Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. If essays are assigned, they will be short and based on the assigned readings. (Lindner)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. (Price)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 121. (Murphy)

151/Asian Studies 111. The Civilizations of South and Southeast Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Trautman)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the reading instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's Democracy in America), and a novel (Uncle Tom's Cabin.) The major theme of the lectures is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The growth and development of American individualism" although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meetings will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course examines selected aspects of the history of the United States since the Civil War. While the reading assignments a textbook and collateral reading cover the full spectrum of that history, the lectures will pay particular attention to three themes the growth, maturation and weakening of an industrial society; the Black experience from Reconstruction to Reagan; and the triumphant and troubled role of the United States in international politics in the Twentieth Century. There will be two lectures and two section meetings each week. (Perkins)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from the Bronze Age through 200 B.C. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material, together with selected readings from Greek sources in translation. There is a midterm hour examination plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. (Humphreys)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "diginity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

The course treats the Vietnam War both as part of an ongoing revolution within Vietnamese society and as the product of Western interventions in that revolution. It will look at the background of Vietnamese nationalism in the period of French colonialism and coalescence of that nationalism with a militant revolutionary movement. The resulting foreign wars, first with France and then with the U.S., will be discussed in the context of post-World War II global tendencies, including movements for national liberation, Western responses to these movements, and American policies for containing communism. Special attention will be given to the manner of U.S. involvement in and extrication from Vietnam. There will be assigned readings from different points of view, three 50-minute lectures and a 50-minute discussion section each week, midterm and final examinations, and an optional paper. (Lieberman)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of Chinese history from the Neolithic Age to the early 1800s, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

262. The American South. Hist. 160 and 161 are recommended but not required. (4). (SS).

This course concerns the history of one of America's largest minorities: Southerners. Beginning with the colonial origins of Southern society, it will explore the social, economic, political, cultural, and religious characteristics that have, until recently, made the South a region unto itself. Readings will include the work of distinguished historians of the South like C. Vann Woodward, Charles Sydnor, Edmund Morgan, Eugene Genovese, John Hope Franklin, and Harold Woodman, as well as the work of literary and journalistic interpreters of the South, such as Frederick Law Olmsted, Michael Shaara, and William Faulkner. Some background in American history is advisable though, for energetic students, not essential. The course will be taught through lectures and discussion. Requirements include midterm and final examinations, and a short (10-page) final paper. (Fields)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afroamerican History I. (4). (SS).

See CAAS 230. (Holt)

276. History of Canada. (4). (SS).

This course is designed to introduce American students with little or no prior knowledge to the history of Canada. The aim is to get a basic grasp of Canadian history its main themes, patterns and personalities. The method is comparative whenever appropriate, using the more familiar history of the U.S. as a point of reference, and with some limited attention to Mexico. In short, the idea is to place Canada in its North American context, asking why western European colonization produced such contrasting modern results. The final grade is based on midterm (20%) and final (50%) examinations, plus a 1500-word paper (20%) and less formal criteria (10%), including class attendance and participation. More than in some history courses, the examinations will stress people, places, and events for example, who settled the St. Lawrence valley, or what happened when Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act in 1970. The paper should deal with a single "Canadian" work - politics, fiction, autobiography, art, etc., but not "history" as such and should relate that work to a general understanding of Canada, its culture and its history. Consultation before the end of October on the paper subject is required, and no paper will be accepted after the start of the last lecture hour. Lectures meet twice a week. The first part of each meeting will be a fairly formal presentation, and the second part will be spent in discussion or written exercises (graded and ungraded). Attendance and weekly preparation is expected; absences and being unprepared will be considered in the final grade. (Shy)

283. Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (4). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. This course will study a variety of historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision-making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Indians, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. The readings will focus on the English speaking world since 1492, although comparisons with other societies will be introduced. This course is a basic introduction. No background in medicine or history is assumed or required. Classes will be taught in lecture format, using a variety of audio and visual source materials. Reading assignments will emphasize primary source documents, such as old newspapers, magazines, and vintage medical journals. Modern historical articles will also be assigned. There will be a midterm and final exam, and periodic short quizzes. (Pernick)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (4). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantines' conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam (which can be taken orally or as a written) and a final are required. (J. Fine)

287/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the periods of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (R. Suny)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

316. History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (4). (SS).

The course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of eight to ten pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395.

