Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Biological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology dealing with human biology and evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the field. The course is divided into four major parts, (1) human genetics and evolutionary theory, (2) primate behavior and evolution, (3) the human fossil record, and (4) biological variability in modern populations. Grading will be based on three one-hour multiple choice exams and a required 1-hour a week discussion section. No special background knowledge is required or assumed. (Sattenspiel)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures and readings, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecological shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology, and the changes in physical form that are the consequences of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. Class participation and discussion are emphasized. Student evaluations are based on a midterm, a short paper, and a final examination. (Wolpoff)

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order and its major divisions, and provide detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior, aggression and competition, and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, but it also serves as an introduction to 369, Primate Social Relationships. Two lecture hours, one film, and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. (Wrangham)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Wolpoff)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).
Section 001 Theory in Application in Human Ecology and Demography.
The emphasis in this course will be on ways in which the ecological environment influences the distribution of the human population and the types of strategies used by humans to interact with the environment. The course will consist of two parts, (1) an introduction to demographic principles, such as age structure, differential fertility, and mortality, and the effects these have on the social structure of human groups, and (2) an introduction to ecological principles, such as energy flow, subsistence, and life history strategies, and the relationships between these topics and the types of cultures seen in various environments. Readings will include case studies of ecological and demographic analyses of extant and extinct populations, as well as material of a more theoretical nature. Course grade will be based on 2-3 short written assignments and a term paper or class presentation. (Sattenspiel)

Section 002 Human Behavior Genetics. The course is an elementary study of the intersection between genetics and the human behavioral sciences, with lectures, discussions, and readings. The course attempts to avoid both extremes of over-simplistic reduction to strictly biological determination, and claims that gene variation is completely irrelevant to a general theory of human behavior. The text is by L. Ehrman and P. Parsons, Behavior Genetics and Evolution, 1981, published by McGraw-Hill. Experimental results from human populations will be stressed, but considerable attention will be given to topics from the behavioral genetics of other species from bacteria to apes that provide background information for understanding human behavior. The course grade will be based on three tests (or an optional final examination) counting 3/4th, and a term paper on an approved topic counting 1/4th. (Spuhler)

Section 003 Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Course prerequisites: (1) background in at least one of the following areas: (a) evolutionary theory/animal behavior (b) ethnology (c) developmental psychology (2) and permission of instructor. This is a new, experimental course for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students that considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, and psychiatry. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory and social behavior, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman animals, and ethnological studies of human attachment behavior, including data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation, a few short essays, and one longer, research paper. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. (Smuts)

470. Undergraduate Seminar in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This course is designed to acquaint the students with the central issues in biological anthropology. It consists of readings and discussion with various faculty members on the issues. It is designed primarily for concentrators in Anthropology-Zoology or Biological Anthropology. (Livingstone)

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The course is addressed at evaluating the physiological responses and adaptations that enable humans to survive environmental extremes such as those found under stressful conditions of heat, cold, solar radiation, high altitude, undernutrition, overnutrition, and Westernization of dietary habits. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental stress, the discussion of major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory studies with humans and experimental animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development and their implications for understanding the origins of population differences in biological traits. Student evaluation includes three tests, a final exam, and a term paper. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. (Frisancho)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology Regional Courses, Ethnology Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although cultural anthropology is emphasized, Anthropology 101 is a survey course in which the principles unifying the four subdisciplines of anthropology (biological anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology and linguistics) are introduced. It is the basic course for concentrators but also aims to provide other students with fresh viewpoints from which to view the social world and its relationship to nature. The topics discussed include theories of evolution, human evolution as known from the fossil and archaeological records, the concept of race, ape communication, language and culture, kinship, marriage and the economic organization of hunters, gatherers and tribal peoples, the place of religion in human life, the origins of civilization, colonialism, and social pathology. There are three weekly lectures. A text and paperbacks provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. Two hourly examinations are given during the term, the last on the last day of class. No final. Short assignments are also made in recitation sections. Students who wish to explore the subject matter of anthropology in greater depth than is ordinarily possible in an introductory course should register for either section 015 (which will meet T 3-5) or section 021 (which will meet M 3-5). Students who elect one of these sections will receive 2 additional credits for a total of 6 credits. (In order to receive this credit, students selecting either section 015 or section 021 should register for both Anthropology 101 for the regular 4 credits and Anthropology 499, section 021 for additional 2 credits.) The syllabus for students electing the 6-credit option will include extra reading that is not required of other students, and they will be required to submit extra written work. Those students will be encouraged to focus on those areas of anthropology in which they have a special interest. Students in the Honors Program are welcome to enroll in either section 015 or 021 if they wish to earn the extra credit, but they are not required to do so. Interested students should get an override at the departmental office, 1054 LSA Building. (Rappaport)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (O'Shea)

