Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. It can be taken to satisfy distribution requirements under Patterns I, II, or III. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Within these areas topics such as cell structure, cell metabolism, nutrition, human genetics, genetic engineering, cancer, nature of evolution, and sociobiology will be discussed. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. In discussion students will be required to read several papers related to course content and to write two or three critical analyses of these papers. Attendance at the discussion section is required. Course grade is determined on the basis of three lecture examinations and upon discussion quizzes and papers (J. Allen)

101. Biology and Human Affairs. (4). (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include IQ and genetics, sociobiology, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, nutrition and health. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. An analysis of the nature of the scientific method in biology, both historically and as currently applied, is a unifying theme of the course. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. (Vandermeer)

102. World Hunger. (4). (NS).

This course examines the causes and consequences of hunger in today's world. Ecological, economic, and social causes are examined. Possible solutions to the crisis are also explored. Lecture and discussion. (Vandermeer)

105. Introduction to Biology. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). (5). (NS).

This is a one-term, fast-paced alternative to the Biology 112-114 sequence. Biology 105 differs from Biology 112-114 not only in the pace of study, but in the format of course offering. It is run on a self-instructional format with a strong emphasis on students' initiative to study the materials from assigned readings and weekly laboratory exercises. Writing skills also play an important role in essay examinations and laboratory reports. Students who wish to enroll in this course must be prepared for the fast pace, the self-instructional format, and communication by writing. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, of Organisms, and of Populations), and a set of two examinations is given after each unit in two levels; level one for fact-recalls and level two for testing analytical and integrative ability in essay questions. Lectures are not intended to cover the material in detail, but to summarize the key concepts and important points in both readings and laboratory work of the week. The laboratory provides opportunities to perform experiments and make observations, the results of which are discussed in the recitation in the light of concepts in the readings. Quizzes are frequently given in recitation. The final examination will be a level two examination covering the entire course material. The course grade is based on the performance in examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and participation. Students must purchase for the course the textbook, a course pack (at the University Cellar), a laboratory kit (at the Chem Store), and a laboratory notebook (a quadrille-ruled type). For more information see the laboratory coordinator, 3064 Dana, 763-0495. (Ikuma)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable prerequisites are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be three course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students should not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

An Honors laboratory section is available (see Time Schedule); enrollment for Honors work will entail laboratory and discussion time and effort beyond the regular course material; times for additional meetings will be announced.

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building.) (Kleinsmith)

Section 008 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 114 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

113. Introductory Biology Honors. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 112 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for scientific inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 112. Discussion materials include the classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short summaries and one term paper, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. This course prepares Honors students to undertake an independent experiment in Biology 114. Open only to students admitted to the LSA Honors Program.

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. For information concerning the textbook and laboratory manual, contact bookstores. Further information about this course can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office in Room 1570 C.C. Little Building. (Hazlett, Tosney)

Section 036: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 114 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

282. Introduction to Organic Evolution. Biol. 105, 114, or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

Biology 282 is an introductory course intended for both majors and non-majors in biology. The course introduces evolution as the principal unifying concept in biology, with an emphasis on ecological aspects of natural selection. Natural selection theory, the fossil record, population genetics and evolutionary ecology will be the primary topics discussed. A substantial amount of reading is required, and several problem sets and a term paper will be assigned. A recitation section will provide time for discussion of lecture and reading topics as well as several laboratory projects. Grades will be based on three exams, problem sets, and the term paper. Offered every other year only. (Heaney)

300. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 105 or 112-114, and English 125 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course is intended to teach undergraduate students how biologists should write for publication. Completion of the course with a grade of C- or better will satisfy the junior-senior writing requirement in Biological Sciences. It is open only to students concentrating in one of the programs in the Division of Biological Sciences. Lectures, section meetings, and tutorials: Some weeks there will be two lectures and no section meeting; other weeks there will be one lecture and a section meeting. Every student will meet with his or her TA on a regular basis for a tutorial. Evaluation will be based on writing and revision for tutorials, performance in section meetings, and lecture exams. Some lecture topics: Scientific thinking; the experimental approach to framing and answering questions; kinds of scientific writing; resources available to biologists; review of style, with emphasis on problems that recur in the writing of biologists; reports of experimental results, descriptive papers, and review papers; the process of publication, including review and editing. (Anderson)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Rizki, Palmer)

351. General Ecology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. No credit to those who have completed Biology 350. (5). (NS).