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books, films and discussion sections - -America's wars of the past 85 years, with emphasis on those that have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience in combat as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's pattern of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be little discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. Students are asked to select one of the lecture sections, and to register as well for one of the discussion sections scheduled to meet an additional hour each week. There are no history-course prerequisites for History 366. (Linderman)

370/Women's Studies 370. Women in American History to 1870. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, races, religions, and ethnic communities. Using "work" as an organizing concept, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experience from the colonial period to 1870. (Karlsen)

386. The Holocaust. (4). (SS).

This lecture course will attempt to answer some of the most vexing historical problems surrounding the Nazi regime's systematic extermination of six million Jews during World War II. For example: What role did Christian hostility to Judaism play in the growth of genocidal racism in Germany? How did German political traditions prepare the way for Nazi authoritarianism? Why did the German people acquiesce in the Nazi program of mass murder? Why did the American and British governments refuse to come to the aid of European Jews? How did European Jews behave in crisis and extremity? Was the Holocaust "unique"? There will be a midterm, a paper of 10 to 15 pages, and a comprehensive final. (Endelman)

394. Reading Course. Only open to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Antisemitism and Jewish Responses, 1815-1939.
This course will explore the development of hostility to Jews in political, cultural, and social life in Europe and America from the early 19th century to the eve of World War II. It will seek to understand why the growth of rationalistic, scientific world views from the Enlightenment on failed to weaken medieval fantasies and libels about Jews and why antisemitism played so prominent a role in European political life between 1870 and 1939. The course will also consider how Jews responded to antisemitism individually and communally. Among the responses to be considered will be radical assimilation, self-hatred, conversion, emigration, political activism, cultural nationalism, and political Zionism. Since the course is a colloquium, with the emphasis on classroom discussion of assigned readings, students will write a number of short critical essays rather than take examinations. Although there are no formal prerequisites for the course, students who have taken a survey of either modern Jewish history or modern European history will be at a distinct advantage. (Endelman)

Section 002 Kinship, Gender, and Sexuality in Traditional Europe. The nature of kinship structures and family relations in medieval and early modern Europe, with consideration of social and regional variety and change over time. A look in some detail at how the structure and ideology of the family in the West relate to the assignment of gender roles and to attitudes toward sexuality. The influence of both Church and State on the formation of acceptable family patterns will be studied. The class will be run as a seminar, and a research paper will be required. (Hughes)

Section 003 "Modernization" and Westernization: Western Pressures and Asian responses in the Development of Asia, 1800-1980. This is designed primarily as a reading and discussion course, in which we will all read a series of basic books (and some more specialized monographs and articles) dealing with the topic and discuss them in weekly two-hour class sessions. Four shortish (5-10 pages) essays will be required (although provision can be made for a longer paper or papers in special cases), but these will take the place of an examination. We will deal both sequentially and, as the term progresses, comparatively, with the "modernization-Westernization" theme in India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan, with perhaps some marginal attention to Korea if time and student interest permit. The chief focus will center around the "modernization"-Westernization issue and the effort to distinguish the two in the context of the development of each major Asian area under the impact of imperialist and other external pressures, as outsiders confronted the separate indigenous Asian systems, each with its own circumstances and momentum. Finally we will attempt to assess the relative roles of these various elements in the emergence of modern Asia from the perspective of the present. Some use, as further perspective, may also be made of short pieces of modern Asian fiction. (Murphey)

Section 004 "The Presidency in the 1970's: Domestic and Economic Issues." For this upper division writing and research seminar, students will focus on the history of the 1970's and specifically upon Gerald R. Ford and his presidential administration. The seminar will meet as a class for lecture/discussion during the first four weeks at the Gerald R. Ford Library on North Campus. Students will then meet individually with the instructor as they research and write a report on selected topics utilizing the resources of the Ford Library. Students should have a survey knowledge of recent American History. Evaluation will be based on discussion, an exam over assigned readings, and a research paper, with the emphasis being on the latter. Objectives of the course are: (1) Provide an overview of the office of the president; (2) Examine the White House and how it functions in the creation of the documentary record; (3) Provide a summary review of the presidency of Gerald R. Ford; and (4) Learn how to conduct research and write a seminar paper. Research topics will focus on economics, energy and environment, social issues, and political campaign of the 1970's. (Wilson)

