Since the Physics Department discourages students from changing midstream
from Physics 140 to Physics 125 or from Physics 240 to Physics 126, it is
important that students choose the first course of a physics sequence with
care. Prospective engineers, physicists and chemists should elect Physics
140/240 rather than Physics 125/126 because concentration programs in these
areas require the Physics 140/240 sequence. In the case of some departmental
concentration programs (zoology, biology, * etc.) * or in special individual
circumstances, students can elect or are encouraged to elect the Physics
125/126 sequence. Some advisors will advise all students who have had calculus
to elect Physics 140/240. Physics 140/240 can be elected by all students
who have had calculus, but it should be elected only by students who enjoy
solving difficult problems and who think that they will be good at it.

**125. General Physics: Mechanics, Sound, and Heat. *** Two and one-half years of high school mathematics, including
trigonometry. No credit granted to those who have completed 140. (3). (NS). *

Physics 125 and 126 constitute a two-term sequence offered primarily
for students concentrating in the natural sciences, architecture, pharmacy, or natural resources; and for preprofessional students preparing for medicine, dentistry, or related health sciences. Physics 125 and 126 are an appropriate
sequence for any student wanting a quantitative introduction to the basic
principles of physics but without the mathematical sophistication of Physics
140 and 240. Strong emphasis is placed on problem solving, and skills in
rudimentary algebra and trigonometry are assumed. While a high school level
background in physics is not assumed, it is helpful. Physics 125 and 126
are * not available * by the Keller plan. * Physics 125 * covers mechanics
and mechanical waves including sound waves. The final course grade is based
on three one hour examinations, class performance and a final examination. * Physics 126 * is a continuation of Physics 125; and covers electricity
and magnetism, the nature of light, and briefly introduces atomic and nuclear
phenomena.

**126. General Physics: Electricity and Light. *** Phys. 125. No credit
granted to those who have completed 240. (3). (NS). *

See Physics 125 for a general description.

**140. General Physics I. *** Prior or concurrent
election of calculus. Phys. 140 and 141 are normally elected concurrently.
No credit granted to those who have completed 125. (3). (NS). *

Physics 140, 240, and 242 constitute a three-term sequence which examines
concepts in physics fundamental to the physical sciences and engineering.
Physics 242 focuses on modern physics and is required of all physics concentrators.
This introductory sequence uses calculus, and, while it is possible to elect
Physics 140 and Mathematics 115 concurrently, some students will find it
more helpful to have started one of the regular mathematics sequences before
electing Physics 140. This introductory sequence is primarily designed to
develop a * skill *: the skill to solve simple problems by means of mathematics.
Developing this skill requires * daily * practice and a sense for the * meaning * of statements and formulas, as well as an awareness of when
one understands a statement, proof, or problem solution and when one does
not. Thus one learns to know what one knows in a disciplined way. The final
course grade is based on class performance and upon examinations.

Certain sections (see the * Time Schedule) * of Physics 140 and 240 are
offered by the Keller Plan, a self-paced program without formal lectures.
An information sheet describing the format of Keller Plan offerings is available
in the Physics Department Office (1049 Randall Laboratory). Students who
want to elect Physics 140 or 240 by the Keller Plan should read this information
before registering.

Honors sections of Physics 140 and 240 are offered each term. Prospective physics concentrators are encouraged to register for these sections.

**240. General Physics II. *** Phys. 140 or the equivalent; Phys. 240
and 241 are normally elected concurrently. No credit granted to those who
have completed 126. (3). (NS). *

See Physics 140.

**242. General Physics III. *** Phys. 240 or equivalent. (3). (NS). *

This course will deal in a quantitative manner with topics which may
be classified as "modern" physics, and shall include the investigation
of: special relativity, the relationship of particles and waves, the Schrödinger
equation applied to barrier problems, atomic structure and the interpretation
of quantum numbers, the exclusion principle and its applications, structure
of solids, * etc. * The class will meet as a lecture group. Applications of the principles will be considered in the lecture section on a regular basis.

**333. Elementary Keller Program. *** Permission of instructor. (1-3).
(Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of concentration adviser. *

Students work as tutors in Physics 140 or 240 Keller sections. One to three hours of credit may be earned while providing tutoring on a one-to-one basis under the supervision of a faculty member. Tutors are expected to spend three clock hours per week for each credit hour earned. Registration requires instructor approval, and the appropriate application forms are available in the Physics Department Office, 1049 Randall Laboratory.

**401. Intermediate Mechanics. *** Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216;
or equivalent. (3). (NS). *

This course is required for physics concentrators. It includes a study of vector operators and vector calculus along with their application to various physical problems. Among the topics investigated are: (1) harmonic motion in several dimensions; (2) motion under the influence of central forces; (3) wave motion; and (4) rigid-body rotation. The methods of LaGrange are applied to suitable examples. Examinations are given at various times during the term.

