Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any one of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 192 as their introductory course. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, semantic memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about biological and cognitive areas of psychology. It does not emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It does cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Sections are taught by graduate teaching fellows who have responsibility for their own sections.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a Time Slot ONLY (sections 001-009). Students should check the Final Edition of the TIME SCHEDULE for day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-009). At this meeting, instructors will explain their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. The students will then "apply" to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to their first choice instructor. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. Students should read all notations in the Time Schedule regarding Psych 171. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-009) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR TO THE MEETING TO RETAIN THEIR SPACE IN THE COURSE OR ON THE WAIT LIST. Wait List (section 099) students must attend the Wait List Meeting listed in the Time Schedule to be placed in an open section.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one term survey which is the equivalent of Psychology 170 and 171 combined. The course serves as a basic preparation for almost all advanced level courses in psychology. Both the textbook and the lectures cover such topics as the physiological basis of behavior, learning, language and communication, memory, thinking, perception, altered states of consciousness, motivation, emotion, child development, personality theory and assessment, deviance and pathology, therapy and interpersonal relations. The discussion sections require additional work such as reading logs, library research, group projects, term papers, etc. The final course grade is based partly on several course-wide examinations and partly on quizzes and additional work assigned in individual discussion sections. Students must keep Monday evenings open for course-wide examinations to be given 7-9 p.m.

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.
Section 001.
This section is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell)

Section 002. This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology, from "soft" to "hard" (psychoanalytic personality theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology: What do we know; what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, no papers). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

Section 003. The focus of this section will be coverage of various topics in psychology that have a history of research using experimental methodology. Some of these topics are: neural mechanisms underlying behavior, the perception, memory, and language functions. There will be only scant coverage of other topics such as psychopathology, development, and social interactions. Course requirements are extensive, and are designed to promote thorough understanding of the material. There will probably be frequent quizzes, two examinations, two research projects, and in-class experiments and demonstrations. Each class session will be devoted to lectures, extensive discussions and projects. (Jonides)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per work including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work placements, and general course information will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, March 31, 1986 at 7 p.m. in 1210 Chemistry Building. For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two separate sections of Psych. 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. (Meyer)

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). No credit to students with credit for Psych. 431.

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. May not be elected for credit more than once.

368/Biol. Anthro. 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Biol. Anthro. 368. (Wrangham)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (SS).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Jung, Eliot and Feild. There will be two long, integrative essays. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

380/Inteflex 201. Techniques of Social Interaction. Inteflex-Med. 210. (5). (SS).

This course explores current and classic social psychological and anthropological theory and research, with an emphasis on their application to medical practice. The overall focus of the course is on the ways in which individual thought and action are shaped by our social nature. More specifically, the underlying theme linking the various topics is that social and interpersonal issues are a major challenge in the provision of high quality health care. Among the topics to be examined are social cognition, roles and norms, conformity, persuasion, group dynamics, altruism, attraction and prejudice. Through lectures, readings, films, discussion, writing and group demonstrations we shall explore the major concepts and principles pertaining to the topics. Brief papers, group discussion, an objective midterm exam, and an objective comprehensive final exam will serve as the primary basis for student evaluation. (Landman)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Additional readings from cultural anthropology, ethnographic criticism, sociology, and psychoanalytic commentary will be used to highlight ethical, political, and heuristic issues in the field of family studies. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion.

404. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

This course is designed to cover through lectures, readings and discussions, the role of nonverbal communication in social interaction. The class will review the theoretical and empirical literatures on nonverbal communication which span a number of related topics. These topics include emotional expressions, visual behavior, body movements, paralanguage, and territoriality among others. The second half of the course will focus on the applied aspects of nonverbal behavior such as the acquisition and development of it in children; deceptive communication, cross-cultural differences, etc. The course requirements include a midterm, final and major class project. Some of the readings: M. Knapp, Nonverbal Communication in Social Interaction; E.T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension; N. Henley, Body Politics. (Coleman)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (SS).
Section 001.
This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning April 7. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, actions, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

