Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Primarily for freshmen and sophomores, this course serves as an introduction to anthropology as a natural science. No special background is required. The guiding theme of the course is the study of human evolution with emphasis on the mechanisms of evolutionary change and their application to the interpretation of modern human variation and to the reconstruction of human and prehuman evolutionary history. The format of the course is three weekly lectures and one weekly discussion section, which will serve as a question and answer session. The required text is Weiss and Mann, Human Biology and Behavior. The course grade will be based on three hour exams given at approximately equal intervals throughout the course. (Brainard)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures and readings, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecological shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology, and the changes in physical form that are the consequences of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. Class participation and discussion are emphasized. The examinations are midterm and final. (Wolpoff)

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order and its major divisions, and provide detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior, aggression and competition, and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, but it also serves as an introduction to 369, Primate Social Relationships. Two lecture hours, one film, and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. Required readings are Chalmers, Social Behaviour in Primates, and a course pack. (Wrangham and Smuts)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

466. Fossil Evidence and Evolutionary Theory. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course attempts to apply evolutionary theory to the specifics of human evolution. Both the fossil evidence and that derived from the study of man's closest living relatives will be considered in reconstructing the ecological adaptations that the human species has made in the past. The course grade is based on a midterm and non-cumulative final examination. (Livingstone)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This lecture course will survey the major features of the human reproductive process using a combination of demographic, biometrical and physiological approaches. Emphasis will be placed on accounting for the range of variation in natural fertility in the human species as a whole, and on assessing the relative roles of physiological, behavioral and environmental factors in controlling reproductive output. The evolution of human reproductive patterns will also be discussed. Special attention will be given to the design and implementation of field research in reproductive ecology by anthropologists. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one examination and a term paper. (Brainard and Wood)

471. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student and which is not the subject of other departmental course offerings. Students must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The course is addressed at evaluating the physiological responses and adaptations that enable humans to survive environmental extremes such as those found under stressful conditions of heat, cold, solar radiation, high altitude, undernutrition, overnutrition associated with modern western diets, and air pollution. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental stress, the discussion of major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory studies with humans and experimental animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development and their implications for understanding the origins of population differences in biological traits. Student evaluation includes three tests, a final exam, and a term paper. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. (Frisancho)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology - Regional Courses, Ethnology Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles that unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American "pop" culture; counter arguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, civilized, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lectures; a text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Three hourly exams. No final. No papers. (Kottak)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two to three take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (O'Shea)

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction specifically to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged for graduate students. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construe "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" (including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics). There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic data; 2) how to read ethnographic reports critically; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve their writing techniques. Grades will be based on seven short papers (six pp. each). (Carroll)

Ethnology Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (3). (SS).

The course provides an introduction to Native North American peoples and involves a detailed discussion of several typical cultures and culture areas, with a special emphasis on modes of subsistence, social and economic organization, and religion. By focusing on native world views, an attempt is also made to gain a better understanding of the Native Americans' own perceptions of and attitudes towards their lives. The course deals primarily with the more "traditional" native cultures prior to the spread of Western domination. Nevertheless, several major post-contact cultural developments, aspects of Indian-White relations, and contemporary problems (including those of Michigan Indians) are touched upon. Required reading includes several short ethnographic studies, a biography of a Native American man or woman, and a few articles from a course pack. Student evaluation is based on three essay-type exams (some of them take-home). One of the exams can be substituted by a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor. While lectures are the major method of instruction, discussion, films, and demonstration of artifacts from the Museum of Anthropology play an important role in this course (Kan)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (SS).