**402. Light. *** Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent.
(3). (NS). *

This course may be included in a concentration in physics. Topics studied cover the phenomena of physical optics, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, and polarization interpreted in terms of the wave theory of light. Several topics in modern optics will also be developed.

**403. Optics Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 or permission of instructor.
(2). (NS). *

This is a laboratory course in geometrical and physical optics intended for science concentrators and especially for students electing Physics 402. One experiment every one or two weeks is performed during four-hour laboratory periods; a short report is required for each experiment. The experiments are designed such that they may be performed without students having a formal background in the topic investigated. The experiments include: (1) lens equations; (2) lens aberrations; (3) telescopes; (4) polarization; (5) diffraction; (6) interferometry; (7) electro-optical effects; (8) light detection; (9) fourier optics; (10) holography; and (11) spectroscopy. Students may also devise experiments. The course grade is based on the work done in the laboratory period as well as written reports.

**405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism. *** Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216; or equivalent. (3). (NS). *

This course extends the material introduced in Physics 240 on the classical theory of electricity and magnetism. It tries to develop further both the theoretical ideas contained in Maxwell's equations for these fields, as well as their practical application. It is a required course for all physics concentrators, and is basic to many of the courses and laboratories which follow. Physics 242 is strongly recommended.

**406. Statistical and Thermal Physics. *** Phys. 126 or 240-241, and Math. 216. (3). (NS). *

An introduction to the thermal and other macroscopic properties of matter, their description in terms of classical thermodynamics, and their microscopic interpretation from the perspective of statistical mechanics. Techniques from classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and elementary quantum mechanics will be used. Frequent homework problem assignments, at least one hour exam, and a final examination will be given.

**407. Thermodynamics Laboratory. *** Phys. 126 or 240-241. (2). (NS). *

This course is normally elected concurrently with Physics 406 and emphasizes thermodynamics and heat transport. Each section consists of eight students
subdivided into groups of two with each group rotating through five experiments:
(1) use of the thermoelectric effect to measure temperature, (2) use of thermistors for the measurement of temperature, (3) measurement of the viscosity
of gases, (4) measurement of the thermal conductivity of gases, and (5)
determination of the ice-water phase diagram. Each experiment takes a maximum
of three weeks of laboratory time. Grades are based on the record of data
taken, computation and analysis, error analysis, display of results (graphs, tables, * etc.) * and comparison of results with theory and/or accepted values.
Laboratory performance is observed and evaluated by the course instructors.

**409. Modern Physics Laboratory. *** Open primarily to science concentrators
with junior standing, or by permission of instructor. (2). (NS). May not
be elected by Physics concentrators unless written permission is given by
a Physics concentration advisor. *

This course is an advanced undergraduate laboratory course designed to acquaint students in the basic techniques of experimental physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Students select experiments from among those which are available. The results of the experiments are recorded. These laboratory notes together with a written laboratory report are graded. The reports and performance in laboratory are the basis for the course grade. There are no formal examinations. Students may modify existing experiments or design new experiments. Topics investigated include: photo-electric effect; diffraction; electron charge and charge-to-mass ratio and others. This laboratory is not open to physics concentrators who should choose Physics 459 or 461. This course is required for concentrators in the Engineering Physics program.

**415. Special Problems for Undergraduates. *** Permission of instructor.
(1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

This course emphasizes experimental or theoretical research under the supervision of a faculty member. Generally a small facet of a large research undertaking is investigated in detail. This is an independent study course, and instructor permission is required. The appropriate form is available in the Physics Department Office, 1049 Randall Laboratory

**417. Macromolecular and Biophysics I. *** Math. 216 and Phys. 242, and 402; or equivalent; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS). *

An introduction to the biophysics of cells, emphasizing the electrical and molecular structural properties of membranes and the neuromuscular and sensory systems; physical techniques used in cell absorption, fluorescence, scattering, magnetic resonance, and analysis of spontaneous optical and electrical fluctuations.

**451. Methods of Theoretical Physics. *** Phys. 401 and Math. 450, or equivalent. (3). (NS). *

This is a course in mathematical methods of physics. The textbook by
G. Arfken, * Mathematical Methods for Physicists, * is used; approximately
85% of the contents will be covered. This course is considered a necessary
preparation for graduate school.

**453. Atomic Physics I. *** Phys. 242 or equivalent, Phys. 401 and 405; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS). *

A brief review of the mechanical, thermal, electric, magnetic and chemical properties of matter will be given. The empirical foundation of atomic physics will be discussed in some detail. The theoretical developments resulting from the failure of classical theories and early atomic models will be discussed, wherein wave mechanics will be studied and a brief introduction to the Schrödinger equation will be given. Other topics include the exclusion principle and some quantum statistical mechanics.

