Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (3). (HU).

This course offers a broad, humanistic examination of the numerous elements which make up the Near East. Students will be introduced to the people, cultures, historical background, and economic and political problems of the area. The course emphasizes the period from the rise of Islam to modern times and shows how Europeans and N.E. populations through a series of encounters and confrontations have learned from and influenced each other. The course has no prerequisites. While intended for the general student body, it will also provide a structural framework for beginning students in N.E. Studies by showing the relationship between subject matter presented in more advanced courses. There will be one midterm and a final. Two short term papers (5 pp.), the first on outside readings, the second on accompanying films. The course is based on lectures, guest lecturers, and class discussion. Special "lab" sessions will introduce students to N.E. food and dance. (Kolars)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201 for description. (Freedman)

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. (Stewart-Robinson)

465/Hist. 406. History of Ancient Israel. Junior or senior standing, or Honors students. (3). (HU).

There are three objectives for this course: (a) To examine the rise of ancient Israel and its religion within the setting of its time, and from the internal evidence of the Old Testament as well as the external evidence of archaeology. (b) To examine the course of ancient Israel's development within the world of ancient super-powers such as Babylonia, Assyria, Persia, Greece and Rome. (c) To examine the contribution of Hebrew religious and ethical thought to the Western perspective of life. The course is designed for upperclass and graduate students. The principal textbooks will be John Bright, History of Israel, and W.F. Albright, The Biblical Period (possibly now issued under a different title) and several others. The work of the course includes the usual reading and writing assignments, and the course will be conducted as a lecture-discussion class. Writing assignments : ECB students: 4 papers; non-ECB students: 2 papers, Graduate students: 3 papers, two short, and a longer term paper. (Orlin)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature, Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. (Schramm)

470/Hist. 440. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500 945. (3). (HU).

This course emphasizes the political and economic background, as well as the main aspects and social trends characterizing the rise and peak of Islamic civilization between the seventh and tenth centuries of C.E. (Ehrenkreutz)

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900 1350. (4). (HU).

This course deals with one of the most important varieties of Islamic Civilization, and the one formed in the area stretching from present-day Iraq across the Iranian Plateau to Central Asia. Perso-Islamic Civilization underlies the modern Islamic cultures of Afghanistan, Muslim Soviet Central Asia, Pakistan, Muslim India, and Iran, and it had a great deal of influence on the formation of Ottoman Turkish Civilization. Topics will include Ancient Iran's contribution to the formation of Islamic Civilization in Arabic, the emergence and maturation of New Persian literature, the impact of the Turkish invasions, Perso-Islamic Civilization on the eve of the Mongol invasion and the transfer of this culture to India as an "émigré civilization" under the Delhi Sultanate. A paper or set of four critical reviews, a midterm and a final are required. Readings are from secondary materials and source translations in English from a reserve list and a course pack. (Luther)

487/Phil. 471. Muslim Philosophy. (3). (HU).

This course will begin by looking at the Hellenistic background to Muslim philosophy, and then concentrate on Muslim philosophy as it developed during the Medieval period. Major philosophers (like Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ghazali, and Ibn Rushd) will be studied in some depth. Later developments in philosophy (especially in Persia) will be taken into account. A look at modern developments in Muslim philosophy will conclude the course. All readings will be in English. Two exams and a term paper. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LSA Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors", or with "with Honors", in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

561. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is a senior/graduate-level course designed to introduce students to the history of Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria, the Hittites, and related interacting cultures. It will identify a number of special topics and organize reading, discussion, and writing around these. A number of available textbooks will be used, but the emphasis will be on going to the original written sources in translation, and to relevant summaries of archaeological research. The period covered is from ca. 3000 BC to Alexander. Students at junior level, or below, should elect Near Eastern Studies 361. All students will write two short papers, and the graduate students will additionally be asked to write a longer term paper. (Orlin)

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

282/Rel. 282. Letters of Paul in Translation. (3). (HU).

An examination of the Letters of Paul with special reference to Romans, I & II Corinthians, Galatians, and I Thessalonians. The primary focus of this course is on the development of Paul's religious ideas, but attention will also be paid to the sociology of the Pauline churches, Paul's disuse of historical tradition, the sources, or putative sources, of his knowledge of the historical Jesus, and the opposition to his version of the Gospel during and after his missionary activity. The deuteropauline letters will be used as documentation for the interpretation of Paul in the late first and early second century, and examined for the light they shed on the nature of the various threats and rivals to Paul's ministry. Finally, the course will touch on the question of Paul's authority in the history of the church and influence on the development of Christian doctrine. EVALUATION: Students will be asked to take a midterm examination, an essay final examination, and may (at their option) write a term paper. TEXTS: W. Meeks, ed. The Writings of St. Paul; G. Bornkamm, Paul; D.R. McDonald, The Legend and the Apostle. (Hoffmann)

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. (4). (HU).