Section 006 American Political Development. This course will attempt to provide an improved understanding of contemporary problems and controversies confronting the United States by considering them in relation to the national historical experience and the processes of change and development which the nation has undergone. The underlying argument is that political institutions, practices and values are formed in particular historical circumstances but persist long after those circumstances have changed. One consequence is political stability and the avoidance of radical and potentially disruptive change. A second consequence is that persistent practices, institutions and values can become problems themselves, and constraints on the capacity of the nation to respond to new needs and challenges. Thus a central goal of the course will be to assess for the contemporary period, the consequences of these patterns of persistence. To do so will require examination of aspects of the political development of the United States from the founding of the nation to the present. Grades will be based on several papers and class participation. (Clubb)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Section 003 Reconstruction After Slavery. This course will examine the political, economic, and social transformation of the South following the War. Topics of discussion will include the impact of the Civil War on the slave labor system, the evolution of a "free" labor system, and the nature of national and state-level politics during the postwar period. Readings and discussions will emphasize the evaluation of primary sources eyewitness accounts, letters, diaries, congressional testimony, etc. Requirements include a research paper, a take-home final, and several short pieces. (Holt)

Section 004 Science, Medicine, and Sexuality: Historical Perspectives. Medical concepts about human sexuality and gender have both affected and reflected changes in science and society. This course will examine four aspects of this relationship: 1) comparison of women and men as medical practitioners; 2) comparisons of the health problems and medical treatment of men and women patients; 3) biomedical concepts about the nature of sexuality; 4) biomedical influences on gender roles in society. Emphasis will be placed on the ways in which female roles have affected male roles and vice-versa. Readings and discussions will center on the United States and England from 1600 to the present. The course will be organized chronologically. No background in history or medicine is required, though a previous introduction to either could be useful. Class will be discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Reading assignments will include primary source materials such as old medical journals and newspapers, as well as modern historical works. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully the equivalent of a short book per week. A 20-page paper based on original historical research is required. Each student will also be required to prepare two 3-5 page book reviews. There are no written examinations. (Pernick)

Section 005 Cuba: History and Revolution. Cuba has long been distinctive within the Caribbean: it was one of the few Spanish colonies that did not achieve independence in the early 19th century; it soon became the world's largest producer of cane sugar, with an economy resting on slave labor; its eventual war for independence was distinctive for its social radicalism, though independence was immediately followed by North American occupation; then, in the 1960's, it became the first socialist state in the hemisphere. This course examines Cuba's history, beginning in the late eighteenth century and continuing through to the Cuban revolution of 1959 and its aftermath. We will trace the development of political and economic structures, class relations, and social organization, as well as Cuba's relationship to other countries. The aim of this seminar is two-fold: to examine the sources of change and continuity in Cuban history, and to understand how one goes about using primary data to develop and defend specific historical interpretations. Readings for the course include works by Knight, Moreno Fraginals, Perez, and Mesa-Lago, as well as primary materials by Richard Henry Dana, Jose Marti, Oscar Lewis, Che Guevara, and Fidel Castro. Students will each write two short critical reviews, and one longer research paper. (Scott)

Section 006 Comparative Revolutionary Elites. The course will study and compare the personalities and the writings of selected leaders of opposition movements advocating radical social change. The focus of the comparison will be a contrast between several violent and non-violent trends. The examples of violent movements to be studied are: 1) Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism; 2) Anarchism; and 3) Fascism. The non-violent movements are those associated with 1) Gandhi, Tolstoy, and related "non-violent" resistance groups; 2) communal movements in India, Israel, the U.S. and elsewhere; and the recent wave of "narcissism" with its emphasis on an "inward" voyage as the route to follow towards solving individual and social problems. The course will be especially interested in relating the ideas to the personalities of their authors and in evaluating the social consequences of those ideas and ideals, judging, that is, their success or failure and their social costs. The course will involve, mainly discussions of the assigned readings. In addition to active participation in those discussions, the requirements are one term paper and a final exam. (Mendel)

Section 007 Soldiers, Diplomats, Merchants and Missionaries: The American Involvement in Modern Japan. This course concerns one aspect of the encounter between the United States and Japan. It deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in the changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It focuses on individual Americans from different walks of life government representatives, military figures, businessmen, government advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers, and explorers their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as a way of examining the broader involvement of Americans in the history of modern Japan. Each student will prepare three biographical sketches. Grades will be based on class discussions of readings and on the quality of oral reports and assigned papers. (Hackett)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (Scott)

403. The Early Roman Empire. (4). (HU).

An investigation through lectures and discussion of political, social, and intellectual developments within the Roman Empire from the "reign" of Julius Caesar to the revolution of A.D. 193. Students will be expected to read widely in the primary and secondary literature and to submit a ten-page paper on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor. Optional midterm (will be given on demand) and a final examination. (Eadie)

