Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the middle ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. If essays are assigned, they will be short and based on the assigned readings. (Hughes)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. (Price)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 121 for description. (Arnesen)

151/Asian Studies 111. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The usual Jamestown to Jackson, etc., survey, hopefully more alive than the title indicates. Readings and assignments are up to the teaching assistants. Roughly, expect two papers and a final. (Lockridge)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

To what extent did industrialism dominate, even determine, the lives of Americans during the second century of United States history? The lectures will examine this question in regard to the changing nature of the economy, politics, values, foreign policy, social institutions, and racial and ethnic relations as America moved from a basically rural nation to the highly industrialized and organized nation we know today. A textbook will be assigned, but the discussion sections will concentrate on case studies exploring the larger themes of the course; change and continuity in American values, industrial and labor organization, race and ethnic relations, political institutions, and foreign policy. There will be an hour examination, short quizzes, and a final. (Berkhofer)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be substituted for one) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading to avoid repetition.

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "dignity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945 1975. (4). (SS).

The course treats the Vietnam War both as part of an ongoing revolution within Vietnamese society and as the product of Western interventions in that revolution. It will look at the background of Vietnamese nationalism in the period of French colonialism and coalescence of that nationalism with a militant revolutionary movement. The resulting foreign wars, first with France and then with the U.S., will be discussed in the context of post-World War II global tendencies, including movements for national liberation, Western responses to these movements, and American policies for containing communism. Special attention will be given to the manner of U.S. involvement in and extrication from Vietnam. There will be assigned readings from different points of view, three 50-minute lectures and a 50-minute discussion section each week, midterm and final examinations, and an optional paper. (Lieberman)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of Chinese history from the Neolithic Age to the early 1800s, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

280. Comparative Study in History and Culture. (4). (SS).

History 280 and History 350 will meet jointly and have the same two lectures a week. As an upper level course, History 350 will have a slightly longer reading list and an extra reading assignment. The course will deal with the way authority is established, maintained, and repudiated; it will examine political authority in primitive, medieval, and modern states. It will also examine religious authority in young enthusiastic cults and in established religions. Christianity will receive extensive treatment. The course will also treat dogmatic authority both in religious doctrine and the natural sciences. The course has not been given before, and much of it will be organized between now (February 1985), when this blurb is due, and September when it will begin. Thus this prospectus must be somewhat imprecise. There will be roughly 150 pages of reading a week, an hour exam, one or two term papers, and a final. (Fine, J.)

283. Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

287/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the periods of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (R. Suny)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395 for description.

350. Comparative Studies in Historical Cultures I. Permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 180. (4). (SS).

See History 280 for description. (J. Fine)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books, films and discussion sections - -America's wars of the past 85 years, with emphasis on those which have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience in combat as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's pattern of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be little discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. Students are asked to select one of the lecture sections, and to register as well for one of the discussion sections scheduled to meet an additional hour each week. There are no history-course prerequisites for History 366. (Linderman)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History. (4). (SS).

A survey of the history of American women with particular emphasis on social, economic, and intellectual aspects. The course will examine the historical position of women within the family and the society, focusing on such problems as separate spheres, the nature of women's work, the implications of class, the rise of the "lady", changing notions of sexuality, the meaning of education, and feminism. Readings (approximately one book a week) will include historical studies, fiction, social commentary, and anthropological articles. In addition to a midterm and a final, students will write several papers.

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (4). (SS).

This course will briefly sketch the history of the Jews in Eastern and Western Europe during the Middle Ages: their communal structure, Weltanschauung and the relations between the Jews and their gentile neighbors. We will examine the dawn of Enlightenment within the Jewish community in the West and the development of Hasidism in the East. The main emphasis of the course, though, will be a detailed examination of the impact of political emancipation on Western Jewry as well as the fate of Eastern European Jewry under the rule of Imperial Russia. We will try to understand the political, social, economic and demographic conditions in Western and Eastern Europe between 1789 and 1880 which gave rise to the anti-Jewish reactions which developed toward the end of the 19th century. At the same time we will examine the secular, religious and intellectual developments within the Jewish communities including the Science of Judaism, assimilation, Neo-Orthodoxy, Reform, Positive-Historical School, and Hebrew Enlightenment. The formal assignments typically include a midterm and a final examination.