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 351 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Three field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. Two laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is Ecology, by C.J. Krebs (Goldberg, Rathcke)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exams. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Douthit)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, proctors each provide two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Douthit)

443. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (NS).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's Limnology, second edition, is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 444 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

444. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 443 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

456. The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology and Math. 115 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

An analysis of ecological principles as they apply to agricultural ecosystems, emphasizing theoretical aspects but also covering empirical results of critical experiments. While the emphasis is on principles, practical applicability is also explored where appropriate. Physical, biological, and social forces will be integrated as necessary. Designed as preparation for active research in agroecosystem ecology. (Vandermeer)

473. Mathematical Analogies in Evolutionary Biology. Two courses in biology; and Math. 116 or the equivalent. (4). (NS).

This course is intended primarily for juniors, seniors, and graduate students who desire a better understanding of mathematics applied to evolutionary biology, and who wish to read and criticize published papers in this field with more confidence. In lectures on Tuesdays and Thursdays, mathematical ideas are made understandable mostly by examples and intuitive arguments. On Mondays following a short quiz, applications of mathematical ideas are examined through student presentations and discussions of published articles. Central to the course are the role of theory in scientific method, and the formulation and testing of quantitative theory in evolutionary biology. The term project provides each student, in accordance with the strength of his/her quantitative background, the opportunity to invent a mathematical analogy that will challenge his or her creativity. Grading is based on class participation, weekly quizzes, and term project. (Estabrook)

475. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (3). (NS).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior may be appropriately viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution by natural selection, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary biology are outlined, with special reference to topics like sexuality, senescence, parental care, nepotism, and social reciprocity. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed in relation to evolutionary arguments, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and the results of experimental psychology to the human background of evolution by natural selection. The significance of evolutionary considerations for concepts of ethics, morality, and justice are explored. This course alternates with Zoology 475. A special discussion section will be arranged for students interested in animal behavior. (Alexander and Flinn)

575. Biological Electron Microscopy. Sixteen credits of biology or graduate standing, and permission of instructor. (4).

The objective of this course is to teach basic techniques applied in biological electron microscopy. The following topics are taught: tissue exposure, fixation and fixatives, embedding and embedding media, sectioning, staining methods, the use of the transmission electron microscope, taking photographs with the electron microscope, and printing and darkroom techniques. The theoretical aspects of these topics are covered in lectures. The practical part is taught in the laboratory and there are discussions of electron micrographs taken by students. The students are required to do some additional practicing in the laboratory (about 14 hours a week). There is a midterm laboratory practical exam and a lecture exam on the use of the electron microscope and its theory. At the end of the term students submit a report of the project they were working on and a 10x14" high quality electron micrograph of their own material. These assignments form the basis for student evaluation. There is no special background necessary, although some knowledge of electronics and histology is helpful. Two textbooks are used in the course: Meek, Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists; and Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Volume I. (Baic)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, take care of and propagate (and later take home), many different house plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, division and seed germination; forcing spring bulbs indoors; edible wild plants; natural plant dyes; fall vegetable gardening, organic gardening and composting; plant pruning, including bonsai; landscaping around the home; and how to make hanging baskets, terrariums and miniature gardens. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are several field trips which emphasize ecology, edible wild plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as visits to Hidden Lake Gardens and Great Lake Orchids. Two of the highlights of the course are a trip to Brighton Bog and a natural food and edible wild plants dinner. Several guest lecturers help to make this a very interesting class for the beginning indoor gardener as well as those with experience. There are two lectures and one four hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). Required books are Practical Botany by Peter Kaufman and Crockett's Indoor Garden by James Crockett. (Kaufman)

281. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in plant sciences (cell and molecular biology or botany). The course introduces the basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out vital functions and introduces students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The contents of the lectures fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzymes action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, water relations, transpiration and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant developments, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. This course is offered only in the Fall terms. (Charles Yocum and Conrad Yocum)

282. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Botany 281. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course is intended to provide experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiology research. The laboratory experiments will focus on the three main categories covered in Biology 381: (1) plant physiology, (2) transport phenomena and (3) growth and development. Biology 381 must have been taken prior or concurrently with this course. This course is only offered in the Fall terms. (Frasch)

403. Economic Botany. An introductory botany or biology course. (2). (NS).

Botany 403 is open to students who have had an introductory course in botany or biology and/or have an understanding of the basic concepts of plant classification, structure, physiology and reproduction. The general course objectives are to develop a knowledge of the botany, culture, origin, and improvement of cultivated plants and an understanding of the impact of the cultivated plants on the political, economic, and social aspects of our civilization. Topics include the major food crops, the origin of agriculture, agricultural systems throughout the world, beverage, medicinal, and fiber plants, plant breeding, the origin and evolution of the cultivated plants and agricultural resources and the population problem. The course meets one evening per week for two hours. Lectures are supplemented with slides and films. Two projects are required: an herbarium collection of common edible wild plants or weeds and a term paper dealing with a topic appropriate to the study of economic botany. A text is recommended for background reading, supplementation of the lectures, and reference. (Steiner)

