Romance Languages and Literature

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French may elect this course only on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department, and in the sections specified for them. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations and speaking tests. Students with previous French study in high school are not permitted to enroll in sections 001-006.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is not open to students who have begun instruction elsewhere.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the Department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 2-3 years in high school) whose proficiency is not yet sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves with a rapid pace, covering about 60 per cent of the French 101 material by mid semester, and about 60 per cent of the French 102 material by the end of the semester. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 per cent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

121. Elementary: Alternate. Permission of department. (3). (FL).

The alternate sequence French 121/122 covers 65 percent of materials studied in 101/102. Upon completion of 122, students may enroll in the regular 102 course for which they receive 3 (instead of 4) credits. The objectives of the regular and alternate sequences are identical: French 121 covers the first 2/3 of the 101 material, 122 the last 1/3 of 101 and the first 1/3 of 102. Classes meet six times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (60 minutes per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes, written homework to turn in, course-wide midterm and final examinations, and speaking tests. 121 begins during the third week of the term. Enrollment in 121/122 is by special permission only and only those students already enrolled in 101 may be considered as candidates for 121.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 100, 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track.
The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. In addition, French 231 has a speaking test, and 232, an outside reading test, both given toward the end of the term.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).
Regular Track:
see French 231. seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one semester. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the semester students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 is a minicourses for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. The amount of homework is minimal. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities determine the Credit/No Credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).
Section 006.
The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet twice a week in sections varying between ten and sixteen students. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. Also, one weekly lecture on some linguistic problems and cultural aspects of modern France for all sections together, as part of the three hours per week required. (M. Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Course emphasis, however, is on conversation and discussion. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, one novel and one play, simulations, weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (at least one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the semester, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This is a course in ENGLISH to FRENCH translation. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may be occasionally devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts of different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes and a final examination. The course is viewed as a continuation of French 371 with the specific constraints of an English text. (Mermier)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the language of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company: EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, etc. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. There will be occasional translation exercises, and one simulation. Students will write two medium length papers and take a final exam. Course-pack. No auditors. (M. Gabrielli)

453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with French phonology and morphology from a structural point of view. In phonology, English and French vowels, consonants, syllabic structures, and prosodic features are compared. Students learn to describe French sounds accurately, explain causes of pronunciation problems encountered by speakers of American English, transcribe sentences using phonetic symbols, and read phonetic transcriptions of dialogues. In morphology, the evolution of French sounds and words, and the formation of words through compounding and derivational processes constitute the main topics. The course is conducted in French. No previous knowledge of phonetics is necessary. Class time is divided into lectures and travaux pratiques. There are three one-hour tests. (Hagiwara)

456/Rom. Ling. 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course consists of four main components: phonology, morphology, syntax, and psycholinguistics. In each component, discussions of theories are combined with practical problem-solving. Students are introduced to different fields of linguistics, a contrastive study of English and French phonology, a linguistic method of analyzing the French language, problems of teaching pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary, and an evaluation of different teaching methods, techniques, and available materials. The course is conducted in English. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and travaux pratiques. There are midterm and final examinations and a paper. High proficiency of spoken and written French is required. No previous knowledge of linguistics or phonetics is required. (Hagiwara)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. French 387, 388, and 389 are offered Fall Term, 1983. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and to introduce them to the methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Active student participation will be encouraged. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, Le Cid, Molière , Le Tartuffe, Racine, Phedre, Voltaire, Candide, Rousseau, Les Reveries du promeneur solitaire. Grades will be based on a short paper on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French.

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 19th century. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent at the time, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the particular works were produced, and to introduce them to appropriate methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Balzac, Le Pere Goriot, Flaubert, Trois contes, Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal, Zola, Therese Raquin, Maupassant, Yvette . Grades will be based on short papers on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French.