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (4). (SS).

The course deals with the experience of war, mainly in the Western societies (Europe and North America), from the appearance of permanent military forces in the eighteenth century to the present time. It emphasizes certain themes or problems: the relationship of armed forces to the societies they are supposed to defend; the effects of change political, social, economic, and technological on warfare and military policy; the problem of using armed force purposefully, together with the related problem of the unexpected and unintended effects of warfare; and the relationship between military theory and military practice. The approach is comparative, stressing the commonalities of Western military experience during the last three centuries, and also identifying the differences that make the American military experience in certain respects peculiar. The course is not a history of military operations as such, but uses selected military operations in an illustrative way. Monday and Wednesday mornings are lectures; Friday morning is spent on discussion of reading and lectures, and occasionally on graded written exercises. There is a two-hour final examination. Required texts: Michael Howard, War in European History, John Keegan, Face of Battle, Edward M. Earle (ed.), Makers of Modern Stategy, A.J.P. Taylor, History of First World War, Russell Weigley, The American Way of War. (J. Shy)

394. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Peace Movements in Europe, Past and Present.
This course has three major goals: (1) We want to understand why people in Europe formed groups in order to propagate the cause of peace. We shall have to face the problem why people in general tend to agree on the desirability of peace, but only small minorities organize around the issues. (2) We try to understand what the main goals and the main arguments of the peace movements in Europe were. What did they constitute in terms of suggestions, plans, and ideas to further the cause of peace. (3) We will study the proposed actions of these groups. What did they actually do in war to propagate the issues of peace? This course serves as introduction into four major topics of historical peace research. We will concentrate on France, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands, and it would be appreciated, if students were able to read books in one or the other foreign language. We will concentrate on the period between 1850/60 to the present. The course will be a very intensive undertaking which requires a commitment and to read and write beyond the normal ECB requirements. The success of the class will depend entirely on the willingness of students to participate. I suggest as introduction, P. Brock, Pacifism in Europe to 1914 and P. Brock, Twentieth-Century Pacifism. (Geyer)

Section 002 Politics, Power and the Development of the Public Sector. What historical forces have helped to shape the public sector in contemporary America? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists to analyze the development of the public sector at local, state, and national levels in pre-New Deal America. The course will be conducted as a colloquium and, therefore, will be organized around weekly meetings to discuss assigned readings which will include both theoretical works and historical case studies. Among the former will be pluralist and neo-Marxist theories of power and the state, and collective choice theories and models of political mobilization. Historical case studies will focus on the relationships among socio-economic change, political action, and demands for the expansion of the public sector at critical moments in the nation's history. Of particular interest in the case studies will be the question of from where demands for the expansion of the public sector originated. Students will write and revise three papers of increasing length throughout the term. (McDonald)

Section: 003: The Cold War. This course will consider The Cold War, its origins and progress from the 1940s to the 1970s. Class meetings will be devoted to discussion of assigned reading, but in addition students will write a term paper on some aspect of The Cold War. There are no examinations. (Perkins)

Section 004 Technology and Society Through the Ages. The objective of this colloquium will be to study the history of technological development and its interactions with society. The course will be broad and comparative, looking at developments from Neolithic times to the present in different cultures. The major course assignment will be an in-depth survey of the relationship between social and technological development in one culture. (Steneck)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Rousseau.
Readings from Rousseau will be selected to take students into a range of issues important for understanding the Enlightenment and eighteenth-century society. The choices for reading will include, among others, some or all of the following works: The Social Contract, Considerations on the Government of Poland, Emile, and the Confessions. Required are the weekly discussions of reading and three papers, two short and one longer, treating some aspect of Rousseau's thought in cultural, social, and political context. (Bien)

