Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (3). (HU).

This course offers a broad, humanistic examination of the numerous elements which make up the Near East. Students will be introduced to the people, cultures, historical background, and economic and political problems of the area. The course emphasizes the period from the rise of Islam to modern times and shows how Europeans and N.E. populations through a series of encounters and confrontations have learned from and influenced each other. The course has no prerequisites. While intended for the general student body, it will also provide a structural framework for beginning students in N.E. Studies by showing the relationship between subject matter presented in more advanced courses. There will be one midterm and a final. Two short term papers (5 pp.), the first on outside readings, the second on accompanying films. The course is based on lectures, guest lecturers, and class discussion. Special "lab" sessions will introduce students to N.E. food and dance. (Kolars)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Freedman)

361. Gods, Men, and History in the Ancient Near East: Evolution and Transformations of Society and Culture in the Lands of the Fertile Crescent. Part I: From the Beginnings to Alexander the Great (ca. 5000-323 B.C.) Sophomore standing. (4). (HU).

This specifically undergraduate course attempts a combination of approaches to Ancient Near Eastern History, one which stresses cultural and intellectual concerns against the backdrop of necessary political history. Beginning with the decipherment of the first writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the study explores the first organizations of human life and activity in recorded history. The course is as much interested in "capturing" the human perspectives of the era (3000-323 B.C.) as in setting in order consecutive events. We shall be looking at politics, religion, substinence issues, literature and world-views of ancient Semitic peoples. The course requires no previous background, and is introductory in nature. It will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion techniques. Grading in the course will be based on two papers of about six pages each, and final examination. Texts will include a collection of paperbacks, such as: S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians; A.L. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia; John Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt; and Frankfort, Wilson, and Jacobson, Before Philosophy. (Orlin)

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

445(345). Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. (Stewart-Robinson)

460. Archaeology of the Historic Near East. (3). (SS).

This course deals with the utilization and production of archaeological evidence having to do with the cultural history of the Syro-Palestinian region of the Near East from the dawn of history ca. 3000 B.C. to the age of the Hellenistic Empires. There will be discussion of both methods and results in the correlation of archaeological evidence with the evidence from the written texts, both traditional (i.e., the Bible) and newly discovered inscriptions. No particular background is necessary for this course which is part of the departmental offerings in the field of Ancient and Biblical Studies. Student evaluation will be on the basis of a midterm and final examinations, plus a paper required only of graduate students. There is no text, but a bibliography of required and recommended readings will be provided. Instruction will be by lecture lavishly illustrated with visual aids (color slides), and class discussion. (Mendenhall)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature, Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. (Schramm)

470/Hist. 440. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500 945. (3). (HU).

This course emphasizes the political and economic background, as well as the main aspects and social trends characterizing the rise and peak of Islamic civilization between the seventh and tenth centuries of C.E. (Ehrenkreutz)

485/Rel. 485. Islam and the Muslims: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is two-fold: to make an in-depth study of some of the distinguished Muslim minds in various fields of intellectual activity; and to make that study serve as an introduction to those fields. The following list should give an idea of the type of scholars to be studied: Hasan al-Basri, Ma'arri, Ghazali, Rumi, Ibn Khaldun, Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Waliullah, and Iqbal. The course will be given mainly in the form of lectures. There will be a short course pack, and, if necessary, one or two books dealing with some of the scholars included. All readings will be in English. The basis of grading will be three 90-minute exams and class preparation and participation. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

489. God and Man in Islamic Thought: Islamic Rationalism and Mysticism. (3). (HU).

This course will survey the main currents of Islamic thought in the first few centuries of Islamic history. The emphasis will fall on what are called the "religious" sciences, but Muslim philosophy and mysticism will be discussed at some length, and Muslim contributions to natural sciences will be touched upon. The course will be given mainly in the form of lectures. The readings (all in English) will consist either of a medium-sized course pack or two or three books. Three 90-minute exams will determine the grade, but class preparation and participation will definitely be taken into consideration. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LS&A Honor's Council. This course should be taken both semesters of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per semester. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors", or with "with Honors", in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (FL).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's Practical Grammar in Classical Hebrew as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes. (Schramm)

308/Greek 308. The Acts of the Apostles. Greek 101 and 102 or the equivalent; and permission of instructor. (2) (HU).