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

French literature in the twentieth century has mirrored the rapid evolution of some very fundamental notions: What is true? What is good? What is human? As the course traces the evolution of French reflection on these ideas, in works of Gide, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, and one or two others, some more recent questions should arise concerning the worth and the role of human language and of literature. Readings and class discussions in French, with an eye to improving student skills in both. Approximately four short, creatively critical papers and a final examination are required. (Nelson)

437/MARC 437/RC Language 437. French Culture and Literature in the Middle Ages with Visual Assistance. French 387, 388, or 389, or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is open to undergraduate and to graduate students. French 438 is recommended (not required). Class discussions will generally be in French; however English may be used at times. English may also be used for oral reports with the permission of the instructor. Written work: Graduate students: a substantial paper, no final exam nor midterm. Undergraduate students: two written examinations, one midterm and one final, no papers. The course examines through readings and visual assistance the interrelationships which can be perceived between literature and the visual aspects of the work (architecture, sculpture, miniature illuminations etc...). The purpose of the course is to arrive at a better understanding of the "Reality" of the Middle Ages, of the spirit of the times (ideals, frustrations, etc...). The course has four parts; each part illustrated by specific readings. I. The Romanesque period. Medieval Faith; the didactic spirit; hagiography; the spirit of adventure; Crusades; Epic. II. From Romanesque to Gothic: The Age of Romance. The Arthurian Model. Celtic material. The Courtly Idelas. The Troubadours; Chrétien de Troyes. Marie de France. Tristan and Iseult. III. From Gothic to Flamboyant Gothic. From the Mort d'Artu to the Renaissance. Change in intellectual and social values. Social tensions. Satire. The impact of money. Readings from the literature of the XIVth and XVth Centuries. IV. Synthesis: Tradition and change. From the Augustinian view to the Renaissance spirit. Taught in French. (Mermier)

442. Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Under this number the department offers a variety of courses taught by various instructors on specific literary topics and themes such as woman in literature; the hero; etc.... The purpose of this course is to offer students less traditional aspects of French literature, enabling them to study across the barrier of genres and of centuries. Reading, writing and speaking are equally emphasized. The course gives the concentrator as well as others an opportunity to strengthen their language skill as well as to refine and exploit their knowledge of literature. Grades based on class work, written and oral. The course is conducted in French.

444. African/Caribbean Literature in French. A literature course in French, and a knowledge of French. (3). (HU). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

The African novel in French is a fairly recent phenomenon: it came into its own only after the Second World War. In this course, we shall try, in lectures and discussions, to trace its development from the beginning and to see what makes it something other than French literature produced by Africans. What are its frames of reference and the nature of its link both to the African oral tradition and the literary tradition of France? How do the writers themselves define their role in the modern African context? The following works will be on our reading list: Laye: L'Enfant noir, Oyono: Le Vieux negre et la medaille, Kane: L'Aventure ambique, Ouologuem: Le Devoir de violence, Kourouma: Les Soleils des independance, Badian: Les Noces sacrees and Mudimbe: Le Bel Immonde. The course will be taught in French and the final grade will be based on oral reports, class participation, two short and one long, final papers. More work will be expected of graduate students. (Ngate)

451. Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Le cours traite de la generation nee vers 1870: Andre Gide ( L'Immoraliste), Paul Valery (Album de vers anciens et Charmes), Marcel Proust (Un amour de Swann ) et Paul Claudel (poemes en prose de Connaissance de l'Est ), ainsi que sur l'oeuvre de Guillaume Apollinaire et Andre Breton (respectivement: Alcools et Calligrammes, et Le manifeste du surrealisme et Signe Ascendant ). Le cours pourrait porter comme titre: <<les heritiers du symbolisme et la tentative de depassement operee par le Surrealisme>>. (Muller)

