Anthropology

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Biological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology dealing with human biology and evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the field. The course is divided into four major parts, (1) human genetics and evolutionary theory, (2) primate behavior and evolution, (3) the human fossil record, and (4) biological variability in modern populations. Grading will be based on three one-hour multiple choice exams and a required 1-hour a week discussion section. No special background knowledge is required or assumed.

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order and its major divisions, and provide detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior, aggression and competition, and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, but it also serves as an introduction to 369, Primate Social Relationships. Two lecture hours, one film, and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. (Wrangham)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (NS).
Section 003.
Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Prerequisites include: (1) background in either evolutionary theory/animal behavior or developmental psychology and (2) permission of instructor. All students must obtain an override from the instructor before the first class in order to enroll in this course. This course is intended for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman primates, and studies of human attachment behavior, including data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation and four short essays that require creative synthesis of course materials. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. (Smuts)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory and Methods, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Although emphasizing cultural anthropology, Anthropology 101 is a survey introduction to basic principles that unify the four subdisciplines of anthropology: biological anthropology, archaeological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. While it is a basic course for anthropology concentrators, Anthropology 101 also aims at a general audience as the course examines several areas of contemporary public interest as well as areas of interest to social and biological scientists. Course topics include: warfare and human aggression; sex roles in cross-cultural perspective; American culture; counterarguments to assertions of interrelationships between race and intelligence; theories of evolution; ecological perspectives applied cross-culturally to human populations; human evolution as exemplified in the fossil and archaeological record; the origins of civilization; ape communication; and kinship, marriage, politics, and religion in primitive, tribal, industrial, and underdeveloped societies. There are three weekly lecture; a text and paperbacks or a reader provide material for discussion in one weekly recitation section. The examinations are objective. Two or three hourly exams. No final. No term papers. Six credit hours option : Students who wish to explore the subject matter of anthropology in greater depth than is ordinarily possible in an introductory course should register for sections 014, 015 or 021 which will meet for two hours. Students who elect this option will receive 2 additional credits for a total of 6 credits. The syllabus for students electing the 6-credit option will include extra reading that is not required of other students, and they will be required to submit extra written work. Those students will be encouraged to focus on those areas of anthropology in which they have a special interest. Students in the Honors Program are welcome to enroll in sections 014, 015 or 021, if they wish to earn extra credit, but they are not required to do so. Interested students must obtain an override from the departmental office, 1054 LSA. (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (O'Shea)

301. Ethnography of East Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the traditional and contemporary cultures of Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, Vietnam and some of the tribal societies which border on China proper or are included within the political boundaries of China. It is concerned both with shared traditions between these societies and with their unique configurations. The course readings will consist primarily of selections from ethnographies and community studies, supplemented by literary works and historical and philosophical writings from the various cultures. There will be a midterm and final examination, and one or two short papers. This is a lecture course, with in-class discussion. An introductory anthropology course would be helpful as a prerequisite. Students should find this course useful as preparation for upper-level courses in Asian studies. (Diamond)

303. Japan Through the Medium of Film. (3). (SS).

Since the 1920's Japan has maintained a vital film industry whose products focus largely on domestic and historical themes. These materials offer a unique opportunity to examine a non-Western culture through its own self-presentations in a visual medium. Approximately twelve feature films, both recent and prewar, will provide direct entry to Japanese social life. These visual materials will be supplemented with readings and lectures on anthropological approaches to Japanese society and culture. The aim is to give students the most vivid exposure to Japan possible in a classroom setting. Class will meet twice weekly for lectures, and once in the evening for viewing films. No prior background in anthropology or Japanese studies is assumed. (Edwards)