Section 003 Work Since the Industrial Revolution. This course will examine the historical process by which work in its modern form arose. Beginning with the industrial revolution, it will consider how people's habits, conceptions, and experience of working have been formed and altered. Included will be a section on work discipline under slavery, a system at once sustained by the industrial revolution and embodying principles antithetical to it. The evolution of work will be traced through readings drawn from social commentaries, social theorists, historians, novelists, and individual working people themselves. Course work may include a field trip. (B. Fields)

Section 005 America and the "Discovery" of the non-European World Since World War Two. A remarkable feature of the history of the United States since 1945 has been an effort to understand and to supervise the affairs of a number of societies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America of which most Americans had been only dimly aware. This course will explore the intellectual tools with which Americans have defined, interpreted, and prescribed for, the diverse peoples of the non-European world. In so doing, the course will work from two related contexts: 1) the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United States, and 2) the political challenge presented for the United States by the decline of the historic European-based colonial empires (notably the British, French, and Dutch). Especially this course will focus upon the development and critical discussion of "modernization theory" since the mid-1950's. Students will write two short (5-7 page) critical essays addressed to common reading assignments, and one longer paper based on an individual assignment concerning a specific part of the world being "discovered" by the United States. (Hollinger)

Section 006 Comparative Revolutionary Elites. The course will study and compare the personalities and the writings of selected leaders of opposition movements advocating radical social change. The focus of the comparison will be a contrast between several violent and non-violent trends. The examples of violent movements to be studied are: (1) Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism; (2) Anarchism; and (3) Fascism. The non-violent movements are those associated with (1) Gandhi, Tolstoy, and related "non-violent" resistance groups; (2) communal movements in India, Israel, the U.S. and elsewhere; and (3) the recent wave of "narcissism" with its emphasis on an "inward" voyage as the route to follow towards solving individual and social problems. The course will be especially interested in relating the ideals and ideas to the personalities of their authors and in evaluating the social consequences of those ideas and ideals, judging, that is, their success or failure and their social costs. The course will involve, mainly, discussions of the assigned readings. In addition to active participation in those discussions, the requirements are one term paper and a final exam. (Mendel)

Section 007 Japan in World War II. This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the Missouri in 1945. We will examine different aspects of the war through a text, John Toland's The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945 (Random House, 1974), and readings in a course pack. Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and the presentation of oral reports on designated topics. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions and their oral reports, but special weight will be given to written reports (eight to ten typewritten pages). (Hackett)

Section 008 The American Revolutionary Generation. The colloquium focuses on the American Revolutionary experience, less on the political, military, and economic history of the Revolution than on the life histories of people, groups, and communities caught up by the Revolution and presumably affected by it. There is a vast amount of material for this kind of inquiry, but historians have made little use of it because "ordinary" people and communities have not seemed interesting. But to ask what difference the Revolution made is interesting, and that is the question posed by the colloquium. It begins with some general reading and discussion of historical writing about the Revolutionary period (including works of Charles Beard and Bernard Bailyn, and a collection edited by Jack Greene), during which each student will do a brief report on a historian. Next, several models for the kind of inquiry being done by the colloquium are considered (works by Robert Gross, Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, and Kenneth Lynn), during which each student will re-examine one of the figures in Lynn's book. The rest of the colloquium is devoted to individual research projects. These may take a variety of forms, depending on the interest of the student: biography, group biography, community study, the study of military or political organizations tracing their members from their origins to their death. The sources are plentiful, and a great deal of them may be found in the libraries of the University. The final result is a research paper or its equivalent. The Colloquium meets once each week for two hours, but additional meetings on an individual basis are a regular part of the course. (Shy)

Section 014: English Social Welfare Policy and Practice, 1880-1948. In this seminar we shall trace the "discovery" of and the response to the poor and their problems by the well-to-do of late Victorian and Edwardian England. Using both primary and secondary material, we shall pay particular attention to contemporary debates regarding the cause of and cure for the discovered ills. Were they due to nature (heredity) or nurture (environment), indigence or ignorance? What was the best way to deal with the rampant poverty, illness and unemployment that had been found? Should society depend upon the time-honored remedy of private philanthropy, or were more innovative measures such as state-guaranteed social welfare programs needed? One hundred years later we face similar quandaries and dilemmas. What can we learn from the past to help us face the problems of our own time? (Dwork)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (McDonald)