463. Introduction to French Literature of the Nineteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The 19th century in France (as elsewhere) was a period of industrialization, colonial expansion and the growth of capitalism; it was also a time of intense political conflict, as the country dealt with the aftermath of 1879. Literary production was radically marked by these new social conditions, and contributed both to the emergence of bourgeois culture and to the critiques of that culture. The course will explore the principal-isms of the age (romanticism, realism, modernism) in the light of their social context, concentrating on themes like money, machines, madness and marginalization; the poet as exile and as magus; urbanization as the exemplification of modernity, etc. Classwork will be in French and will mainly take discussion form. Students should expect to read up to 100 pages of French per week, and to submit about 20 pages of writing, in the form of three-four short essays, or alternatively a journal of the course. No midterm; no final. Texts ( for purchase): Coursepack (cntg texts by Balzac, Nerval and Baudelaire); Flaubert, Madame Bovary; Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du Mal; Hugo, Les Contemplations; Verne, Les cinq cents millions de la Begum; Zola, La Bete humaine. (Chambers)

487. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course, conducted in French, will focus on the pre-classical period, on those writers who react against the baroque incursion and who begin to define the direction that 17th century literature will finally take. To this end, attention will be paid to the transitional poets at the beginning of the century (namely, Malherbe, Regnier, Saint-Amant), and, more especially, to the tragedies of Corneille and the comedies of Molière . Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write two papers in French of three or four pages (if undergrad) and to participate in discussion. The final grade will be based on the results of written work and on student participation. There is no final exam. (Gray)

491. Senior Honors Course. Open only to seniors by permission of the departmental Honors Committee. (3). (Excl).

In the Fall Term of 1984, the course will consider the notion of intellectual history; how to write it and document it, its relationship to political history and to the evolution of literature. Readings in French history, as well as studies of exemplary French "Classical", "Romantic", "symbolist", and "modern" texts will exemplify the principles. In addition to developing a course-related term paper, students will begin preparations for the Honors oral examination and will undertake to define their senior thesis topics. Lecture and discussion. Conducted in French. The course is part of the French Honors sequence. Students who elect French 491 are expected to elect French 492 in the following term. (Nelson)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

111. First Special Reading Course. (4). (Excl.).
First Special Reading Course.
Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. All the grammar of the language is covered and extensive reading of critical materials is required. Open to graduates, juniors, seniors: and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LS&A foreign language requirement. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History. (3). (HU).

Through lectures, slides, and films supplemented by readings, this course presents a survey of Italy's cultural achievements in their historical context from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to the present. Students with diverse interests and backgrounds - art history, literature, Italian relatives, music, etc. will be able to pursue specialized topics within the general historical outline. Topics include Renaissance art and literature, music and the rise of opera, the unification and industrialization of modern Italy, with some attention to contemporary cinema and Italian-American history. Required are a ten-page paper, a midterm, and a final examination. The course is taught in English, but students with a background in Italian will have the opportunity of reading some texts in the original. (Marsh)

363. Advanced Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Intended to polish the skill students have acquired through the 101-232 language sequence. The organization of the class is flexible in order to accommodate the varying needs and interests of students in each term. Generally, the material presented will concentrate on the culture and the literature of modern Italy; occasional lessons on grammar review. (Olken)

387. Italian Renaissance Literature. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Readings include selections from Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Castiglione, Ariosto, and Tasso. The class is usually taught in Italian although the instructor is always amenable to discussion in English. Grading is based on brief paper, class discussion, a midterm and a final examination (to be written in English). This course along with Italian 388 is a survey of Italian literature from the Middle Ages to the present. The class welcomes concentrators from other Romance languages as well as students who have traveled in Italy and who wish to learn more about Italian culture. Readings are selected with the aim of providing a very broad picture of the literature of Italy rather than with the aim of studying any single author at length. Since the class enrollment is seldom more than eight, the needs and interests of each student can be given attention. Furthermore, such small enrollment usually contributes to a cordial atmosphere. (Marsh)