411. Medieval Society, Eleventh to Fifteenth Centuries. (4). (SS).

This course will deal with the principal economic and social changes to occur in Europe over the later Middle Ages. Emphasis will be placed on the effects of prosperity and depression on the various regions of Europe. The nature and character of relationships between the leading states and the Church will also be analyzed. Readings will be from source materials as well as historical classics. A midterm and a final will be given. (Hughs)

415. Intellectual History of Europe, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. (4). (HU).

This course is designed to introduce students to the field of intellectual history while covering the main currents of Western European thought during the early modern era. It will focus on the shift from traditional Christianity to Enlightenment thought, beginning with the Copernican Revolution and ending with the age of Voltaire and Rousseau. Reading assignments will include selections from works by celebrated thinkers and recent interpretations of controversial issues such as Galileo's Trial, the relation between Protestantism and science, Baroque court culture, the power of the press, the effects of censorship and the social role of intellectuals. Written assignments will consist of an annotated reading list, an hour exam, and a final. (Eisenstein)

425. French Revolution. (4). (SS).

This course will treat the French Revolution as a transformation of politics, culture and society. It will be based largely on a close reading and analysis of contemporary documents, supplemented by secondary readings. Classes will be taught mainly by discussion method, although there will be occasional lectures. (Sewell)

430. Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (4). (HU).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the history of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and conversion to Christianity (entering Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationships between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed: all that is sought is student interest. Freshmen and sophomores are welcome, and in past years freshmen have taken and done very well in the course. The textbook for the course is Ostrgorsky's History of the Byzantine State, take into consideration special interests, and a special reading list has been drawn up for those interested in Church History. Requirements: A midterm written hour exam (in place of which a half-hour oral exam may be taken). One ten-page paper (which can be used to replace the hour exam if the student chooses and takes on a more major project) and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J. Fine)

432. Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (SS).

The course covers the first seven centuries of recorded Russian history and focuses on such major topics as the Norsemen's conquest of Russia, the Golden Age of Kiev, the Mongol invasion, the rise of Moscow, relations with the West, expansion into Siberia, the Ukraine, and first contacts with China. During the first ten weeks, lectures follow a roughly chronological sequence (to the reign of Peter the Great). The last five weeks feature a series of survey lectures on special topics such as women in Old Russia, Jews and Jewish influences in Old Russian history, Cossacks, the rise of serfdom, Ivan the Terrible, aristocrats and bureaucrats, holy fools, problems in Old Russian culture, and legends and myths that shaped Russian history. The basic text is N. Riasanovsky's A History of Russia. Modest additional readings will be assigned. Questions and comments from the class during a lecture are welcome. The course is open to all students and assumes no prior knowledge of Russian history. (Dewey)

434. History of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

This course investigates the social and political history of the Soviet Union from the revolutions of 1917 to the present. Of particular concern will be the fate of Soviet democracy, the means by which the Communist Party maintained power in a largely peasant country, and the revolutionary transformation initiated by the state in the 1930's. The impact of World War II, late Stalinism, and de-Stalinism will also be explored. Lectures will provide the principal narrative and analysis; discussion sections will delve into particularly complex problem areas. Two examinations and one research paper will be required. Readings will include works by Moshe Lewin, Robert Tucker, Sheila Fitzpatrick, as well as original sources. It is recommended (but not required) that students have taken History 433, Imperial Russia. (Suny)

438. Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (4). (SS).

This course consists of two parts. Part I provides a brief survey of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Habsburg Monarchy and their component nationalities (Poles, Lithuanians, Jews, Czechs, Slovaks) to the end of the 18th century. Part II reviews the history of the area in the 19th century against the background of social and economic change (urbanization, industrialization, abolition of serfdom) and new political ideas: liberalism, democracy, nationalism and socialism. Readings will include R.A. Kahn, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1526-1918, P. Wandycz, The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918, and H. Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801-1917. (Szporluk)

440/GNE 470. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500-945. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 470. (Ehrenkreutz)

451. Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is W.G. Beasley, The Modern History of Japan, (Praeger, rev. ed., 1974, pb). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. (Hackett)

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (4). (HU).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

462. The United States in the Early National Period, 1789-1830. (4). (SS).

This course is an intensive examination of the major political currents in the period 1789-1830. Examples of these topics are the formation of a national government under the Constitution, the gradual and increasingly bitter party division during the 1790's, the foreign policy issues leading to the War of 1812 and the uneasy experiment with one-party politics after the War. The reading consists of major monographs on these topics. There is no text. The one midterm examination will be a "take-home" and for the final examination there will be a choice between the "take-home" and standard two-hour forms. (Livermore)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