402. Roman Republic. (4). (HU).

Lectures and discussions will center on the principal political, social, economic, and cultural developments in Italy and the Mediterranean from the establishment of an independent Roman state c. 509 B.C.E. to the death of Caesar in 44 B.C.E. Although a modern textbook may be recommended, emphasis will be given to the ancient texts (in English translation) on which modern reconstructions of the Republic have been based. For accounting purposes, each student will be expected to complete two examinations (a midterm and a final), of roughly equal weight, and a term paper (15-25 pp.) (Eadie)

406/GNE 465. History of Ancient Israel. Junior or senior standing, or Honors students. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 465 for description. (Orlin)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (HU).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870's. This course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's European Intellectual History Since 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, M.H. Abrams' Natural Supernaturalism, Hegel's Philosophy of History, J.S. Mill's On Liberty, Marx-Engels' The Communist Manifesto and J. Barzun, Darwin, Marx and Wagner. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

432. Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (SS).

The course covers the first seven centuries of recorded Russian history and focuses on such major topics as the Norsemen's conquest of Russia, the Golden Age of Kiev, the Mongol invasion, the rise of Moscow, relations with the West, expansion into Siberia, the Ukraine, and first contacts with China. During the first ten weeks, lectures follow a roughly chronological sequence (to the reign of Peter the Great). The last five weeks feature a series of survey lectures on special topics such as women in Old Russia, Jews and Jewish influences in Old Russian history, Cossacks, the rise of serfdom, Ivan the Terrible, aristocrats and bureaucrats, holy fools, problems in Old Russian culture, and legends and myths that shaped Russian history. The basic text is N. Riasanovsky's A History of Russia. Modest additional readings will be assigned. Questions and comments from the class during a lecture are welcome. The course is open to all students and assumes no prior knowledge of Russian history. (Dewey)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

This course investigates the social and political history of the Soviet Union from the revolutions of 1917 to the present. Of particular concern will be the fate of Soviet democracy, the means by which the Communist Party maintained power in a largely peasant country, and the revolutionary transformation initiated by the state in the 1930's. The impact of World War II, late Stalinism, and de-Stalinism will also be explored. Lectures will provide the principal narrative and analysis; discussion sections will delve into particularly complex problem areas. Two examinations and one research paper will be required. Readings will include works by Moshe Lewin, Robert Tucker, Sheila Fitzpatrick, as well as original sources. It is recommended (but not required) that students have taken History 433, Imperial Russia. (Suny)

438. Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (4). (SS).

This course consists of two parts. Part I provides a brief survey of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Habsburg Monarchy and their component nationalities (Poles, Lithuanians, Jews, Czechs, Slovaks) to the end of the 18th century. Part II reviews the history of the area in the 19th century against the background of social and economic change (urbanization, industrialization, abolition of serfdom) and new political ideas: liberalism, democracy, nationalism and socialism. Readings will include R.A. Kahn, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1526-1918, P. Wandycz, The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918, and H. Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801-1917. (Szporluk)

440/GNE 470. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500 945. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 470 for description. (Ehrenkreutz)

451. Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is W.G. Beasley, The Modern History of Japan, (Praeger, rev. ed., 1974, pb). Other reading assignments will be organized with a course pack. (Hackett)

462. The United States in the Early National Period, 1789 1830. (4). (SS).

This course is an intensive examination of the major political currents in the period 1789-1830. Examples of these topics are the formation of a national government under the Constitution, the gradual and increasingly bitter party division during the 1790's, the foreign policy issues leading to the War of 1812 and the uneasy experiment with one-party politics after the War. The reading consists of major monographs on these topics. There is no text. The one midterm examination will be a "take-home" and for the final examination there will be a choice between the "take-home" and standard two-hour forms. (Livermore)