419. Italo Calvino: A Writer for All Seasons. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU).

The magaic of Calvino is his prodigious talent as a master teller of tales; realistic, fantastic, set in centuries past or the present, his stories form a pattern of all the possible paths men have taken, and all the destinies that have befallen them. Elusively didactic, yet openly vulnerable, Calvino's characters are involved in all the great deeds and dull minutiae of life, exploring themselves and the world around them. This world as Calvino sees and appraises it, has concern with its style and meaning, will be the central topics of this course. Texts will include his first novel, The Path To The Spiders' Next; the fantasy trilogy: The Cloven Viscount, The Non-Existent Knight, and The Cosmicomics; and selected Neo-Realistic novellas and short stories. Class format will be based on lectures and discussion, and standard written assignments. The language of instruction will be English; the texts may be read in English or Italian. (Olken)

472. Italian Theatre from Alfieri to Pirandello. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Discussions of Pirandello's impact on contemporary theater and his importance as an innovator of the modern stage. Study of his major dramatic works such as Sei personaggi in cerci d'autore and the specifically Pirandellian characteristics of his teatro sul teatro -Technique. Study of his major novels (Il fu Mattia Pascal and his short fiction within the context of his theory of humor. The course is conducted in Italian with discussions and occasional summaries in English. (Budel)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (FL).

Portuguese 101 is an introductory course in the Portuguese language as spoken in Brazil and is designed for beginning language students. The approach is audio-lingual and cognitive with oral and written exercises, weekly examinations. Required text: Ellison et al., Modern Portuguese. (Brakel)

231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Portuguese 231 is designed to enhance and develop students' speaking, reading, writing, and understanding of modern Portuguese. It is the sequel to Portuguese 102 and assumes exposure to the grammatical system of the language. Students will read selected short stories and novels by Brazilian authors, do grammatical exercises, write guided essays and converse in Portuguese. There will be bi-weekly examinations. Texts: Magro and De Paula, Leituras Brasileiras Contemporaneas; Jose Mauro de Vasconcelos, O Meu Pe de Laranja Lima. (Brakel)

301. Luso-Brazilian Culture. Portuguese 222 or equivalent. (3). (FL or HU).

In Portuguese 301, the students and instructor will study the development of the Portuguese language from its origin as a regional dialect of Latin to its present status as a literary vehicle and the national language of Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Mozambique and other countries. Beyond the study of the spread and evolution of that language, the class includes analyses of its phonological and syntactic structures, and it will examine the emergence and evolution of Portuguese verse and literary prose. Students should know Portuguese. Lectures and discussions will be conducted in that language. Students will be required to participate actively and will be graded on their participation as well as on midterm and final examinations. Texts: Paul Teyssier Historia da lingua portuguesa and course pack (available in the Fall). (Brakel)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics, and to attract students to a specialization program. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages: A Linguistic Introduction, and it is supplemented by handouts. (Leonard)

456/French 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See French 456. (Hagiwara)

504/Class. Ling. 504. History of the Latin Language II: 1 600 A.D. Latin 221 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

See Classical Linguistics 504. (Pulgram)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

Section 014: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain that they are highly prepared for Spanish 102 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to be so. Beyond the five hours a week (see schedule) of regular class, another hour (to be scheduled) will be provided for detailed explanations of central concepts, for additional practice, and for reviews. Also, small group tutoring will be arranged according to individual needs.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements. (Dvorak)

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 100, 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on midterm and final exams, other quizzes and written work (including compositions), oral class participation, and an oral/written course project.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).
Section 001.
This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. The course centers around discussion in Spanish of selected Spanish and Spanish-American works of literature. Course grade is based on midterm and final exams, other written work (including compositions) and oral participation in class.

Section 010 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for native speakers of Spanish who have some degree of aural-oral fluency in the language but lack basic reading and writing skills. The class will meet five hours a week.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 100, 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. (Dworkin)

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. The course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 004 Dworkin; Section 005 Casa)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Vaquero)

453. Advanced Syntax. Spanish 361 and 362. (3). (Excl).

This course aims to improve student understanding and mastery of written Spanish through:(a) detailed analysis of specific syntactic problems, such as the tense structure of Spanish, the subjunctive mood, and the pronoun system (b) extensive grammar exercises, (c) vocabulary building exercises and (d) writing and editing compositions. Student grade is based on three major exams, compositions, and class participation (discussion and correction of grammar exercises). Class meets three times a week. (Dvorak)