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction specifically to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged for graduate students. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construe "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" (including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics). There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic data; 2) how to read ethnographic reports critically; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve their writing techniques. Grades will be based on seven short papers (six pp. each). (Carroll)

Ethnology Regional Courses

301. Ethnography of East Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the traditional and contemporary cultures of Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, Vietnam and some of the tribal societies which border on China proper or are included within the political boundaries of China. It is concerned both with shared traditions between these societies and with their unique configurations. The course readings will consist primarily of selections from ethnographies and community studies, supplemented by literary works and historical and philosophical writings from the various cultures. There will be a midterm and final examination, and one or two short papers. This is a lecture course, with in-class discussion. An introductory anthropology course would be helpful as a prerequisite. Students should find this course useful as preparation for upper-level courses in Asian studies.

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

The course provides an introduction to Native North American peoples and involves a detailed discussion of several typical cultures and culture areas, with a special emphasis on modes of subsistence, social and economic organization, and religion. By focusing on native world views, an attempt is also made to gain a better understanding of the Native Americans' own perceptions of and attitudes towards their lives. The course deals primarily with the more "traditional" native cultures prior to the spread of Western domination. Nevertheless, several major post-contact cultural developments, aspects of Indian-White relations, and contemporary problems (including those of Michigan Indians) are touched upon. Required reading includes several short ethnographic studies, a biography of a Native American man or woman, and a few articles from a course pack. Student evaluation is based on three essay-type exams (some of them take-home). One of the exams can be substituted by a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor. While lectures are the major method of instruction, discussion, films, and demonstration of artifacts from the Museum of Anthropology play an important role in this course (Kan)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on the Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term-paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as will as from recent anthropology. (Dresch)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: four 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize reading and lecture materials; participation in class discussions; regular class attendance. (Owusu)

420(320). Anthropology of Contemporary American Culture. Two courses in cultural anthropology. (4). (SS).

Anthropology is a comparative science that examines all societies, from simplest to most complex, from humanity's remote past to the most modern nations. During the past decade, anthropologists have focused more and more on contemporary American society and culture. Anthropologists have done research in small towns, urban neighborhoods, and among ethnic groups. In addition to such ethnographic studies, anthropologists have also examined aspects of contemporary mass culture, including fast-food restaurants, television, motion pictures, sports, and social issues that are attracting media attention. This course will bring anthropology's distinctive comparative, cross-cultural, and cultural evolutionary perspective to bear on several contemporary issues including the following: consumerism; work and employment; the rise of the service-oriented economy; professionalism, specialization, and the role of the expert; mental and physical health; sex roles; the family, marriage, and divorce; sexuality, including incest, spouse and child abuse, prostitution, cross-sexualism and homosexuality; child rearing; competitive sports; eating habits, including fast-food; television and other mass media; holidays; religions of a mass society; and patterns of magical thought. These issues will be placed in comparative perspective by references to customs and organizational schemes of other cultures. In particular, there will be systematic comparison with Brazil, the western hemisphere's second most populous nation. The cross-cultural, cultural evolutionary viewpoint will reveal the novel features of our hyperindustrial society and consumers' culture, while upholding the relativistic view that many of the values and beliefs that are considered natural and inevitable by Americans are manifestations of human culture, rather than human nature. In analyzing contemporary life, Anthropology 420 employs many methods and techniques originally developed by anthropologists working in small-scale societies and non-western cultures. The course focuses on cultural themes and patterns that unify Americans, but also stresses the socioeconomic differences that divide us. Ethnic and religious differences receive some, but less intensive, consideration. The major course requirement is a paper based on original research on some aspect of contemporary American society/culture. The research project will be planned by the student in regular consultation with his/her discussion leader, who will monitor the project carefully. There will also be 2-3 short papers and at least one exam. (Kottak).

423. Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course covers the culture area of Western Melanesia with a particular emphasis on New Guinea a large island which contains 1000 distinct cultural groups. Many of these have been brought into contact with western civilization only within the past 15 years. The area therefore offers unique opportunities for the study of tribal society in a relatively pristine condition and has served as a focus of much of recent anthropological research. The course provides general coverage of the social, political, and economic organization of 4 major sub-areas of western Melanesia and explores a number of additional topics of current research interest, viz. male-female hostility and the definition of sex roles, witchcraft, warfare, economic networks, Big Man system of leadership, and millenarian movements. Lecture format; evaluation is based on term paper and take home exam. (Kelly)

503 Japanese Society and Culture. Permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

A multidisciplinary introduction leading to specialization in Japanese society and culture.

Ethnology Topical Courses

332. Social Forms. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

The aim is to provide a solid grounding in core subjects and theories of ethnology. This course should be useful, not only to anthropology concentrators, but to those wishing to use ethnological ideas in other subjects. A previous course in ethnology is no hindrance but is not essential. Every effort will be made toward clarity of presentation. No previous knowledge will be assumed. Topics such as witchcraft, kinship and symbolic classification will be used cumulatively to demonstrate the principles which inform social life. The way anthropologists elucidate those principles will be explained. The positions of different authors and schools will be pointed out, and the meaning discussed of such terms as society, culture and social structure. The worth of different approaches will be tested at the end by looking at millenarian movements: such events as the Sioux ghost dance and the Tai Ping rebellion. There is a lot to cover. The essential points of each topic will be dealt with in lectures. Lecture material and required readings will be discussed separately in sections, led alternately by the instructor and a TA. Students must be ready to give the time needed for a 4 hour credit. Assessment will be based on short take-home papers, the objectives of which will be explained beforehand. (Dresch)

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, functions and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why law is obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the customary judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs: infants, women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers. Lecture/discussion format. (Owusu)

337(450). Sorcery, Witchcraft, and the Devil. One course in ethnology. (3). (SS).

This course examines the principal theoretical interpretations and modes of explanation that have been employed in the anthropological study of witchcraft and sorcery. Readings, lectures, and discussions focus on the place of witchcraft and sorcery within more comprehensive cosmological systems, the social construction of "evil", the role that witchcraft and sorcery plays in the social organization of tribal societies, and witchcraft prosecutions and pacts with the devil associated with the Western European "witch craze" which occurred between 1500 and 1650. Class meetings are about equally divided between lecture and discussion. An extensive research paper is required. (Kelly)

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
Students in the Honors Program undertake an individual research project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Generally this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Research guidance and a forum for presenting research reports are provided by a weekly evening seminar. Students are encouraged to begin work on their Honors thesis in the second term of their junior year, with a view toward completing a preliminary version by the end of the first term of their senior year. Interested students should consult Professor Carroll, the departmental Honors advisor. Previous participation in the college Honors Program is not a prerequisite for participating in the senior Honors Program. (Carroll)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. The course sequence is divided into two parts. During the first term, students meet together once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. These sessions provide background which enable students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

430. Anthropology of Death and Dying. Sophomore standing; Anthro. 101 or 222 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

Death is a universal human experience, yet the attitudes and responses towards it develop out of a complex interplay between individuals and their sociocultural environment. Using anthropological works, novels, films and other sources, the course explores the meaning of death in several Western and non-Western cultures and religious traditions. Particular attention is paid to understanding native ideas about the person, the life- cycle (birth, maturation, aging), and the afterlife, as well as interpreting mortuary rituals and the experience of the dying and the mourners. The course also offers an anthropological perspective on the development, since the 19th century, of the characteristic American mode of dealing with death and dying. Recommended prerequisites: Anthropology 101 or 222, sophomore standing, or permission of instructor. Student evaluation is based on two take-home exams and a short research paper. Method of instruction combines lectures and discussion. (Kan)

432. Social Theory. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Social Realism and Modernism.
The Modernist upheaval in aesthetics and rise of modern social theory (Marx, Weber, Durkheim) were concurrent events but are rarely, if ever, discussed as such. As an institutionalized form of the Primitivism espoused by the Modernist challenge, and dependent on the imperialism and social theorizing of the industrial revolution, Anthropology forms a peculiarly vulnerable and fruitful practice for unpicking the ways by which scientism and Positivism effaced the ways by which Modernist theories and techniques of representation could have made Social Theory an exciting, powerful, radical activity. Working through the construction of truth and authority in depiction of social reality in selected anthropological texts (Evans-Prithcard on witchcraft, Malinowski on non-capitalist economics, V. Turner on symbolism and ritual, Levi-Strauss on shamanism and Structuralism..) I wish to initiate just that "unpicking," so as to allow the subversive force of Modernist conceptions of realism to confront the social realism of Social Theory and Ethnographic Authority. In so doing, I will be concerned with creating alternative modes of writing and representing social reality, paying special attention to Nietzschian and Foucaultain critiques of order, depth, power, and drawing on my own work plus that of Benjamin, Brecht, Strindberg, Bakhtin, Flaubert, Conrad, Faulkner, Surrealism, and Latin American Magical Realism. (Taussig)