464. The Ordeal of the Union, 1840 1877. (4). (SS).

This course deals primarily with the causes of the American Civil War. It begins with a description of the society of the antebellum South; turns next to a portrait of Jacksonian politics and political ideology; then takes up that transmutation of Jacksonian ideals in the 1840's and 1850's through which hostile sectional stereotypes were defined. It explores the sense in which social and economic conflicts in America come to be summarized by the slavery question during the period, because of the demands of political competition. The last three weeks of the course deal with the reconstruction episode, in an effort to show how the failure of this experiment was dictated by the assumptions which had produced the War. There will be a midterm examination, a paper of ten pages, and a two-hour final examination. Reading will average about 250 pages a week. (Thornton)

476. Hispanic America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. The approach is both thematic and chronological. Themes to be discussed include: the indigenous background to conquest; early interactions between Europeans and Indians; the institutional structures of empire; shifting uses of land and labor; the nature of settler society; class, race, and ethnicity; the character of 18th century reforms; and the social bases of the wars of independence. The major focus will be on Mexico and Peru, with attention paid also to Brazil, Argentina, Central America and the Caribbean. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America will be the main text, with additional readings in works by Gibson, Crosby, Prescott, Taylor, Stein, and Lynch, and some primary materials by Huaman Poma, Juan and Ulloa, and Humboldt. The method of instruction is lecture/discussion. Requirements include a short critical book review, a longer paper, a midterm and a final. (Scott)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491 for description. (Whatley)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493 for description. (Webb)

512. From Oligarchy to Reform: Georgian Britain, 1714 1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

British political, social and economic history from the accession of the House of Hanover to the Reform Bill of 1832: the Domination of the landed interest and the Augustan stability; the centralizing factors in the reign of George III; the challenges of the American and French Revolutions; the agricultural and industrial revolutions; new religious currents; the emergence of a successful reform movement and a new political synthesis. (Price)

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (HU).

A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from earliest times until the fall of the Gaelic order. The course is conducted mainly by lecture. Students will write two briefer and one longer paper, and have a final examination. There are no prerequisites for the course though a prior course in later Irish history, or in Irish literature, or in ancient or medieval European history would be helpful. (McNamara)

523. France, 1661 1789. (4). (SS).

A study of the French Old Regime and the causes of the first great revolution of the modern era. The course undertakes a selective examination through lectures of certain problems and themes the feudal background, state-building and its social consequences, the corporalist society, the aristocratic resurgence or reaction, the Enlightenment, and the meaning and limits of reform. In these lectures several questions are posed: what did the revolution change? why did large scale revolution take place in France rather then elsewhere in Europe? why did revolution come when it did? in what senses was revolution inevitable? accidental? Comprehensive coverage and narrative treatment of the period are obtained through the readings. These include Tocqueville, Old Regime and Revolution; Pierre Goubert, Louis XIV and the Twenty Million Frenchmen; Alfred Cobban, A History of Modern France; George Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution; R.R. Palmer, The Age of Democratic Revolution; Elinor Barber, The Bourgeoisie in Eighteenth-Century France; and various other brief selections and articles. Parts of Descartes, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau are read. There is an hour exam, a final exam, and one essay of 8 or 10 pages on a topic and problem to be arranged consistent with the student's particular interest. (Bien)

527. New Approaches to Preindustrial France. (4). (SS).

A study of themes in French development from the late Middle Ages to about 1850, and of the methods for their analysis. The course will treat in particular the structure of peasant life, customs, and mentality; demographic trends; the local and national economy; growth of the state and its interaction with the several social groups; and the place of the French Revolution as an expression of short-term and long-term tensions and ideas. Readings include works of Goubert, de Tocqueville, and others. Teaching is by a mixture of lecture and discussion. The course requirements are a midterm and final examination, and one essay of 6 to 8 pages.

530. History of the Balkans from the Sixth Century to 1800. (4). (SS).

A general survey of the Balkans (including Medieval Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and the relations of these states with Byzantium and Hungary) from the arrival of the Slavs in the 6th and 7th century through the Turkish period. The reading list consists of monographs, articles and a few translated sources. The reading list can be altered (with permission of the instructor) and to accommodate special interests. There will be an hour exam (written or oral as the student chooses), a paper (topic to be chosen by student with permission of the instructor) of about 15 pages and a final examination. Students who prefer to write a major paper (ca. 25 pages) can skip the hour exam. (J. Fine)

543/GNE 472. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900 1350. (4). (HU).