Literature

331(431). Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

Literature of the 20th century is, perhaps, one of the major contributions of Latin American culture to the world. Names such as Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Angel Asturias and Garcia Marquez). Jorge Luis Borges, if not awarded with such a distinguished honor is, without doubt, the most influential Latin American writer of this century. This course is designed to offer, through a reading and analysis of major works, an understanding of Borges', Asturias', and Garcia Marquez's literary contributions as well as an understanding of significant dimensions (artistic, ideological, historical) of Latin American Culture. Non specific background is required, although familiarity with the literary world would be encouraged. The course is not part of a departmental sequence. It is, though, a course that may help Spanish Concentrators, although not specifically designed for interdepartmental curriculum. The course will combine lectures, discussions and oral presentations or workshops, depending on the number of students enrolled. Evaluations will be based on oral participation and on three written reports. (Mignolo)

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

A study of Spanish literature in the Medieval and Golden Age periods (1000-1700). Students will read several texts of Spanish literature including Poema de Mio Cid, El Abencerraje y la hermosa Jarifa, and Lazarillo de Tormes. The discussions will center around a broad cultural background including moral and political themes as well as formal aspects of the texts. There will be one short report to be given orally in class, two 3-4 page papers in Spanish on the texts, and one final exam consisting of essay questions on readings. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers, exams and class discussion. Methods: lecture/discussion. (Vaquero)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

An introduction to modern Spanish literature, 18th to 20th centuries: Spanish Enlightenment, Romanticism, the rise of the realistic novel, the generation of 1898, the theatre of Garcia Lorca, modern poetry and drama. Authors to be read are: Cadalso, Larra, Perez Galdos, Unamuno, Lorca, Machado, Buero Vallejo. Students are required to write short papers on several of these authors as well as to take a final examination. (Casa)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Spanish 373, titled this semester "Some Versions of Womanhood", is designed first to be an introduction to the study of literature through the analysis of different kinds of writing. The course will consist of novels, plays, stories, and poetry, all of which focus on varied portraits of women. Espronceda, Garcia Gutierrez, and Becquer will show Romantic conceptions of a sublime creature, idealized beyond what any mortal woman could hope to be; of an object of scorn when the male learns the inevitable disillusionment; and the fascinating being of mysterious (and fatal) allure. Two novels of Galdos, La de Bringas and Tristana present a more realistic portrait of women in a bourgeois setting. Unamuno and Garcia Lorca offer twentieth-century conceptions of a dominating female, and in his strange novel, La quinta de Palmyra, Gomez de la Serna shows one woman's pursuit of love. Conducted in Spanish. Papers, hour and final exams. (Hafter)

374. Monographic Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

This course is designed to explore two main orientations in Latin American Literature: (1) the Fantastic, exemplified by such authors as Jorge Luis Borges and Julio Cortazar; and (2) Magical and Marvelous realism, exemplified by such authors as Garcia Marquez, Asturias and Carpentier. Both orientations will be analysed and situated in the context of Latin American Culture and History and in the context of European and North American Literature. Authors such as Edgar Allan Poe, Henry James, Hoffmann, Maupassant and Kafka will be brought into consideration regarding the European and American Context. Regarding Latin American tradition, authors such as Ruben Dario and Holmberg, will be read and commented on in order to illustrate the "birth" of Latin American Fantastic in the context of liberalism and positivism. On the other hand, a strong ideological dimension of Latin American Culture (i.e., the search of "latin american identity", the borders between "indigenous" and "occidental culture") will be called into focus in order to explain the significance of Magical and Marvelous realism. The course will be taught in Spanish. Evaluations will be based on class participation, oral presentations, written exams and final paper. (Mignolo)

