is open only to Women's Studies Honors concentrators.

447/Sociology 447. Gender Roles and Status. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 447. (K. Mason)

Military Officer Education Program

Air Force Officer Education Courses (Division 896)

101. The U.S. Air Force Today I. (1).

Examines the growth and development of the United States Air Force; covers Presidential, Secretary of Defense and JCS roles in the defense posture, and the national and U.S. military strategic concepts; studies the Air Force contribution to strategic offensive and defensive and General Purpose Forces and Air Force supporting forces. Compares the dynamics and interaction of all U.S. military forces in the General Purpose role and their cooperative efforts in the national security posture. The course entails a midterm and final examination. (Col. Shellenberger)

201. U.S. Aviation History and its Development into Air Power I. (1).

The central themes of the development of aviation from the Montgolfier's balloon to the air armadas of World War II are outlined. Primary emphasis is placed on the roles of technology, economics and military necessity in the evolution of aviation equipment, doctrine and strategy. Texts are provided. The class format is informal lecture. Grades are based on two examinations, oral and written presentations, and performance in a Leadership Laboratory designed to give students an opportunity to practice and apply military doctrine. (Capt. Hill)

310. Concepts of Leadership. (3).

Approximately one-third of the course is devoted to developing both the written and oral communication skills so essential to effective leadership. Communication theory is combined with practical classroom experience. The concepts, principles, and techniques of leadership and human relations are presented within the framework of behavioral theories. Individual behavior, motivation, and group dynamics are discussed. The interaction of the leader, group, and situation as dynamic factors in an organizational environment is investigated. This course is planned as a seminar. Grades are based on an oral presentation, a term paper, a midterm, and final examination. (Capt. Harvey)

410. National Security Forces in Contemporary American Society. (3).

Focuses on the Armed Forces as an integral element of society. Provides examination of a broad range of American civil-military relations, and the environmental context in which defense policy is formulated. Special themes include: societal attitudes toward the military; the role of the professional military leader-manager in a democratic society; the fundamental values and socialization processes associated with the Armed Services; the requisites for maintaining adequate national security forces; policy, economic, and social constraints on the national defense structure; the impact of technological and international developments on strategic preparedness; the manifold variables involved in the formulation and implementation of national security policy. The course will be both in a seminar and lecture format. There will be a term paper and midterm and final exams. (Capt. Goller)

Military Science Courses (Division 897)

101. U.S. Army Today. (1).

This course is designed to give the student a general overview of the U.S. Army. The course explores topics such as: customs and traditions of the service, role of the Active Army, Reserves and National Guard, branches of the Army, role of the commissioned and noncommissioned officer, organization of the Army, command and staff functions and personnel management. The 90 minute laboratory which concentrates on development of practical skills includes instruction in rappelling, orienteering, self defense, first aid, rifle and pistol marksmanship, drill and ceremonies and leadership. (Capt. Stagner)

201. Leadership and Management. (1).

The course will include discussion of at least three leadership models, focusing on currently accepted leadership theory both in and outside of the military. It will also include a discussion of current management theory, and how leadership and management interact in the achievement of organizational goals. The student who registers for the course should also register for the 90-minute military skills laboratory which is conducted once weekly. This laboratory is designed to introduce the student to the basic military skills required by the soldier.

301. Effective Communication. Permission of chairman. (2).

This course is designed to improve the student's written and verbal communication skills. Topics discussed will be military correspondence, after action reports, conduct of military briefings, planning and conduct of meeting and drafting of information/decision papers. Students will participate in practical exercises involving verbal and written communication skills. The 90 minute laboratory which concentrates on development of practical skills, includes instruction in rappelling, orienteering, self defense, first aid, rifle and pistol marksmanship, drill and ceremonies and leadership. (Major Herzog)

401. Ethics, Professionalism, and Military Justice. (2).

This course will focus on a discussion of current issues in military ethics, and on those elements identified as indigenous to the military as a profession. It will also concern itself with a presentation and discussion of the basic aspects of military justice and its application. The student who registers for this course should also register for the 90-minute military skills laboratory which is conducted once weekly. This laboratory is designed to introduce the student to the basic military skills required of the soldier.

Navy Officer Education Program Courses (Division 898)

101. Introduction to Naval Science. (2).

An introductory look at the organizational structure of the naval service. Attention is concentrated on leadership and management principles as they apply to the naval service and the shipboard organization. Additional subjects to be covered are military justice, navy policies and procedures and, human resources programs in the Navy. The course is a combination of lecture and class discussion. Grades are based on two hourly examinations.

201. Seapower and Maritime Affairs Seminar. (3).

A survey of the U.S. naval history from the American Revolution to the present with emphasis on major developments. Included is an in-depth discussion of the geopolitical theory of Mahan. The course also treats present day concerns in seapower and maritime affairs including the economic and political issues of merchant marine commerce, the law of the sea, the Russian navy and merchant marine, and a comparison of U.S. and Soviet naval strategies.

301/Astro. 261. Navigation. (3).

The purpose of this course is to educate students in all aspects of marine navigation, from getting a vessel underway from port through open ocean navigation using both celestial and electronic means. The content of the course is divided into three major areas. The first section focuses on piloting, emphasizing the safe navigation of vessels in coastal waters. This section provides an introduction to navigational instruments and aids to navigation. The second section concerns celestial navigation, the ability to determine position through observation of celestial bodies. Students learn how to determine position based on the use of the sextant and various almanacs and mathematical tables. The third section of the course considers electronic navigation and the maritime law covering the movement of sail and power-driven vessels. The course consists of two ninety-minute lectures a week. Grading is done on the basis of homework, quizzes, and examinations. The primary textbooks for the course are Marine Navigation I and Marine Navigation II by Richard R. Hobbs. (Lt. Costello)

305. Evolution of Warfare. (3).

Introduction to the history, development and innovations in warfare. The student will acquire a general background and insight into the effect that society and technology has had on the evolution of warfare. There will be a critical analysis of the changes in warfare, the changes in the views on war, and the thoughts and actions of military leaders and writers. Student grades will be based on two written examinations and one paper. (Capt. O'Leary)

401. Leadership and Management I. (2).

The theme of this course is the officer-manager as an organizational decision maker and leader. The focus is on the human side of complex organizations while recognizing that there are technical and behavioral factors present in virtually all managerial situations. The course is designed to lay the theoretical basis for the more program oriented course in Leadership and Management II. A civilian management text is used. The instruction format is lecture/discussion. Students are graded on midterm and final examinations supplemented by quizzes, papers, and class participation. (Lt. Ehresman)

410. Amphibious Warfare. (3).

Exploration of the history, development, and techniques of amphibious operations to enable the student to acquire a general background in amphibious operations and explore the doctrinal origins and evolution of amphibious operations. (Capt. O'Leary)


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