Biological Sciences

Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. It can be taken to satisfy distribution requirements under Patterns I, II, or III. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Within these areas topics such as cell structure, cell metabolism, nutrition, human genetics, genetic engineering, cancer, nature of evolution, and sociobiology will be discussed. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. In discussion students will be required to read several papers related to course content and to write two or three critical analyses of these papers. Attendance at the discussion section is required. Course grade is determined on the basis of three lecture examinations and upon discussion quizzes and papers (J. Allen)

102. World Hunger. (4). (NS).

WORLD HUNGER, BIOLOGY 102, is a Natural Science course that discusses the problem of inadequate human nourishment in various parts of the world, from a variety of perspectives all related in a concept of human ecology. Social, historical, economic, and political considerations, essential to understanding world hunger, are also made. Specific topics discussed include: human nutritional requirements and the kind of food sources that meet them; survey of present agricultural productivity; contemporary agricultural economies; how plants grow; plant productivity and life styles in different environmental conditions; the world distribution of these different environmental conditions; history of agriculture in Mediterranea, Central America, and the United States; agricultural resources; pest control and its consequences; recent major changes in agricultural resource use patterns; social, economic, and natural consequences of contemporary resource use patterns; case studies of hungry peoples; limits to agricultural resources; alternative food sources; plant breeding; and prospects for the future. Although the course is intended to serve those in need of plan C natural science distribution credit, the combination of natural and social science necessary to understand the important contemporary problem of world hunger will interest students from a wide variety of departments, including natural science. Course format is: plenary lecture plus several small discussion groups; two in-term, short-answer exams plus final; and optional papers or projects. (Estabrook, Goldberg, and Rathcke)

105. Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 123 or 107. Biol. 105 may be substituted wherever Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 112-114 (or the equivalent). (5). (NS).

Biology 105 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 112-114 sequence. It differs from 112-114 in the accelerated pace of study and in the self-instructional format. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline and effective writing skills. Biology 105 is divided into three units (Biology of Cells, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations and a comprehensive final test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 105 are meant to reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and to provide in-depth perspective in several subdisciplines of Biology. The laboratory provides opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed in weekly recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students must reserve Monday evenings (7-9 pm) for examinations (dates to be announced). Students are required to purchase a textbook, a course pack (at University Cellar), a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille-ruled notebook. For additional information, contact the Laboratory Demonstrator, 3064 Dana Building, 763-0495. (Ikuma and Shaffer)

112. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 105. (4). (NS).

Biology 112 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (112/114). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 112/114 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 112 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion meetings starting with the first week of the course or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. There will be three course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students must be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

Enrollment for Honors work will entail time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 112 (lecture section 002 and any lab/discussion) plus Biology 113 (one credit hour).

Note concerning prerequisites. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 112. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 112, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 112/114 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building.)

Section 008 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, is designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 114 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

113. Introductory Biology Honors. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 112 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for scientific inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 112. Discussion materials may include the classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short summaries and one term paper, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. Open only to students admitted to the LSA Honors Program.

114. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 112. No credit is granted to those who have completed 105. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 112, including the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 112. Students must attend their regularly assigned laboratory/discussion section starting with the first week of the course, or their space may be given to someone else on the waiting list. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two course-wide examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. Enrollment for Honors credit will entail time, effort, and written work beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, students in LSA Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to the Honors laboratory. further information about Biology 114 can be obtained from the Biology 112/114 office, 1563 C.C. Little.

Section 036: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, provides extra class time for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratory exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

300. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 105 or 112-114, and English 125 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course has been designed in cooperation with the English Composition Board, of the College of Literature, Science and Arts, in order to provide a disciplinary focus to the experience in writing gained by upperclass undergraduates and graduate students in the Department of Biology. There will be lectures in which aspects of grammar, syntax and punctuation will be discussed. In addition, the scientific method as applied to biology will be considered in the context of the way scientific data are prepared for publication. The differences between writing papers for biological journals and for the popular press will be developed as will the differences between writing papers for the presentation of new scientific information and writing reviews of other biological scientists. Students will be required to write weekly papers for much of the term, including the several encompassed in the groups mentioned above. There will be one lecture a week and two discussion sections in which the papers written by students will be reviewed. (Sussman)

305. Genetics. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent). (4). (NS).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Rizki and Palmer)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 112-114 or 105; Chem. 126 or the equivalent. Organic chemistry is helpful but not required. Not open to students who have completed Biol. 428. (3). (NS).