**455. Electronic Devices and Circuits. *** Phys. 240 and 241. (5).
(NS). *

An introduction to DC and AC circuits; j-notation, circuit theorems;
semiconductors (primarily qualitative) and introduction to diodes and bipolar
(junction) transistors; four-terminal networks; transistor characteristics
and biasing, equivalent circuits, transistor amplifiers and their frequency
and pulse response; unipolar transistors (J-FET, MOSFET, IGFET); resonant
circuits, oscillators, inductive coupling; transistors as switches, the
multivibrator family including the Schmitt trigger circuit; integrated circuits:
operational amplifiers and logic gates; pulse shaping; modulation and detection;
noise; and power supplies. Two or three hour exams, plus a final. Four hours
of laboratory per week, with written reports. The text is Ryder's * Electronic
Fundamentals and Applications. *

**459. Nuclear Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics
laboratory course, or permission of instructor. (2). (NS). *

This is an advanced laboratory course designed to acquaint students with the techniques of experimental nuclear physics and to introduce them to physical phenomena of modern physics. Included are experiments in the following areas: scintillation counting; gamma-gamma angular correlation; Compton effect; Rutherford scattering; muon lifetime; nuclear magnetic resonance; and nuclear fission. This course is normally elected as a sequel to Physics 403, 407, or 409.

**460. Atomic Physics II. *** Phys. 453. (3). (NS). *

Physics 460 concentrates on the description of atomic and molecular phenomena using the background in quantum mechanics acquired in Physics 453 or equivalent. The spectra (X-ray, optical, and microwave) of simple atoms and molecules are discussed in some detail. The methods of spectroscopy (including optical pumping, atomic beam, and laser methods) are covered to show how the concepts of quantum mechanics find their application in real situations. The physics of atomic collisions is given considerable emphasis to show how this method of experimentation complements spectroscopic studies.

**461. Atomic Laboratory. *** Phys. 242 and any 400-level physics laboratory
course, or permission of instructor. (2). (NS). *

Intended mostly for science majors. Conducted in a manner similar to Physics 403, 407, 409 and 459, but more advanced. Emphasis on atomic phenomena and instrumentation. Experiments available include atomic spectroscopy, Zeeman effect, optical pumping and lasers, x-ray diffraction and Moseley's law, Faraday effect and others.

**464. Solid State Laboratory. *** Physics 242 (General Physics III)
and Physics 406 (Thermodynamics). Physics 463 should be taken concurrently
or previously. (2). (NS). *

This is a laboratory course covering experimental work in x-ray diffraction from solids, electron transport in solids, phase transitions, the use of the electron microscope and thermal mechanisms in solids. Conducted in a manner similar to the other physics labs (403, 407, 409, 459, and 461).

**465. Senior Seminar. *** Open to Physics concentrators in their junior
or senior year. (2). (NS). Fulfills the Junior-Senior writing requirement. *

This is a seminar on History of 20th Century Physics. Through reading and from discussions with visiting speakers we explore the historical aspects of selected topics in modern physics. Since seminar members are expected to contribute actively to discussion and since the physics content of this history will be emphasized, students will be expected to have had several courses beyond Physics 242. Open to juniors, seniors and graduate students.

**468. Elementary Particles. *** Prior or concurrent election of Phys.
453. (3). (NS). *

The course offers a very broad but disciplined introduction to the exciting field of elementary particle research: methods of producing and detecting particles, their interactions, and an outline of the most current theoretical ideas. Since the course is not part of a required sequence, students are expected to be motivated primarily by a fundamental curiosity to learn about one of the frontier sciences.

**498. Introduction to Research for Honors Students. *** Permission
of departmental concentration adviser. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Honors students get introductory experience with research work with faculty, the results of which can provide the basis for a thesis used to fulfill that part of the Honors requirement. If 498 is not completed in one term, students register for Physics 499 in a subsequent term. This is an independent study course. Permission of the departmental concentration advisor is required, and the appropriate form is available in the Physics Department Office, 1049 Randall Laboratory.

**499. Introduction to Research for Honors Students. *** Permission
of physics concentration advisor. (2-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). *

Honors students get introductory experience with research work with faculty, the results of which can provide the basis for a thesis used to fulfill that part of the Honors requirement. If 498 (see previous description) is not completed in one term, students register for Physics 499 in a subsequent term. This is an independent study course. Permission of the departmental concentration advisor is required, and the appropriate form is available in the Physics Department Office, 1049 Randall Laboratory.

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

The Regents of the University of Michigan,

Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.