See General Near East 472 for description. (Luther)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (SS).

An examination of American foreign policy to 1914, with special emphasis on the formative years (1775-1823) and America's entry into world politics (1898-1914). Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (4). (HU).

This course explores the intellectual experience of educated Americans since the mid-19th century. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, politics, society, knowledge, morality, the physical world, and American national destiny, as these ideas surfaced in the discourse of leading thinkers. Attention will be devoted to Mark Twain, William James, Thorstein Veblen, John Dewey, Randolph Bourne, Lincoln Steffens, Malcolm Cowley, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Reinhold Niebuhr, Lionel Trilling, and Thomas S. Kuhn, as well as to Europeans whose works were prominent referent points in American discourse (e.g., Charles Darwin, Matthew Arnold, Sigmund Freud, Leon Trotsky, Thomas Mann, and Jacob Bronowski). Students will probably be asked to complete one short paper, one midterm examination, and one final examination. Readings for the course are likely to include many of the following titles: The Education of Henry Adams; William James, Pragmatism; F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby; Edmund Wilson, To the Finland Station; Lionel Trilling, Beyond Culture; Harold Frederic, Damnation of Theron Wave; Margaret Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa; and brief selections from Charles Pierce, John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thorstein Veblen, Robert K. Merton, Clifford Geertz, and Thomas Kuhn. (Hollinger)

564/CAAS 531. Ante Bellum South. (4). (SS).

This course will examine, through lectures and discussion, the social and economic structure, the culture, the institutions, and the people of the Old South. Though some attention will be given to the colonial origins of Southern society and to the course and consequences of the American Revolution there, the bulk of the term will be devoted to the heyday of the cotton empire and to the conflicts internal and external leading to the Civil War. The basis on which students will be evaluated will be classroom participation, a final examination, and a substantial term paper. (Fields)

571/Amer. Inst. 471. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 471 for description. (Vinovskis)

581. Utopian and Millennial Movements. (4). (HU).

This course surveys past utopian and millennial movements and begins with a study of the most recent of them, the "counter culture" of the late 1960s. The course then takes a great leap backward to the beginnings of utopian idealism as represented by the prophetic message of ancient Judaism and the Christian apocalyptic vision. These two traditions are then compared with the Buddhist "Nirvana" and similar eastern ideals. After a rather brief review of the principal millennial trends of the middle ages, the course focuses on four utopian movements of modern times: the rationalist utopians of the French Revolution; communism from Hegel through Marx, Lenin, and Stalin to Mao; the Nazi vision of a "Third Reich"; and anarchism. The course then returns to the present with an analysis of recent and current communalism including an evaluation of the Israeli kibbutz. If time permits, modern science fiction as a form of utopian thought and sentiment will also be considered. (Mendel)

584. American Constitutional and Legal History. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students interested in American history, for those interested in government and law, and for those interested in the development of the central ideas and institutions of modern American Constitutional and Legal history. It is the second in a two-course sequence: History 583, Anglo-American Constitutional and Legal History, precedes but is not a prerequisite for the course. The course will undertake an analysis of several themes: changing approaches to constitutional interpretation; the impact of social and economic developments on public and private law; the relationships of legal theory to legal education and of legal education to the role of the legal profession; the tensions among legal doctrines, scientific theory and social attitudes regarding the problem of human theory.

587. History of History I. (4). (HU).

This lecture course traces the development of historical study from the world of myth to the rise of historicism in the 18th century. It attempts to account for changing historical conceptions and to relate these changes to developments in methodology and the choice historical subject matter. The course is the first of a two term sequence. There is no text but students will be advised to read from classical historical accounts and standard historiographical works. The student will be required to consider one historian at length and write a term paper 2,500 words in length dealing with the historian or some aspect of his method. The term paper will constitute 1/4 of the course grade. A midterm examination will constitute 1/4 of the course grade and the final examination will constitute the remaining half. (Tonsor)

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