The course covers traditional and contemporary China, with an emphasis on the peasant sector. The focus is on continuity and change in Chinese society. The first part of the course discusses the social, economic, and political organization of late traditional China; ecological variations including some of China's "national minorities"; folk-religion interpretations of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism; popular arts; and the causes and forms of early peasant rebellions. The second part deals with peasant participation in the socialist revolution, the reorganization of society since 1949, and with contemporary aspects of community life, peasant economy, family, social stratification and social thought in the Peoples Republic of China and also Taiwan. This is a lecture course, open to students with junior standing or higher, and to sophomores with permission of instructor. The readings are drawn mainly from the ethnological/cultural anthropology literature on China, with some selections from sociology, social history, rural economics and Chinese fiction. There is a midterm and a final essay examination. Undergraduates write two short book-reviews; graduate students write a research paper on a topic of their choice. (Diamond)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religious organizations; race, class, and education; Caribbean migration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films on the Caribbean will be shown. Course requirements: four three to five page typewritten papers which ask students to synthesize reading and lecture materials. (Owusu)

417. Indians of Mexico and Guatemala. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

We will survey the literature which deals with the Indian groups that occupy Mesoamerica; these include the Nahua (Aztec), Tarahumara, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Tarascan, Totonac, Otomi, and other Indian populations. Emphasis will be on the aboriginal adaptations and culture, rather than on the colonial or modern peasants. Topics will include religion, ideology, social and political organization, subsistence, and settlement patterns. This is a lecture course requiring a take-home midterm and a final paper; these two assignments will constitute the grade in the course. Anthropology 101 or another anthropology course is a prerequisite; others interested may seek permission of instructor if they have not had any anthropology course. (Marcus)

423. Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course covers the culture area of Western Melanesia with a particular emphasis on New Guinea a large island which contains 1000 distinct cultural groups. Many of these have been brought into contact with western civilization only within the past 15 years, and the area therefore offers unique opportunities for the study of tribal society in a relatively pristine condition and has served as a focus of much of recent anthropological research. The course provides general coverage of the social, political, and economic organization of 4 major sub-areas of western Melanesia and explores a number of additional topics of current research interest, viz. male-female hostility and the definition of sex roles, witchcraft, warfare, economic networks, Big Man system of leadership, and millenarian movements. Lecture format; evaluation is based on term paper and take home exam. (Kelly)

503 Japanese Society and Culture. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

Please contact the Department of Anthropology (1054 LS&A Building) or POINT 10 (764-6810) after late April for information about course content and requirements.

509. Ethnology of the Near East and North Africa. Anthro. 409, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of the anthropological literature on the Near East and North Africa, with particular attention being paid to intra-regional variations in the major cultural traditions, and the interplay of these with minority ethnic identities and groups. In addition, the principal theoretical problems that have emerged from anthropological research in the area particularly among towns-people, peasants and tribal pastoralists are reviewed and their significance considered. It is a lecture course with considerable classroom discussion and may involve a midterm and a final examination, for either of which a short research paper may be substituted. Readings are assigned in a number of monographs and collections of articles, a range of choice being provided to permit the individual student to emphasize a particular regional or topical interest.

Ethnology Topical Courses

327. Introduction to Ethnology. Anthro. 101; recommended for concentrators in anthropology. (3). (SS).

This is essentially a "great books" course. Students read six or seven classic ethnographies and write four short comparative essays on them. (The latter provide the basis of student evaluation.) The ethnographies are selected so as to display some of the main trends in the theoretical development of anthropology. These trends are evident in successive author's interpretations of the same cultural phenomena, e.g. magic, ritual, economic organization, etc. About half the class meetings are devoted to lecture and half to discussion. This course is particularly well suited to anthropology concentrators and those with a high degree of interest in anthropology. It assumes the background acquired in Anthropology 101. Students who have not taken 101 but have some background derived from other anthropology courses may elect 327 by permission of instructor. (Kelly)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Social and human implications of technological change. Analysis and discussion of changes in family life, government and law, economy and religion under the influence of western technology. Case studies from Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa. Course requirements: two 4-5 typewritten page reviews, plus a term or research paper. Seminar format. (Owusu)

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second semester of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first semester of their senior year. Interested students should consult Prof. Carroll, the Departmental Honors Adviser. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors program. (Carroll)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course sequence is divided into two parts. During the first term, students meet together once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. These sessions provide background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors adviser may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis adviser. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