This lecture course is designed to provide undergraduates with (1) understanding of the basic functions of living cells, (2) appreciation of the experimental evidence which has established current knowledge, and (3) awareness of contributions of molecular and cellular biology to other areas of biological science and to human affairs. The dependence of cell function on cell structure is stressed, as is the way one thinks through data to develop and test ideas about cell function. As far as possible, an effort is made to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms and to provide insight into how biological molecules are integrated into higher levels of organization. Course content includes an introduction which stresses the essential unity of cell functions throughout the biosphere, the organizational basis of cell functions in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the basis of cell diversity. The course also includes an overview of selected metabolic pathways; energy transformations; flow of matter and information in biosynthesis (selected aspects); biogenesis of supramolecular structure and organelles; cell surfaces; membrane structure, permeability and transport; secretion; the cell cycle and cell division; cellular aspects of locomotion; regulatory mechanisms; and other topics. This course provides a one-term core background in cellular and molecular biology suitable for concentrators and for other students wishing a one-term survey of this subject matter. Students desiring more detailed treatment may elect the sequence Biology 411-427-428. Lecture notes and books containing recommended readings will be on reserve at the Undergraduate Library. There will be a textbook; purchase is optional. Each of two or three examinations during the term includes short-answer "factual" questions and also several questions requiring brief explanatory essays providing interpretation of data or formulation or proof of a hypothesis. There will be a final exam. For further questions contact 2083 Nat. Sci., where a waitlist will be kept in the event it is needed. (Shappirio, 764-1491)

351. General Ecology. Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. No credit to those who have completed Biology 350. (5). (NS).

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 351 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Three field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. An independent project, several laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is Ecology, by C.J. Krebs (Goldberg and Rathcke)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 105 or 112 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (NS).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in plants and animals. Emphasis is placed upon the physiological and dynamic rather than upon the morphological or structural aspects of molecular biology. Biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology, including medicine, dentistry, and other professional areas. The general subject matter includes amino acids, structures of protein, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, energetics, and the basic metabolism of biological systems. The course is taught according to the methods of the Keller Plan, i.e., it is a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact according to their own schedules with undergraduate proctors chosen according to interest and ability to teach biochemistry to undergraduates. The course is divided into logical units of material, and students are expected to master the content of each unit. Upon the student's satisfaction that the unit material has been mastered, the student requests a quiz from a proctor. Upon successful completion of material on the quiz, the student is permitted to continue to the material of the next unit. Grades are assigned according to number of units successfully completed by the end of the term, plus a factor derived from a combination of the midterm and final exams. Each quiz is graded immediately upon its completion by both the proctor and the student. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate unhealthy competition among students. Proctors are available to help students approximately 60 hours per week. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are given by the instructor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course and is not the subject of examination. (Beyer and Douthit)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (NS). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has mastered the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer and Douthit)

427(417). Molecular Biology. Biology 305 and Biology 411 or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl).

Three one-hour lectures and one three-hour discussion per week. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems are discussed, and topics include: physical and biochemical methods used in molecular biology; DNA structure and topology, DNA replication, and DNA-protein interactions; genetic engineering; transcription, RNA processing and transcriptional regulation; chromatin structure; genetic codes; protein synthesis, ribosomal structure and function, and the regulation of translation; regulation of gene expression. Readings include current reviews and original research papers as well as assignments from the text. Three two-hour midterm examinations. (Brown and Jones)

443. Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (NS).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's Limnology, second edition, is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 444 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

444. Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 443 and permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

445. Evolution and Systematics. Biol. 112-114 or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

Biology 445 is an overview of contemporary issues relating to patterns of organic diversity. The following topics are emphasized: (1) phylogenetic inference and classification; (2) species concepts and speciation; (3) historical biogeography; (4) coevolution; and (5) developmental constraints. Population genetics, natural selection and adaptation will not be considered in detail. There are three one-hour lectures and one three-hour discussion period per week. Two midterm tests, one final examination and a term paper are required. Reading assignments and discussion involve original literature. Students will gain experience with computer algorithms relating to phylogenetic inference. (Kluge)

475. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (3). (NS).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior may be appropriately viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution by natural selection, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary biology are outlined, with special reference to topics like sexuality, senescence, parental care, nepotism, and social reciprocity. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed in relation to evolutionary arguments, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and the results of experimental psychology to the human background of evolution by natural selection. The significance of evolutionary considerations for concepts of ethics, morality, and justice are explored. A special discussion section will be arranged for students interested in animal behavior. (Alexander)

Courses in Botany (Division 331)

102. Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means (runners, bulbs, corms, offsets, divisions, and underground stems); breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; edible wild plants; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; fall vegetable gardening, organic gardening and composting; plant pruning, including bonsai; landscaping around the home; and how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; drying and use of plants for crafts; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; construction of solar greenhouses and coldframes; herbs and their uses. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are several field trips which emphasize ecology, edible wild plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as visits to Hidden Lake Gardens and Great Lake Orchids. Two of the highlights of the course are a trip to Brighton Bog and a natural foods and edible wild plants dinner which the students prepare. Several guest lecturers help to make this a very interesting class for the budding indoor gardener and outdoor gardener. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). Required book is Practical Botany by Peter Kaufman et al. (Kaufman)

281. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 and 114 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in plant sciences (cell and molecular biology or botany). The course introduces the basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out vital functions and introduces students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The contents of the lectures fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzymes action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, water relations, transpiration and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant developments, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. This course is offered only in the Fall terms. (Yocum and Frasch)

282. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Botany 281. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course is intended to provide experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiology research. The laboratory experiments will focus on the three main categories covered in Biology 381: (1) plant physiology, (2) transport phenomena and (3) growth and development. Biology 381 must have been taken prior or concurrently with this course. This course is only offered in the Fall terms. (Frasch)

337(230)/Nat. Res. 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Introductory biology or botany, or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification is taught during one afternoon field trip per week. Woody plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities oak-hickory forests, beech-maple forests, river floodplain community, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, fruit types, life history, forest ecology, woody plant physiology, genetics and variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., of Europe, and the Tropics. Laboratories (field trips) are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 p.m. once a week. Michigan Trees (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Lecture material is based in part on the book, Forest Ecology (Spurr and Barnes). Grading is based 60% on field quizzes and exams (8) and indoor identification exams (2); 40% on lecture (2 hour exams). (Wagner and Barnes)

342(404)/Anthro. 342. Ethnobotany. (3). (NS).

See Cultural Anthropology 342. (Ford)

403. Economic Botany. An introductory botany or biology course. (2). (NS).

Botany 403 is open to students who have had an introductory course in botany or biology and/or have an understanding of the basic concepts of plant classification, structure, physiology and reproduction. The general course objectives are to develop a knowledge of the botany, culture, origin, and improvement of cultivated plants and an understanding of the impact of the cultivated plants on the political, economic, and social aspects of our civilization. Topics include the major food crops, the origin of agriculture, agricultural systems throughout the world, beverage, medicinal, and fiber plants, plant breeding, the origin and evolution of the cultivated plants and agricultural resources and the population problem. The course meets two evenings per week for 1 1/2 hours from September to November 4. Lectures are supplemented with films and slides. A term paper dealing with a topic appropriate to the study of economic botany is required. A text is recommended for background reading, supplementation of lectures, and reference. (Steiner)

439. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 105 or Biol. 112 (or the equivalent), or Bot. 207; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

This course studies the very diverse group of plants and photosynthetic protistans collectively known as "the algae," which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative examples from the various algal groups, mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved specimens. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and stresses the interrelationships among the algae. A comparative approach is followed. The use of algae as research tools is stressed, where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled, and two field trips are planned. Text: Introduction to the Algae, Bold and Wynne, Prentice-Hall, 1985, 2nd edition. (Wynne)

447. Pteridology. Bot. 207 or 422; or permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The biology and systematics of whiskferns, clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts, horsetails, adder's-tongues, grapeferns, curly-grasses, climbing ferns, and common ferns the lower vascular plants or pteridophytes. Emphasis is upon the modern types that live today. They are studied in the field, the laboratory, and with illustrated lectures. Most of the field trips are short an afternoon or a single weekend day but there will be two weekend trips, one to Canada, the other to the Cumberland Plateau. In the laboratory there are demonstration specimens and microscope preparations. The lecture cover the major groups, their biology, and evolutionary relationships. Tropical as well as temperate genera will be taken up. Exotic types will be illustrated by color projection slides taken in natural habitats. Special stress is given to ecology of the plants in the wild, especially processes of reproduction, and the class will find gametophytes. Methods of studying hybridization and polyploidy using chromosomes will be taught, as well as literature and major research centers in this field. Students should have at least the equivalent of Botany 207 or Botany 422, or the permission of the instructor. Grading is based on quizzes and examinations. Only required book (for field): J.T. Mickel, How to Know the Ferns and Fern Allies, W.C. Brown Co. (Wagner)

488. Plant Constituents and their Functions. Biol. 105 or 114 and one term of organic chemistry. (2). (NS).

A different kind of study of plants for students interested in the special functional and economic aspects of plant chemical constituents and plant-plant or plant-animal interactions. This course will survey the major secondary compounds in plants, their functions in plants and their effects on animals. These compounds will be grouped primarily on a functional rather than a structural basis. Pigments, fragrances, hormones, allelopathic agents, toxins (including mycotoxins and carcinogens), medicinal compounds, hallucinogens, plant defenses against pathogens, and others will be considered in terms of their value to plants, their mode of action, and their evolution or potential use as phyletic markers. This courses will be offered only in alternate years. (Nooden)

Courses in Zoology (Division 499)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 105, or Biol. 112 and 114; or the equivalent. (6). (NS).