457. The Film and Other Visual Media in Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This is primarily a course on ethnographic film, although we will also consider and compare the use of still photography, video-tape, and television, as these are relevant to the portrayal of society and culture. Much of class time will be devoted to the viewing and discussion of particular visual materials. There will be one evening session each week, during which we will view 1-2 hours of ethnographic films (these will be open to the public and free of charge). In addition, there will be two class meetings a week devoted to lectures, discussions, and some more visual materials. The text is Heider, Ethnographic Film, plus shorter articles. Class requirements will consist of two essay type exams and a video production. (A workshop to teach all video skills necessary will be arranged.) The class is intended for students of (and those with a serious interest in) both anthropology and film. (Lockwood)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 002 Ethnography as a Kind of Writing.
This term I would like to give thought to ethnography as a kind of writing which makes a particular use of personal experience. We will begin by considering other types of writing which resemble ethnography in some ways while differing from it in others e.g., travelers' accounts, memoirs, diaries, autobiographical fiction, etc. At this stage, we will be trying to grasp a relationship between writing and experience that we might call "ethnographic." Beyond this, we will consider the relationships among topic-author-reader out of which ethnography is built, and the ways ethnography is changed when these are modified (as, for example, when the author is a member of the culture described). Finally, we will explore how ethnography may come to have something like a "double voice" that is, how we may think of it not only as reportage of field experience, but also as a sort of essay or commentary on the historical moment in which it is written. Our overall aim will thus be to become aware ourselves of what we are doing when we write and read ethnographies. Seminar with evaluations based on class participation and two writing assignments. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (C. Roberts)

Section 003 Culture of Terror and Resistance. Drawing on histories, current realities, and fictional accounts of dictatorship and terror (mainly) in Latin America, I want to set up a workshop-inquiry into the cultural politics of terror and resistance. I am particularly concerned with ways by which terror through the fragmentation and multiplication of reality can, as in the texts of Asturias, Carpentier, and Garcia Marquez, create magically real representations, and how, conversely, these very same principles of fragmentation, multiplicity, transformation, uncertainty and magic can constitute the basis of a resistance and of healing (as in shamanic healing rites of misfortune in many colonial and neo-colonial societies). These issues lead to questions of theory in and about social science itself, particularly the question of order and depth in explanation and their political implications. In trying to develop notions that could be useful to resistance and healing, it will be useful, therefore, to compare Brecht's epic theatre with Aristotelian notions of catharsis, and to subject neo-Romanticism/Positivism to a Modernist/post-Modernist critique. (Taussig)

Section 004. Please contact the Department of Anthropology, 1054 LSA Building, after August 1, for course information.

Section 005 Approaching Armageddon. Millennial movements are inspired by visions of the imminent arrival of a perfect age, usually wrought by an epoch of purifying violence. This course will examine millennial movements in the Third World, medieval Europe and the United States. The emphasis will be on Christian millennialism and over half the course will deal with American materials, concluding with a case study of the millennialism of Jerry Falwell and his fundamentalist allies and followers. The central theoretical concern will be with the efficacy of belief: to what extent and how is an apocalyptic vision motivating and orienting action? The class will be conducted as a seminar. Two or three short papers based on readings and one longer paper based on field or library research required. Readings, in whole or in part, include: Peter Worsley, The Trumpet Shall Sound; Marshall Sahlins, Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities; Clifford Geertz, Negara; Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium; Timothy Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming; Hal Lindsey, The Late, Great Planet Earth; Frances Fitzgerald, " A Disciplined, Charging Army"; The Holy Bible, Revelations, and other prophetic texts. (Harding)

528. History of Anthropological Thought. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an intensive analysis of critical problems in social anthropological interpretation within both a contemporary and an historical context. The course begins with a discussion of theoretical problems. This is followed by a detailed analysis of how these problems are crucial in an analysis of the works of many pre-1945 theoreticians such as Marx, Morgan, Durkheim, Weber, Boas and Kroeber, Benedict and Mead, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown. Class format is a combination of lecture and discussion, and course requirements include the reading of critical works by the theoreticians mentioned above and a final examination which is given as a take-home examination. (Yengoyan)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