449. Metaphor Enacted: Magic, Healing and Ritual Transformations. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course will be a detailed study of the structure and function of magic, healing and ritual and the roles these play in human society as devices of transformation. We will start from the premise that metaphor and metonymy are two complementary processes whose powers to transform are employed differently by each of the three. The core of the course will be ethnographic data, both classic (e.g., Evans-Pritchard, Kluckhon, and Junod) and recent (e.g., the instructor's), which would be selected both for its wealth of detail and its geographic spread. Theoretical works will form the illuminating complement to the data and, in keeping with the concept of enacted metaphor, will include such philosophers and literary writers as Max Black, Kenneth Burke, and Wittgenstein; as well as authors such as Arnheim, Fraser, V. Turner, de Heusch, and Levi-Strauss. Classes will be combinations of lectures and discussion by students, who will be expected to have completed the relevant readings prior to each class. Ideas or points to be considered while reading will be suggested by the instructor, to assist students in their work. Evaluation will be made on the basis of a short paper, a midterm exam, and a take-home final exam. Students wishing to do so may substitute a longer research paper for the final exam. Its topic and form must be approved by the instructor, and the student is expected to keep in close touch with the instructor throughout the term. (Roberts)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Culture of Terror and Resistance.
This course begins with the proposition that there are special and systematic features to torture and terror which make them not merely subjects for social and cultural analysis but also and therefore a little easier to fight against. In using texts mainly from South and Central America, works on dictatorship, torture, and death squads, testimonies from Guatemala and El Salvador, together with my own work on terror in the Putumayo rubber boom and on shamanic healing, I want to suggest ways by which terror is composed, functions, and can be blunted. Some very basic issues in social and historical inquiry shall of necessity be worked through, and in a sense the course is also a study in methods of social analysis, utilizing, in my own way, theories of Walter Benjamin, Michel Foucault, Mikail Bakhtin, Bertolt Brecht, Raymond Williams, and Sheila Rowbotham. Dialogue, not monologue, is essential for the teaching. (Taussig)

Section 002 Anthropology of Death and Dying. Death is a universal human experience, yet the attitudes and responses towards it develop out of a complex interplay between individuals and their socio-cultural environment. Using anthropological works (e.g., The Death Rituals of Rural Greece by L. Danforth; A Death in the Sanchez Family by O. Lewis), novels (e.g., The Death of Ivan Illych by L. Tolstoi) and films, the course explores the meaning of death in several Western and non-Western cultures and religious traditions. Particular attention is paid to understanding native ideas about the person, the life-cycle, and the afterlife; as well as interpreting mortuary rituals and the experience of the dying and the survivors. The course also offers an anthropological perspective on the development, since the nineteenth century, of the characteristic American mode of dealing with death and dying, including such controversial issues as suicide and euthanasia. Recommended prerequisites: sophomore standing or permission of instructor. Student evaluation is based on two take-home exams and a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor. Method of instruction combines lectures and discussion. (Kan)

Section 003 Problems in Near Eastern Ethnology. The Near East is an important region where ideological allegiance and conflicts are deeply intertwined with political and economic relations. It is thus an arena in which we can evaluate new developments in anthropological theories.

Section 004 Problems in Japanese Ethnology. Please contact the Department of Anthropology (1054 LS&A Building) or POINT 10 (764-6810) after late April for information about course content and requirements.

528. History of Anthropological Thought. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an intensive analysis of critical problems in social anthropological interpretation within both a contemporary and an historical context. The course begins with a discussion of theoretical problems. This is followed by a detailed analysis of how these problems are crucial in an analysis of the works of many pre-1945 theoreticians such as Marx, Morgan, Durkheim, Weber, Boas and Kroeber, Benedict and Mead, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown. Class format is a combination of lecture and discussion, and course requirements include the reading of critical works by the theoreticians mentioned above and a final examination which is given as a take-home examination. (Yengoyan)


472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

This course explores the relationship between language and culture as a set of mutually reinforcing constraints which form different types of coherence systems. Language is dealt with both as a set of grammatical forces as well as semantic imperatives which must be related to culture as a system of social principles, as webs of meaning, and as a framework of knowledge and philosophy. The realm of thought is analyzed as a human condition which produces creative and constrictive conditions on language and culture. A few short paperback volumes are required in addition to articles placed on undergraduate reserves. Course requirements are a midterm and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

475/Ling 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Hill)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 442.