Section 002. The focus of this course will be on research strategies and methods which are brought to bear on understanding the nature and treatment of psychopathology. Special attention will be given to the integration of clinical and research data. As part of this course, students will serve as part-time research assistants (approximately two hours/week) to faculty members in order to gain "hands on" clinical research experience. This may include interviewing subjects, coding fantasy material or results of psychological tests, participating in the design of questionnaires, etc. In no case will students be asked to do drone-like work. The aim is to become an active member of a functioning research team. In addition to this experiential component, the course will cover readings drawn from the areas of general epistemology, research methods, and theories of psychopathology. Two papers (each approximately two-three pages long) focused on evaluation of published clinical research round out the formal requirements. The course is intended for students planning graduate work in either the social sciences (e.g., clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology) or in areas in which such sophistication in understanding reports or clinical research is helpful (e.g., medicine, certain areas of law and education). Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle). (Kalter)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to theory and research on human motivation, drawing particularly on contributions from social and personality psychologists. In order to illustrate the development of a science of motivation, we will examine how drive-reduction theories, expectancy-value theories, attributional theories, and dynamic theories explain achievement motivation and behavior. Within this context we will consider basic conceptual issues, such as the relative roles of affect and cognition in motivation, methodological issues, such as the assessment of motives, the applications of motivational psychology in such domains as the alleviation of learned helplessness and test anxiety. Lectures will be held twice weekly, on Mondays and Wednesdays from l:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. In addition, discussion/demonstration sections will meet once a week. All students will be expected to write three essays during the term, reflecting critical analysis of issues raised in lectures, assigned readings, or relevant supplementary reading. Grading will be based on these essays, a midterm and final exam, and section participation. Students should have already taken one course in introductory psychology. Familiarity with statistics and experimental design will be helpful. (Reuman)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course provides an overview of cognitive psychology, including the basic mental processes of memory, perception, and attention, as well as more complex processes such as reasoning and problem solving. Evaluation will be based on a combination of exams and term paper. (Holyoak)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate lecture course that focuses on basic perceptual processes and theories. There is a strong natural science orientation to the course material. Those who elect this course are usually junior or senior psychology concentrators. Class size is relatively large (eighty students or so). Topics covered include: psychophysics with an emphasis on signal-detection theory; color, pattern, size and distance perception; information processing; the nature-nurture controversy that is what is inborn and what is learned. There is minor emphasis on auditory perception. The course emphasizes the human information-processing approach to perception and considers theories in some detail. The course does not emphasize philosophy or esthetics. Facility with high school algebra is assumed. An effort is made to show useful applications in real-world situations. (Pachella)

447. Psychology of Language. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of topics and methods concerning psychology of language, including speech production and perception, sentence processing, semantics and communication, and language acquisition. Throughout the course the focus is on alternative explanations of language: as a biological, social, and cognitive phenomenon. Classroom demonstrations will illustrate certain phenomena that are presented in readings and lectures. (Gelman)

451. Development of Language and Thought. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course examines children's early language and conceptual development. Through lectures and discussions, we will cover: the development of word meaning, the organization of early concepts, and the nature of early grammatical knowledge. We will also consider how language development relates to logical thinking and social knowledge. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary research and theory. Students will be evaluated by two exams and a project. (Gelman)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will survey the field of personality psychology, with a major focus on current research and theory, rather than on the grand historical theories. Special attention will be given to the following issues (1) what are the basic phenomena of personality (e.g., actions, feeling, cognitions, emotions)? (2) how do we determine which phenomena are important and which are trivial? (3) what units should we employ to organize the basic personality phenomena? (4) what are the causal origins of personality in evolution, genetics, physiology, socialization, maturation, life-history, culture, and immediate situations? (5) how do features of persons interact with features of the environment? A wide variety of methods will be covered including self-report, observer report, mechanical recording devices, laboratory tests, life history data, and act data. A key theme throughout the course will be understanding human personality within an evolutionary context. (Buss)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001:.
The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to the influence of the family, and particularly the parents, and also to the influence of the school, peers, and the community. Topics include the development of attachment, peer interaction, moral development, sex roles, and the stability of personality. The role of social change and its impact on development will be considered. (Hoffman)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, language development, and socialization are examined. Special attention is devoted to children's intellectual development and learning. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a short paper.