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

The course provides an introduction to Native North American peoples and involves a detailed discussion of several typical cultures and culture areas, with a special emphasis on modes of subsistence, economic and social organization, and religion. By focusing on native world views, an attempt is also made to gain a better understanding of the Native North American's own perceptions of and attitudes towards reality and human life. The course deals primarily with the more "traditional" native cultures prior to the spread of Western domination. Nevertheless, several major post-contact cultural developments, aspects of Indian-White relations, and contemporary problems (including those of Michigan Indians) are touched upon. Required reading includes several ethnographic studies, a biography of a Native American man or woman, and some articles from a course pack. Student evaluation is based on two essay-type exams and a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor and/or the teaching assistant. While lectures and one weekly section conducted by the teaching assistant are the major methods of instruction, films, presentations by guest lecturers, and demonstrations of artifacts from the Museum of Anthropology play an important role in the course. (Kan)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on the Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term-paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology. (Dresch)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: four 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize reading and lecture materials; participation in class discussions; regular class attendance. (Owusu)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

332. Social Forms. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

The aim is to provide a solid grounding in core subjects and theories of ethnology. This course should be useful, not only to anthropology concentrators, but to those wishing to use ethnological ideas in other subjects. A previous course in ethnology is no hindrance but is not essential. Every effort will be made toward clarity of presentation. No previous knowledge will be assumed. Topics such as witchcraft, kinship and symbolic classification will be used cumulatively to demonstrate the principles which inform social life. The way anthropologists elucidate those principles will be explained. The positions of different authors and schools will be pointed out, and the meaning discussed of such terms as society, culture and social structure. The worth of different approaches will be tested at the end by looking at millenarian movements: such events as the Sioux ghost dance and the Tai Ping rebellion. There is a lot to cover. The essential points of each topic will be dealt with in lectures. Lecture material and required readings will be discussed separately in sections, led alternately by the instructor and a TA. Students must be ready to give the time needed for a 4 hour credit. Assessment will be based on short take-home papers, the objectives of which will be explained beforehand. (Dresch)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, functions and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why law is obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the customary judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs: infants, women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers. Lecture/discussion format. (Owusu)

337(450). Sorcery and Witchcraft: Anthropological Interpretations. One course in ethnology. (3). (SS).

This course examines the principal theoretical interpretations and modes of explanation that have been employed in the anthropological study of witchcraft and sorcery, and in historical studies of Western Europe witchcraft that draw on anthropological models. The course begins with consideration of witchcraft/sorcery beliefs as a system of thought (and subjective reality), on one hand, and with the objective reality of public accusations and their consequences, on the other. Comparison of patterns of accusation (i.e., who accuses whom) in a selection of societies leads to examination of the relation between witchcraft/sorcery and gender systems, political power and social organization (respectively). Readings, lectures and discussions focus on the sociology of witchcraft/sorcery beliefs and practices, and on the locus of these within more comprehensive cosmological and symbolic systems. This lays the groundwork for investigation of continuity and change in these beliefs, and in the actions predicated upon them. The dramatic rise in witchcraft prosecutions and executions in Western Europe between 1500 and 1650 is examined in relation to anthropological studies of related phenomena in tribal societies. This class is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Evaluation is based on class report and take-home examination. (Kelly)

342(442)/Botany 342. Ethnobotany. (3). (NS).

Ethnobotany is the study of the interrelationships between people and plants. It is concerned with the ways people think about plants, how they classify them, and what they do to the plant world. Topics covered are folk taxonomy; ethnoecology; plant manipulations to secure food, medicine, and physical protection; genetic changes (beginnings of domestication); biochemistry of useful plants; and anthropogenetic plant communities. The impact plants have on culture and society are also discussed. A basic background in biology is helpful. Classes are illustrated lectures and grades are determined through examinations and a short paper. This course will appeal to students interested in human ecology and students seeking a view of the practical applications of anthropology and botany for understanding human affairs. (Ford)

352/RC Soc. Sci. 352. Social Perspectives: Cross-Cultural Study of Women. One social science course or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

See R.C. Social Science 352. (Larimore)