This course explores the relationship between language and culture as a set of mutually reinforcing constraints which form different types of coherence systems. Language is dealt with both as a set of grammatical forces as well as semantic imperatives which must be related to culture as a system of social principles, as webs of meaning, and as a framework of knowledge and philosophy. The realm of thought is analyzed as a human condition which produces creative and constrictive conditions on language and culture. A few short paperback volumes are required in addition to articles placed on undergraduate reserves. Course requirements are a midterm and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

474/Ling. 410. Non-Standard English. (3). (SS).

This course deals with those dialects of English that are often spoken by the disadvantaged and minority members of our society and that are sometimes called "non-standard." The most common pronunciation and grammatical characteristics of these dialects are described. Consideration is also given to the psychological and sociological implications of these forms of English for the individuals and the groups that speak and use them. Special attention is given to the forms of English used in the more disadvantaged Black communities of this country and to the educational problems raised by these forms of English. The course is intended to be useful to anyone who expects to be involved with minority groups or with people of the inner city. It is especially recommended for those who are in education or who are working toward a teaching certificate. The course has no prerequisites. (Burling)

475/Ling. 411. Introduction to Linguistics. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 411. (Burling)

478/Ling 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 442.

576. Introduction Linguistic Anthropology. Two courses in anthropology or biology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course serves as an introduction to language and linguistics for anthropologists. It provides the basic tools necessary for discussing and working with linguistic systems and introduces theoretical models both as tools for working with data and as models of cultural activity. The nature of language as a sign activity, the status of linguistic representations, and semiotic and biological bases of linguistic universals are explored (Mannheim)

Archaeology

394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The seminar examines the major intellectual and methodological problems American anthropological archaeologists have addressed throughout the history of professional archaeology. Students are expected to have completed at least one archaeology course prior to enrolling. This course satisfies the undergraduate concentration seminar requirement. Students will prepare an oral presentation, write a paper, and participate in class discussions. The texts include Willey and Sabloff, A History of American Archaeology and Schiffer, ed., Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory Selections in addition to reserve readings. This seminar is excellent preparation for graduate school in anthropology and a career as a professional archaeologist. (Ford)

489. Maya and Central American Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

The ancient Maya who occupied the eastern part of Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western parts of El Salvador and Honduras are the primary focus of this course. We will trace the development of Maya society from the band level, to the tribal level, up to complex chiefdoms and states. The latter part of the course will concentrate on lower Central America, particularly the complex chiefdoms of Panama. For this lecture course, there are two assignments: a midterm exam (a take-home) and a research paper. These two assignments constitute the course grade. Required books: Henderson's The World of the Ancient Maya (Cornell, 1982/83 paperback) and S.G. Morley and G. Brainerd's The Ancient Maya (Stanford, 3rd ed., l956), and Coe's The Maya (Thames and Hudson, l980 paperback). (Marcus)

581. Archaeology I. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The first part of this course is devoted to developing models of the operation and evolution of hunter-gatherer cultural systems and to discussing the ways in which these systems may be studied from the archaeological record. The second half of the course consists of a review of the archaeological evidence for the evolution of these cultural systems from their earliest appearance until the beginnings of sedentary, agricultural communities. Most emphasis is given to materials from Africa and Europe with brief attention paid to Asia and the New World. Lecture course. Evaluation based on paper and examinations. (Speth)

Museum, Reading, and Research Courses

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

Anthropology 496 is offered in the Fall Term. If the course is repeated, then a student works on anthropological exhibits. This course is intended to give the student an introduction to the principles of museum management, policies, and practices. In conjunction with this introduction, individual instruction is offered on the recording, cataloging, care and preservation, and analysis of collections of material culture. There will be one hour of lecture per week, with the remaining time devoted to work with museum curators or graduate research assistants in the museum laboratories. For each credit elected, two hours of participation in the laboratory are required. Thus for one credit there will be one hour of lecture and two of applied museum work; for two credits, one hour of lecture and four of work; for three credits, two hours of lecture and six of work. There is a text and some reserve reading. Grades are based on class participation, a final examination, and directed work. Emphasis is on the nature of museum work within a research framework as well as on a general understanding of how anthropological museums are organized and exhibits originate. (Ford)


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