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories in group behavior. Topics in this section include the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the design of groups and organizations along with methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience. The final part of the course involves observing a work group, and applying the methods and theory covered in the first two parts of the class while working independently. Grades will be based on a midterm, a final exam, a group observation project and class participation. (Denison)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course examines a wide spectrum of deviant behavior, including normal variants of functioning, neurotic difficulties, character pathology, and the psychoses. Selected additional topics vary somewhat, but can include childhood psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, multiple personality, manic-depressive disorder, and the issue of the criminal insanity defense. The possible causes of the various forms of psychopathology are examined, with emphasis on psychological causation; attention is also given to recent advances in psychophysiological correlates of mental illness. Treatment modalities are addressed, including forms of psychotherapy, behavioral methods, and psychopharmacology. Finally, there will be discussion of social and legal issues relevant to the deviant individual. This is a lecture course, with a recommended discussion section. Students will be evaluated primarily on the basis of examinations. (Adelson)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 is cross-disciplinary both in emphasis and in student population, with psychology, environmental studies, planning, design and natural resources among the disciplines which are typically represented. The course deals with how people experience the physical environment, with what people care about most and with the conditions under which people act most reasonably. A major goal of the course is to develop a working model of human nature, a concept of what people are like in their interactions with the environment. The course focuses on human needs in terms of informational requirements and on the ways in which environments support or hinder the processing of information. Such topics as environmental perception and knowledge; community and privacy; conservation and stewardship; and the role of culture are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Course requirements include reading logs, three take home mini-papers and participation in classroom exercises and group projects. Readings are taken from the course text, Humanscape: Environments for People by Kaplan and Kaplan and a course pack. (Talbot, De Young)

482/Soc. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on the interaction of social roles and personality. Selected life roles such as marriage, parenthood, and work are studied not so much from the point of view of their sociological significance but of their impact on people's motivations, attitudes, and feelings. The course first examines the general analytic problem of thinking about personalities in interaction with social systems. Then it examines each of the three life roles. Empirical findings rather than theoretical analyses are highlighted and sex difference in these roles are emphasized. A course pack of varied articles and chapters from books plus Worlds of Pain are read and discussed. Course requirements allow a choice of writing integrated essays or a short answer examination. Two such evaluations are required. An empirical research effort is also required as a term project. Students select a life role (e.g., a specific occupation or a husband/wife or mother/father role) and obtain firsthand data on how that role affects the experience of people in that role. Group projects are encouraged but are not mandatory. (Veroff/Douvan)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
Section 001.
An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The journal is the sole basis of grading. The journal also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, two sociological books of participant observation, and novels by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about ten actual hours/week, every week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the uncurious. (Ezekiel)

Section 010. The course deals with how people form their beliefs and attitudes about the social world and with how their beliefs and attitudes affect their behavior. Conformity, social influence and propaganda are examined. Special attention is paid to the rationality of processes of belief and attitude formation and to the accuracy of beliefs about the social world. The degree to which people are aware of their beliefs and attitudes is discussed. There is a special focus on changing erroneous beliefs and altering flawed ways of forming beliefs. Statistics background is helpful. Evaluation is by means of exams and short papers. Lecture-discussion. (Nisbett)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 002 Brain Function and Hearing.
Psychobiologists and neuroscientists have made impressive advances in the last five years in understanding the neural bases of perception. This progress has resulted from interdisciplinary efforts involving anatomists, neurophysiologists, psychologists, and other neuroscientists. To appreciate the detail and significance of these advances, we will focus on a single brain system, the auditory system. Anatomy of this system will be reviewed in sufficient detail to convey an understanding of the intricacy of neural organization of a sensory system and its functional significance. We will then focus on the neural bases of psychoacoustic functions, sensory encoding, and information processing. We will conclude by discussing applications to medicine, particularly concentrating on recent progress in developing an auditory prosthesis (bionic ear) for profoundly deaf individuals. The text is An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing. The format is lectures and student-led discussions. There are oral presentations and exams. (Pfingst)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (SS).
Section 001 Developmental Psycholinguistics.
This course is designed to give advanced undergraduates an understanding of the human capacity for language and its role in the individual's life from infancy to old age. Topics include the biological preparedness for language, process of acquisition, the representation of linguistic knowledge, integration of linguistic and world knowledge for language use. Special attention is given to early and late periods in the life span when aspects of language organization are most vulnerable to change. Some prior experience with psycholinguistics or linguistics is expected (Psych 447 or 451 or Ling. 211, the equivalent, or permission of the instructor). The course format will be one-half lecture and one-half discussion of primary source readings. The students will be required to participate actively in discussions and to write a paper reporting their observations of some aspect of language behavior and how they bear on theories of language and language use. (Shatz)