An exploration of the development of early Christianity from the first to the fourth century. Primary attention will be focused on the development of the early Jesus-tradition, the sources for reconstructing the life, worship, and beliefs of the first Christian communities in Asia Minor and Macedonia, and the formation of the New Testament canon. Attention will also be given to the sociological and intellectual background of the early Christian communities, their emergence from synagogue-Judaism, their appropriation of practices and ideas from rival religious cults and philosophies, and the problem of Christian 'identity' in the Hellenistic world. Students taking the course for credit will take a midterm examination and may elect either to write a research paper or to take a final examination. Texts: Oxford Annotated Bible; R. Bultmann, Primitive Christianity; W.H.C. Frend, The Early Church; H.C. Kee, Christian Origins in Sociological Perspective; and R. Bainton, The Early Church. ABS/REL. 280 or 282 helpful but not prerequisite. (Hoffmann)

484/Rel. 489. Introduction to New Testament Interpretation. ABS 280 or 281. (4). (HU).

See Religion 489 for description. (Freedman)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as eight hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Arabic Phonology and Script by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part One, by P. Abboud et al. (Staff, Rammuny)

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

No previous knowledge of Arabic is required for Arabic 201. This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. This course starts with A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script, by Ernest N. McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part I, by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets eight hours per week for eight credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. (Rammuny)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. Passages in Arabic are translated sometimes with and sometimes without the use of a dictionary. There are also dictionary practice drills which are intended to aid vocabulary acquisition and discussion of specific morphological problems based on extracts taken from Arabic newspapers. This is a semi-intensive course which meets six hours each week. With the aim of achieving a practical command of spoken modern standard Arabic, there is an application of the fundamentals of grammar through drill sessions with a native speaker. In order to develop a command of written Arabic, students produce (in Arabic) weekly summaries, commentaries, and composition. Arabic 401 is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for students who expect to learn the language for use in related fields. Weekly quizzes, midterm, and final. (Staff, Rammuny)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

411. Moroccan Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Primary concentration is on phonology and morphology of Moroccan Arabic as well as on vocabulary buildup and sentence structure. (Drilling by a native speaker.) Then students will concentrate on conversations and cultural texts in transcription, with extensive oral drills. Aim: to achieve fluency in this dialect of Arabic. (Stories, cultural, ethnic, and historical texts, customs and habits of the Moroccan people as well as life and thought in Morocco.) Weekly assignments, midterm and final exams. (Staff, Rammuny)

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectual Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). No textbook, but a reading list will be distributed. (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny Advanced Arabic Composition Based on Literary Texts and Audio-Visual Materials, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications, 1980. Also Raji Rammuny Students' Guide, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications 1980. (Rammuny)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills. (Coffin)

202. Elementary Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 201 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Continuation of the development of basic communication skills of reading, writing and speaking modern standard Hebrew. Class drills, class discussions in Hebrew, language laboratory drills. (Coffin)

302(402). Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Review of morphology and syntax readings in fiction and non-fiction prose. Continued emphasis on oral work, and writing skills. Intermediate level. (Coffin)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

401(501). Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The object of this course is to enhance the student's Hebrew reading and writing skills. In addition, emphasis is placed on expanding student's vocabulary. To present the various levels of Hebrew, the materials include heterogeneous texts, ranging from the biblical period to modern times. (Balaban)

451. Modern Jewish Literature in Translation. A knowledge of Hebrew is not required. (3). (HU).

This course is the first of a two term survey sequence of Modern Hebrew Literature. The emphasis is on early 20th century Hebrew authors. In the Fall Term the readings will be selected from the works of such authors as Steinberg, Shofman, Baron, Brenner, Hazaz, and Agnon. In the Winter Term, in Hebrew 452, the emphasis will be on the Generation of the State, and readings will be selected from the works of such authors as Yizhar, Meged, Oz, Yeshoshua, and Appelfeld. (Balaban)

530. Structure of Hebrew. (3).

An intensive analysis of the graphemics, phonology, morphology and syntax of literary Hebrew based on the literary corpus of the Bible and the other movements of Hebrew literature. Students will be required to submit a paper on a specific problem, and there will be one midterm exam. Prerequisites: a reading knowledge of Hebrew. (Schramm)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. Student evaluation is based on examinations-periodic quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The basic text, Modern Persian. Elementary Level, by Windfuhr and Tehranisa, will be used throughout Persian 201 and supplemented by coordinated tapes produced for enrolled students in the language lab. (Windfuhr)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Luther)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

551. Modern Persian Fiction. Iranian 402 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The objective of this course is the development, form, and content of Modern Persian Fiction from its beginnings in the 19th century until today. At the same time, it introduces the students to main approaches to the study of Persian literature. Major writers and works (most included in a course pack) will be selected for in depth study and analysis, in relation to their place in literary history and art as well as in their cultural-intellectual environment. It is offered for all students with sufficient background in Persian, with at least 2-year proficiency in that language. The method of instruction will be both lecture and discussion. Each student is expected to present several papers during the term for discussion in the class, and a final extended paper on a topic of his or her choice. Students will also take turns for keeping minutes of the discussions. Evaluations will be based evenly on participation and the papers presented. (Windfuhr)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, Turkish for Foreigners (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, Turkish (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' Turkish Grammar (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. (Stewert-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. (Stewart-Robinson)

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