445. Morphology and Evolution of Bryophytes. An introductory laboratory course in botany and permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

In order to understand evolutionary potential of bryophytes, one must have some detailed familiarity with the organism. For this reason, course material includes the basic tools for identifying the local species and understanding their environmental adaptations. Lectures emphasize origin and evolution and provide information on morphology, cytology, taxonomy, ecology, and phytogeography, as well as other topics of current biological interest. There are two examinations; both include a practical exercise in identification. Textbooks for the course are Watson, The Structure and Life of Bryophytes; Steere, Liverworts of Southern Michigan; and Crum, Mosses of the Great Lakes Forest. Half-day field trips are planned for the first ten weeks. (Crum)

468. Introduction to Mycology. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or (preferably) Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The principal themes of Botany 468 are the comparative and functional morphology and the taxonomic-evolutionary relationships of the major groups of fungi. These include the slime molds (Myxomycetes), chytrids (Chytridiomycetes), water molds and downy mildews (Oomycetes), and bread molds (Zygomycetes) as well as the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The two latter groups contain such organisms as the yeasts, many important animal and plant parasites, and the mushrooms. The lectures also include topics in fungal physiology, genetics, and ecology, and on the relation of fungi to man (plant pathology, edible and poisonous mushrooms). The course does not deal with medical aspects of mycology or with any specific fungi pathogenic to humans; however, the groups to which many such organisms belong are studied. Laboratory work involves the macroscopic and microscopic study of representatives of the various fungal groups and is based on living material as far as possible. It also provides experience in mycological techniques such as the preparation of nutrient media and of fungal material for microscopic examination. Each student does a project involving the isolation of a variety of fungi from their natural substrates, growing them in pure culture, and identifying them to genus. A kit containing minor items of equipment and supplies for laboratory is available from the Chemistry Service Unit. No laboratory notebook is required. Three field trips are scheduled in early fall to study mushrooms and other fungi in their natural habitats; interested students may also attend optional Saturday trips to further increase their knowledge of mushrooms. Several quizzes and three examinations are held during the term. The examinations are two to two and one-half hours long and include both written and practical parts. Final grades for the course are based on the quiz and examination scores and on the results of the laboratory project. A textbook and several other sources are utilized for assigned readings. (Shaffer)

485. Physiology of Plant Development. Introductory biology and one additional course in botany. (3). (NS).

An integrated approach emphasizing general principles, the adaptive value and regulation of plant development. Growth, morphogenesis, cell differentiation and cell biology of development in a variety of plants including algae and fungi will be covered in terms of environmental, genetic, hormonal and biochemical controls. Applications of this subject in agriculture, the natural history and ecological adaptations of plants will be given. Special topics will include senescence and aging, dormancy, pollination mechanisms, abnormal development (e.g., galls), biological rhythms, photoperiodism, plant movements, mechanical devices, optical phenomena, cell-cell interactions, organelle assembly, genetic engineering and genetic alterations of developmental processes and adaptations to fire, cold, drought and disease. Three lectures per week, three exams, and one short paper. Selected readings. (Nooden)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

341. Parasitology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course concentrates on the biology of animal-animal interactions including parasitism, commensalism and mutualism. The focus is primarily evolutionary and ecological, with emphasis on the origins and development of such associations. The organismal approach will be stressed in studies of Protozoa, various helminth groups and arthropods, with examples including parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Discussions of host-parasite interactions will include co-evolutionary perspectives as well as traditional approaches. No specific background other than introductory biology is required, although courses in ecology and evolutionary biology will be helpful. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two hour-exams, a lecture final, laboratory quizzes and a practical examination. This course consists of three lectures and one laboratory weekly. (OConnor)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114; or the equivalent. (6). (NS).

Lectures focusing on the origin, evolution, and biology of the chordates, with particular emphasis on vertebrates. The evolution of the structure in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates is examined in the laboratory, primarily through dissection of a series of selected vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a museum field trip. (Northcutt)

420. Lectures in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Biol. 105, or Biol 112 and 114; Math 113 or 115; organic chemistry; physics. Students who have completed Zool. 325 must obtain permission of the instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the aims, concepts, and methods of comparative physiology through consideration of metabolic physiology and physiological regulation. Topics covered from a comparative standpoint include: aerobiosis and anaerobiosis, respiratory mechanisms and gas transport, circulation, nitrogen excretion, ionic and osmotic regulation, acid-base balance, and temperature regulation. Physiological adaptation to the environment in the course and a number of examples of it are discussed. Three lectures a week are presented and these are supplemented by assigned readings from a required textbook. There are three one-hour examinations (100 points each) and a final examination (125 points). (Instructor to be announced; inquire at 2083 Nat. Sci. Bldg.)