437. Anthropology and Economic Systems. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course reviews some of the main issues in economic anthropology, using both case studies and theoretical writings. The purpose is to explore the differences between industrial and preindustrial societies. Topics will include technological/ecological limitations on production, the social organization of production, modes of exchange and distribution, factors in economic decision-making, innovation and change. Materials will cover hunter/gatherer societies, simple agricultural societies, pre-capitalist complex State societies, and the peasant sector in modernizing countries. The course format will consist of lectures and discussion. Students will be asked to write one long paper (about 20 pages) on a topic of their choice and to make a brief oral presentation in class. (Diamond)

440. Cultural Adaptation. Anthro. 101. (3). (SS).

This course continues to develop the cross-cultural, comparative, and holistic perspective of anthropology to which students were exposed in Anthropology 101. Although data from all subdisciplines are considered, our focus will be on cultural behaviors and their relationship with local ecological context. Cultural ecology's development as an identifiable perspective within anthropology will be explored through reading and discussion of classic texts that crystallized the adaptive focus for their time. We will discuss Steward's early work in North American Great Basin societies, Rappaport's analysis of Tsembaga Maring ritual and environmental regulation, and more recent works concentrating on variation and change in the context of demography, household structure, and local versus wider environments. Cultural ecology will be presented as an important contender in anthropology's efforts to organize and unify human experience. Students will be exposed to leading theoretical developments and modes of inquiry in the area of human and wider environmental relationships. The integrating concepts of evolution, social change, and adaptation will be explored in concrete cases from a variety of world culture areas. Grades will be based on two tests covering material from previous lectures and reading and two book reviews. Graduate credit will involve an alternative project in lieu of book reviews. Prerequisites: Anthropology 101/222 or permission of instructor. (Fricke)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

See Religion 452. (Rappaport)

450/Rel. 404/ABS 496. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Rappaport)

454. Symbolic Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

How do symbolic forms communicate and constitute meaning in other cultures? How have ethnographers gone about examining the languages, rituals, and cosmologies of other societies as symbolic systems? Central to our inquiry will be the claim for the autonomy of the symbolic realm that has come out of structuralist linguistics: how this challenges attempts to ground symbolism in other domains (material, social, psychological); how it is challenged in turn by arguments for seeing symbol systems as partly (or relatively) constrained ("motivated"). Course materials focus on ethnographic studies of non-Western societies which illustrate these theoretical perspectives. Format: lectures and discussions. Student evaluation is based on several short papers. (Edwards)

Linguistics

472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

This course explores the relationship between language and culture as a set of mutually reinforcing constraints which form different types of coherence systems. Language is dealt with both as a set of grammatical forces as well as semantic imperatives which must be related to culture as a system of social principles, as webs of meaning, and as a framework of knowledge and philosophy. The realm of thought is analyzed as a human condition which produces creative and constrictive conditions on language and culture. A few short paperback volumes are required in addition to articles placed on undergraduate reserves. Course requirements are a midterm and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

Archaeology

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (SS).

The course traces the development of North American Indian cultures north of Mexico from the first entry of big game hunters into the New World 10,000 to 15,000 years ago through the origins of agriculture and the appearance of the first farming villages to the emergence shortly before European contact of complex socially stratified political systems. The course focuses especially on the Eastern U.S. and the American Southwest. Emphasis is given to the importance of the prehistoric record for understanding Native American cultures at the time of contact, and the value of historic and ethnographic descriptions for understanding the past. Midterm and final; lecture format. (Speth)

494. Introduction to Analytical Methods in Archaeology. One course in statistics or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the application of analytical techniques in archaeology and to provide an understanding of the role of numerical analysis in archaeological research. Course coverage will range from the most basic use of numbers in data presentation to the consideration of a variety of more complex techniques which have been developed specifically to cope with the unique character of archaeological research. The course will be organized around sets of lectures and class exercises, and a basic familiarity with archaeological research and common statistical methods will be assumed. Students will require a good hand calculator for regular class use. Readings for the course will be drawn from a variety of sources, and as such no core text will be assigned. Evaluation of student performance will be based on a series of assigned projects designed to highlight the student's control over the subject matter of the course. (O'Shea) may be found in Room 2083 Natural Sciences Building.


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