See Greek 308. (Nissen)

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustus (4). (HU).

See Religion 350. (Hoffman)

484/Rel. 489. Introduction to the New Testament. (4). (HU).

An introduction to the historical and critical investigation of the literary artifacts of first and early second century Christianity, this course presupposes no prior acquaintance with the New Testament or religious studies. The focus of the course is on application of the methods of form and redaction criticism as tools for the investigation of the development of the Jesus-tradition and early Christianity. The approach is historical rather than theological; students interested in a more general view of the gospels should elect ABS/REL 280 rather than ABS/REL 484. Text: Throckmorton, Gospel Parellels. Recommended: Hoffman, Jesus: Outside the Gospels. (Hoffmann)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Arabic Phonology and Script by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part One, by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

Arabic 102 is offered Fall 1984 and Winter 1985. This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part Two by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

Arabic 201 covers the material of Arabic 101 and 102 in one term. It is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course starts with A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script by Ernest McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part I by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets six hours per week for six credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. The two main features of Arabic 201 are that it is taught by a native speaker instructor, and that it involves constant oral and written practice. No previous classroom experience in the language is required. (Wahba, Staff)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. Passages in Arabic are translated sometimes with and sometimes without the use of a dictionary. There are also dictionary practice drills which are intended to aid vocabulary acquisition and discussion of specific morphological problems based on extracts taken from Arabic newspapers. This is a semi-intensive course which meets six hours each week. A practical command of spoken modern standard Arabic is emphasized in class work. In order to develop a command of written Arabic, students produce (in Arabic) weekly summaries, commentaries, and composition. Arabic 401 is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for students who expect to learn the language for use in related fields. Weekly quizzes, midterm, and final. (Wahba)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

415. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 402. (3). (Excl).

This course teaches the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar of colloquial educated Arabic as spoken in Jerusalem, Beirut, Damascus and Amman, through oral and pattern practice drill. Towards the end of the course emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content than the first lessons. For Whom : This course is recommended for students who plan to travel or to work in the Levant and those who need Arabic for immediate oral use. Evaluation and Requirements : Use of language laboratory to reinforce class work and also to do assignments which need to be recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, monthly tests, and the examination. Special Features : The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversations and the listening comprehension selections. In addition, it is taught by a native speaker of the dialect to be taught. Texts: Colloquial Levantine Arabic by Ernest McCarus et. al. (Rammuny)

430(530). Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectual Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). No textbook, but a reading list will be distributed. (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny Advanced Arabic Composition Based on Literary Texts and Audio-Visual Materials, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications, 1980. Also Raji Rammuny Students' Guide, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications 1980. (Rammuny)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills.

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills.

401. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. Intermediate level.

402. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 401. (5). (FL).

Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. Intermediate level.

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Students will continue to read for comprehension in the special genre of newspaper literature. The special terminology of newspaper and radio will be emphasized. Unedited newspaper selections will be read, and regular news broadcasts will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. (Coffin)

501. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Continuing to develop the skills of reading, writing, and speaking modern Hebrew on an advanced level, and introducing the student to modern Hebrew poetry and prose.

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 502 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

Readings in the prose and poetry of major Hebrew authors.

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. Student evaluation is based on examinations-periodic quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The basic text, Modern Persian. Elementary Level, by Windfuhr and Tehranisa, will be used throughout Persian 201 and supplemented by coordinated tapes produced for enrolled students in the language lab. (Luther)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Luther)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course involves the reading and literary analysis of texts from major authors of the classical period (ca. 950-1500) and includes basic skills in reading aloud and the use of the rules of prosody in scansion and interpretation of poetry texts. It will include shorter or longer passages from such writers as Ferdowski, Nezami, Rumi, Sa'di, Hafez, Bayhaqi, Nezamiye Aruzi, and others, according to the interests of the class and instructor. There are midterm and final exams. The texts are in the form of a photocopied course pack. (Luther)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, Turkish for Foreigners (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, Turkish (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' Turkish Grammar (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. (Stewert-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. (Stewart-Robinson)

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