421. Laboratory in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Accompanied by Zool. 420. (2). (NS).

The laboratory sessions permit work with a number of species of invertebrates and vertebrates in experiments dealing with energy metabolism, respiration and gas transport, circulation, ionic and osmotic regulation, and temperature responses. The laboratory consists of two three-hour periods, with each section limited to twenty students. Laboratory instructions specifically written for Zoology 421 are used. The last two weeks of the laboratory are devoted to independent research projects designed by the students in consultation with the laboratory staff. Students prepare laboratory reports that involve consultation of the original literature. (Instructor to be announced; inquire at 2083 Nat. Sci. Bldg.)

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (NS).

The diverse groups of invertebrate animals are reviewed. Their development, adaptations to the environment, and current views of their systematic and evolutionary relationships are presented. The course consists of lectures and laboratories where both living and preserved animals are studied. Evaluation is by written examination, oral examination, and by practical laboratory examination. Text: Invertebrate Zoology, R.D. Barnes, 4th ed. Saunders. Laboratory manual: Invertebrate Zoology, D.E. Beck and L.F. Braithwaite, 3rd ed. Burgess. (Cather, Burch)

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (4). (NS).

This is a general course which covers information concerning four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom and is intended to give some perspective on invertebrate systems as opposed to the more usual emphasis on vertebrate animals. The emphasis is on the whole animal - what it is, what it does, how it does it, how it got there. In lectures the wealth of information and generalizations gathered from insects concerning all major aspects of biology are discussed. In the laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. This course is an introduction to specialization in all aspects of biology in which insects are appropriate experimental organisms and an introduction to the appreciation and enjoyment of living animals. The following topics are discussed, with special emphasis on aspects recently treated in research publications: synopsis of orders; general functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity and nervous organization; regulation of development and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration in insects; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization in insects; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships of insects; insect flight. The laboratory work encompasses a more unified scope. The only prerequisites for this course are an introductory college course in biology or zoology and an interest in understanding living organisms. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week. Only one text, Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to the Study of Insects, is required for both lecture and laboratory. Except for preparing an insect collection and some collecting, outside work is at a minimum. There is one essay hour exam and a final essay exam in lecture, which are comprehensive in nature; and a minimum of four one-hour practical examinations in laboratory. Zoology 442 will next be offered in Fall, 1987. (T. Moore)

451. Biology of Mammals. Zool. 252 or 351 and permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The course introduces students to the ecology, behavior, anatomy, physiology, and systematics of mammals and to unresolved problems in need of further research. The instructors use a phylogenetic approach and provide a sound starting point for various kinds of studies involving mammals. Course material covered includes ancestry of the Mammalia; cursorial, arboreal, fossorial and aquatic adaptations; integumentary structures and their functions; thermoregulation; communication; population dynamics; behavior; ecology; zoogeography; and systematics and classification. The two lectures each week focus on various aspects of the biology of mammals. In laboratory sessions (two three-hour periods each week) students survey the orders and families of mammals with special attention to species of the midwestern United States. Three weekend field trips focus on biology of local faunas. A text supplements the lectures, and a published manual is necessary for the laboratory. Two midterm examinations and a final examination cover lectures, laboratory, and assigned reading. (Myers)

455/Nat. Res. 422. Biology of Fishes. Eight hours of biology, including vertebrate anatomy. (2-4). (Excl).

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of the lower vertebrates commonly known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology and reproduction. The systematic position of fishes among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages are examined. Special attention is given to the consequences of the physical properties of water to the form, function and modes of living of fishes. The laboratory examines in greater detail some of the topics covered by lectures. It provides information on local and world fishes, their anatomy and classification, use of field equipment, guides and identification keys. Laboratory exercises will illustrate selected aspects of behavior and function. A scheduled discussion section examines current papers in the primary literature, with emphasis on hypothesis formulation and testing. At least two field trips are included as laboratories. Prerequisites: introductory biology and a course in vertebrate biology; exceptions must be approved by the instructors. Evaluation of students is based on two open-book exams, a closed-book final exam and a laboratory exam. All exams contain essay questions that will require synthesis and logical examination of novel problems. The take-home exams will include numerical problems. Students are also expected to keep laboratory notes that will be graded. (Fink and Webb)

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