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

La Civilizacion de Espana es una muestra interesante de la historia humana: desde las pinturas paleoliticas de Altamira hasta la obra de Picaso, pasando por la presencia de finicios, griegos, romanos y visigodos en la Antiguedad, por la convivencia de cristianos, musulmanes y judios en la Edad Media, por la expansion imperial en la Edad Moderna, y por la reduccion a sus limites actuales en el siglo XIX. Las clases se dictan en espanol y se ilustran con lecturas de textos fundamentales y con proyecccion de transparencias. Los estudiantes realizaran un trabajo de investigacion sobre un tema especifico y examenes parciales a lo largo del curso. (Lopez-Grigera)

381. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Historical Survey of Latin American Literature (19th Century).
Study of the main Spanish American authors of the century in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Andres Bello, Jose Marti, Ruben Dario; Jose Hernandez' Martin Fierro; D.F. Sarmiento, E. Echeverria, M.A. Segura, Florencio Sanchez). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. First course in the sequence 381-382-463. Conducted in Spanish. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) final exam. Reading list: Andres Bello, A la agricultura; Jose Marti, Versos sencillos; Ruben Dario, Azul y Prosas profanas; Jose Hernandez, Martin Fierro; Domingo F. Sarmiento, Facundo; Esteban Echeverria, El matadero; Alberto Blest Gana, Martin Rivas. (Goic)

450. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Special projects in Hispanic studies may be arranged to supplement existing departmental courses, provided the student can obtain permission from an interested professor. Students are discouraged from seeking independent study in semesters when fundamental courses in fields not yet studied are already available during regular class hours. (Goic)

462. Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

A consideration of the major exponents of Spain's Golden Age. Topics to be covered are: the problem of Renaissance in Spain, the influence of Petrarchan poetry, the beginning of the picaresque mode, the fusion of religious and love poetry, the development of the short-story, characteristics of Golden Age drama. Students are required to write papers on three of these topics as well as take a final examination. Topics will be introduced by background lectures. Individual works will be analyzed in class discussions and student presentations. The following authors or works will be read: Garcilaso de la Vega, Alfonso Valdes, Lazarillo de Tormes, Fray Luis de Leon, San Juan de la Cruz, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca. Supplementary readings on other authors complete the course. (Casa)

463. Literatura Hispano-Americana, Siglo XVI a XIX. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The goal of this course is that of exploring some of the most fundamental aspects of the "Description of the Indies" during the 16th and 17th Centuries. Three aspects will be taken into consideration:(a) Seeing and Saying. The impact of the discoveries has generated a conflict between the "eyes" and the "word", between the spectacle presented in front of the eyes of the discoverer and the "limitation" of their own language and world conception to express it, the limitation of communicating to a European audience the characteristics of a new world. (b) Saying and Silence. At the same time that Castilian culture was producing a description of the Indies, the saying of indigenous cultures was reduced to silence. In between saying and silence has emerged a group of illustrated men, sharing both culture and languages, and trying to bridge the gap between the language of the conqueror and the silence of the native. (c) The writing of history and the history of writing. Writing history was not a simple matter. It was believed, at the time, that only cultures with alphabetic writing were able to write history. the "idea" of writing history was strictly tied with the history of writing. In the context of this problematic, the historiographical discourse of the 16th and 17th Century will be examined. This course is addressed to undergraduate (463) as well as graduate students (563). Evaluations will be based on oral presentations, written exams and a final paper. (Mignolo)

485. Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).
Don Quijote
es la obra cumbre de la literatura espanola y una de las mas importantes de la literatura universal. En ella estan presentes tanto los problemas e ideales de la epoca de su autora como los de todos los tiempos. La lectura del Quijote es un ejercicio de la mas alta calidad, reconfortante al mismo tiempo que produce una excepcional emocion estetica. El curso tiene como objeto que el estudiante haga una introduccion a la obra que le permita disfrutar tanto de los mundos ideologicos de la obra como de su grandeza artistica. El espudiante debe leer detenidamente la obra y hacer dos trabajos sobre un tema especifico, establecido de acuerdo con el profesor. (Lopez-Grigera)


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