576/Ling. 510. Introduction to Anthropological Linguistics. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course serves as an introduction to language and linguistics for anthropologists. It provides the basic tools necessary for discussing and working with linguistic systems and introduces theoretical models both as tools for working with data and as models of cultural activity. The nature of language as a sign activity, the status of linguistic representations, and semiotic and biological bases of linguistic universals are explored (Mannheim)


387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).

The course will trace the development of North American Indian cultures north of Mexico from the first entry of big game hunters into the New World 10,000 to 15,000 years ago through the origins of agriculture and the appearance of the first sedentary farming villages to the emergence shortly before European contact of complex socially stratified political systems. The course will focus especially on the Eastern U.S. and the American Southwest. Emphasis will be given to the importance of the prehistoric record for understanding Native American cultures at the time of contact, and the value of historic and ethnographic descriptions for understanding the past. Three hourly exams and final; lecture format. (Speth)

483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course surveys the archeology of Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Turkey, Iraq and Iran from the Lower Paleolithic to the beginnings of Sumerian civilization. It emphasizes the most salient cultural developments within this region and demonstrates how civilization evolved from hunting and gathering economies, through plant and animal domestication, the first permanent settlements, and finally urbanization. (Flannery)

494. Introduction to Analytical Methods in Archaeology. One course in statistics or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the application of analytical techniques in archaeology and to provide an understanding of the role of numerical analysis in archaeological research. Course coverage will range from the most basic use of numbers in data presentation to the consideration of a variety of more complex techniques which have been developed specifically to cope with the unique character of archaeological research. The course will be organized around sets of lectures and class exercises, and a basic familiarity with archaeological research and common statistical methods will be assumed. Students will require a good hand calculator for regular class use. Readings for the course will be drawn from a variety of sources, and as such no core text will be assigned. Evaluation of student performance will be based on a series of assigned projects designed to highlight the student's control over the subject matter of the course. (O'Shea)

581. Archaeology I. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The first part of this course is devoted to developing models of the operation and evolution of hunter-gatherer cultural systems and to discussing the ways in which these systems may be studied from the archaeological record. The second half of the course consists of a review of the archaeological evidence for the evolution of these cultural systems from their earliest appearance until the beginnings of sedentary, agricultural communities. Most emphasis is given to materials from Africa and Europe with brief attention paid to Asia and the New World. Lecture course. Evaluation based on paper and examinations. (Speth)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term, 497 in the Winter Term. Content of both courses is the same unless a student has already had either course. If so, then the student works on exhibitions with anthropological themes. These courses are intended to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with this introduction, individual instruction is offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of collections of material culture. There will be one hour of lecture per week, with the remaining time being devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants working in the museum laboratories. For each credit elected, three hours of participation are required. Thus for one credit there will be one hour of lecture and two of applied museum work; for two credits, one hour of lecture and four of work; for three credits, two hours of lecture and six of work. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on lectures, requirements, and directed work. Emphasis is on the nature of museum work as a career within a research framework as well as on a general understanding of how anthropological museums are organized and exhibits originate. (Ford)

499. Undergraduate Reading and Research in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. A maximum of 3 credits of independent reading may be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 hours credit.

This course features individually supervised reading and research in a topic of special interest to the student. Students must consult with and must obtain permission from a member of the departmental faculty before electing this course. Students should not expect to receive credit for reading in topics that are regularly covered in other departmental course offerings. Ordinarily, members of the departmental faculty agree to supervise a reading course only when the topic is of special interest to them.

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