Lectures focusing on the origin, evolution, and biology of the chordates, with particular emphasis on vertebrates. The evolution of the structure in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates is examined in the laboratory, primarily through dissection of a series of selected vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a museum field trip. (Gans)

420. Lectures in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Biol. 105, or Biol 112 and 114; Math 113 or 115; organic chemistry; physics. Students who have completed Zool. 325 must obtain permission of the instructor. (3). (NS).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the aims, concepts, and methods of comparative physiology through consideration of metabolic physiology and physiological regulation. Topics covered from a comparative standpoint include: aerobiosis and anaerobiosis, respiratory mechanisms and gas transport, circulation, nitrogen excretion, ionic and osmotic regulation, acid-base balance, and temperature regulation. Physiological adaptation to the environment in the course and a number of examples of it are discussed. Three lectures a week are presented and these are supplemented by assigned readings from a required textbook. There are three one-hour examinations (100 points each) and a final examination (125 points). (Dawson)

421. Laboratory in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Accompanied by Zool. 420. (2). (NS).

The laboratory sessions permit work with a number of species of invertebrates and vertebrates in experiments dealing with energy metabolism, respiration and gas transport, circulation, ionic and osmotic regulation, and temperature responses. The laboratory consists of two three-hour periods, with each section limited to twenty students. Laboratory instructions specifically written for Zoology 421 are used. The last two weeks of the laboratory are devoted to independent research projects designed by the students in consultation with the laboratory staff. Students prepare laboratory reports that involve consultation of the original literature. (Dawson)

428. Endocrinology. Biol. 105 or 112 and 114; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (NS).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates but will also consider those of invertebrates. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Other courses, including Zoology 581-582, treat mammalian reproductive endocrinology in detail. Instruction in Zoology 428 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in Chemistry through Organic is essential and a course in Biochemistry would be helpful. (Doneen)

430. Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Zool. 428; and permission of instructor. (2). (NS).

This laboratory course must be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Zoology 428. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation, and mechanisms of action of hormones. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled each week; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. (Doneen)

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (4). (NS).

This is a general course which covers information concerning four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom and is intended to give some perspective on invertebrate systems as opposed to the more usual emphasis on vertebrate animals. The emphasis is on the whole animal - what it is, what it does, how it does it, how it got there. In lectures the wealth of information and generalizations gathered from insects concerning all major aspects of biology are discussed. In the laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. This course is an introduction to specialization in all aspects of biology in which insects are appropriate experimental organisms and an introduction to the appreciation and enjoyment of living animals. The following topics are discussed, with special emphasis on aspects recently treated in research publications: synopsis of orders; general functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity and nervous organization; regulation of development and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration in insects; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization in insects; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships of insects; insect flight. The laboratory work encompasses a more unified scope. The only prerequisites for this course are an introductory college course in biology or zoology and an interest in understanding living organisms. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week. Only one text, Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's An Introduction to the Study of Insects, is required for both lecture and laboratory. Except for preparing an insect collection and some collecting, outside work is at a minimum. There is one essay hour exam and a final essay exam in lecture, which are comprehensive in nature; and a minimum of four one-hour practical examinations in laboratory. (T. Moore)

455/Nat. Res. 422. Biology of Fishes. Eight hours of biology, including vertebrate anatomy. (4). (Excl).

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of the lower vertebrates commonly known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology and reproduction. The systematic position of fishes among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages are examined. Special attention is given to the consequences of the physical properties of water to the form, function and modes of living of fishes. The laboratory examines in greater detail some of the topics covered by lectures. It provides information on local and world fishes, their anatomy and classification, use of field equipment, guides and identification keys. Laboratory exercises will illustrate selected aspects of behavior and function. A scheduled discussion section examines current papers in the primary literature, with emphasis on hypothesis formulation and testing. At least two field trips are included as laboratories. Prerequisites: introductory biology and a course in vertebrate biology; exceptions must be approved by the instructors. Evaluation of students is based on two open-book exams, a closed-book final exam and a laboratory exam. All exams contain essay questions that will require synthesis and logical examination of novel problems. The take-home exams will include numerical problems. Students are also expected to keep laboratory notes that will be graded. (Fink and Webb)

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