477. Hispanic America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is thematic, focusing on a series of topics: (1) the colonial heritage and political independence, (2) political systems and the search for order, (3) economic dependency and development, (4) labor systems (including slavery, sharecropping, wage labor, peasant cultivation and peonage), (5) class and ethnicity, and (6) revolution and reaction. Selected countries will be discussed under each topic, with particular emphasis on Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andes, and Central America. The method of instruction will be lecture/discussion, with strong encouragement of student participation. Requirements include a short book review, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. There will be readings in primary and secondary historical and anthropological sources, including Gibson, Spain in America, Stein and Stein, The Colonial Heritage of Latin America, Keen and Wasserman, A Short History of Latin America, Reed, The Caste War of Yucatan, Mintz, Worker in the Cane, Fredrich, Agrarian Revolt in a Mexican Village, Knight, Slave Society in Cuba, Castro, History Will Absolve Me, as well as selected fiction by Arguedas, Asturias, Fuentes and Garcia Marquez. (Scott)

487/Engl. 416. Women in Victorian England. (4). (HU).

See English 416. (Vicinus)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 493. (Webb)

507/GNE 463. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

See GNE 463. (Orlin)

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (HU).

A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from earliest times until the fall of the Gaelic order. The course is conducted mainly by lecture. Students will write two briefer papers and a longer one, and have a final examination. There are no prerequisites for the course though a prior course in later Irish history, or in Irish literature, or in ancient or medieval European history would be helpful. (McNamara)

543/GNE 472. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (HU).

See General Near East 472. (Luther)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (HU).

In this course, we shall seek the origins of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, which was so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely for antecedents and shall hear testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, bandits and warlords, cultural iconoclasm and conservative reaction, nationalism and women's liberation, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Mao's social vision and the People's Republic as a model of development.

Some familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful. Those entering the course without background should be ready to do some catch-up work. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write three short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

560. Social History of the United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The course focuses on the evolution of American society in terms of the interplay among elites, formal organizations, cultural values, world-views, and overall social arrangements in the history of what we call the United States. The term treats three main topics: 1) the transfer of English social and cultural arrangements to North America, including comparison with other European settlement patterns and labor systems, the nature of colonial community life, and religion, social control and power in early America; 2) the creation of provincial and national levels of integration, covering, among other subjects, the roles of conflicting elites on various levels of society, the formation of a new nation, the relation of state to society, and creation of American nationality and cultures(s); and 3) the first age of organizations and the organization of a national society, including the transformation of rural and urban landscape through industrialization and immigration, the changing nature of the workplace, the rise of the middle class, and the triumph of individualism and liberalism as the American way of understanding society and culture. Lectures will provide overview, readings will cover case studies of the various themes, and discussions will link themes and reading. Evaluations will come from essay examinations, book reports and/or a term paper. (Berkhofer)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (4). (HU).

This course explores the intellectual experience of educated Americans since the Civil War. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, politics, society, knowledge, morality, the physical world, and American national destiny as these ideas surfaced in the discourse of leading thinkers. Attention will be given to the scientific and literary cultures of the Victorian era, and to the legacies of these two, often conflicting cultures in the twentieth century. Attention will also be devoted to; (a) the shifting ethnic, gender, and geographic foundations for American intellectual life, (b) the emergence of cultural modernism, (c) the political discourse of American intellectuals in relation to Stalinism, the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the crisis of the 1960's, and (d) the reconstruction of "positivistic" social science. Readings are likely to include works by William James, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dewey, Robert Penn Warren, Reinhold Niebuhr, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Josiah Royce, Ruth Benedict, Sinclair Lewis, Lionel Trilling, Thomas S. Kuhn, Edmund Wilson, and Randolph Bourne; while some attention will be given to prominent Europeans whose work was widely discussed in the United States (e.g., Charles Darwin, Matthew Arnold, W. K. Clifford, Thomas Mann, and Leon Trotsky). Students will be asked to complete one midterm, one paper, and one final examination. (Hollinger)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

This course examines the origins, development, and growth of American business. After tracing the beginning of business enterprise in Europe, the course describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation, the antitrust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920's, the impact on business of the 1929 depression and the New Deal, economic aspects of World War II, and, at considerable length, the postwar business scene. Two quizzes, final exam. (Lewis)

571/Amer. Inst. 471. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 471. (Vinovskis)

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (SS).

This course traces the history of the criminal law in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: one short paper based on documents, a midterm and a final examination. (Green)

593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

In Fall Term, 1986, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496, section 002. (Chavez)

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