Section 002 Language and Social Psychology. The primary aim of this course is to explore the impact of language on social behavior and to discuss how major theoretical perspectives in social psychology might be enhanced and modified by the study of language. How is society and culture tied to thought, language, and language use? What can we learn from the study of language about social psychology in general, and society, social interactions and social identity more specifically? Language use, for example, can reveal a great deal about identity and the development of the self (self-concept and self-esteem in particular), social cognition, ethnic or group identity, and the social and political structure of society. Among the topics to be covered are language and thought, verbal art forms, gender and language use, language attitudes, code-switching, language and identity, and language and politics. Special attention will be given to the links between affect and the development of the self as expressed in language, politeness and symbolic interactionism. Students will be required to write two short papers, conduct a major project and make a presentation. (Coleman)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl).
Section 001 Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.
All students must obtain an override from the instructor before the first class in order to enroll in this course. This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in non-human primates, and studies of human attachment behavior, including data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation and four short essays that require creative synthesis of course materials. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. (Smuts)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

This lab will explore various techniques for describing and analyzing the dynamics of spiritual crisis, intervention, and resolution. We will develop coding schemes for examining scriptural, fictional, and poetic expressions of these dynamics, and we will also undertake a series of interviews using projective and fantasy techniques. The prerequisites (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) will be enforced, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at 554 Thompson. There will be a series of small lab reports and one final project. Early in the term each student will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER in order to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the members of the lab. (R. Mann)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or 431. (4). (Excl).

This laboratory course is intended to provide practical experience with some of the basic research paradigms and techniques used in the study of brain-behavior relations. Laboratory exercises include sessions on functional neuroanatomy (dissection of sheep brain), the behavioral effects of manipulating brain neurotransmitters and psychoactive drugs, the hormonal control of reproductive behavior, animal models of psychiatric and movement disorders, electrical stimulation and recording from brain structures, and methods of analyzing behavior, etc. There is a one hour lecture, and a three hour lab each week. Grades are based on lab reports written in a formal scientific style. (Robinson)

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (SS).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. Finally, each student critically reviews a published test or inventory, evaluating its psychometric characteristics and applicability. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Inference and Social Behavior.
This section will demonstrate a variety of techniques of experimental social psychology. Special emphasis will be placed on the study of social inferences judgments that we make about ourselves and others. Students will carry out their own study or experiment. (Hilton)

Section 002. "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political currents to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (SS).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Three to four different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (SS).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in-class discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (SS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B." (Yates)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (SS).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams and a term paper. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

531. Selected Topics in Psychobiology. Psych. 331 or a serious interest in psychobiology and some background in biology or physiological psychology. (3). (Excl).

In-depth discussions of selected topics in physiological psychology including: hormones and behavior, evolution and ontogeny of hemispheric specialization, sex differences, mechanisms underlying physical and emotional pain, physiology of motivation, biological approaches to psychiatric disorders, memory and learning, etc. Selected articles will be assigned. Midterm and final exam. (Valenstein)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (SS). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).

Designed to educate the student about (1) the application of scientific inquiry to the domain of human behavior and development; (2) some principles of developmental and social psychology; and (3) the specific effects on human behavior of adolescence, a period of rapid biological, psychological and social change. Intended as a contribution to students' liberal education; to provide them with concepts which may enrich their appreciation of a broad range of scientific and cultural materials; and to help them lead more self-conscious lives. Approach to adolescence is bio-social. Adolescence will be treated as a particular instance of interaction between sociological, psychological and social development, centering about the attainment of adult sexuality, increasing cognitive skills, and preparation for taking adult roles in the individual's society. Students must already have successfully completed at least one course in child or lifespan development or in the socialization of the child. Evaluation will be based on written work: four take-home essay examinations and a term paper. Reading will include a textbook, a course pack of theoretical and empirical papers on adolescence, and three autobiographies of adolescents. One lecture (or film) and one discussion section per week. (Gold)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (SS).

This course examines some of the properties and major problems of human organizations, emphasizing system-level variables and activities. Organizational structure, adaptation to the environment, and problem solving in such key areas as coordination and control, integration, and conflict, and related social-psychological phenomena constitute its main concerns. The course approaches organizational structure and functioning from the perspective of open system theory.

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (SS).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

590. Senior Honors Research I. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

Section 001. The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Brown)

Section 002. See Section 001. (Zajonc)

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