Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (3). (HU).

This course offers a broad, humanistic examination of the numerous elements which make up the Near East. Students will be introduced to the people, cultures, historical background, and economic and political problems of the area. The course has no prerequisites. While intended for the general student body, it will also provide a structural framework for beginning students in N.E. Studies by showing the relationship between subject matter presented in more advanced courses. There will be one midterm and a final. The course is based on lectures, numerous guest lecturers, and class discussion. Special "lab" sessions will introduce students to N.E. food and dance. (Kolars)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Freedman)

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. (Stewart-Robinson)

463/Hist. 507. Intellectual History of the Ancient Near Eastern and Pre-Classical Mediterranean World. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

This course will investigate the following topics (and several more not listed) on a comparative basis among various societies in the ancient Near East e.g., Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Hittite, Hebrew, and Early Greece : types of conceptualization-reason and myth; intellectual activities-invention of writing, pseudo-science; data-keeping; libraries, standards of aesthetic perceptions; origins of various literary and non-literary genres (especially history-writing); origins of various political, economic and legal institutions; perceptions of the cosmos (religious and philosophical); ideas on knowledge and wisdom. The course will be taught in a combination lecture-discussion method. Examination of the various issues will be grounded in selected readings from standard texts and documents, as well as in general interpretive articles. A number of paperback books will be required texts, while an additional supply of sources will be placed on reserve in the Undergraduate Library. These will be spelled out on the first day of class. The course work will require a term paper, a shorter project, and the final examination (usually a take-home exam). Those interested in the history of ideas and the development of various types of cognition, both undergraduates and graduates, are sincerely welcome. The course will operate in the spirit of exploration and intellectual adventure. (Orlin)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature, Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. (Schramm)

470/Hist. 440. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500-945. (3). (HU).

This course emphasizes the political and economic background, as well as the main aspects and social trends characterizing the rise and peak of Islamic civilization between the seventh and tenth centuries of C.E. (Ehrenkreutz)

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (HU).

This course deals with one of the most important varieties of Islamic Civilization, and the one formed in the area stretching from present-day Iraq across the Iranian Plateau to Central Asia. Perso-Islamic Civilization underlies the modern Islamic cultures of Afghanistan, Muslim Soviet Central Asia, Pakistan, Muslim India, and Iran, and it had a great deal of influence on the formation of Ottoman Turkish Civilization. Topics will include Ancient Iran's contribution to the formation of Islamic Civilization in Arabic, the emergence and maturation of New Persian literature, the impact of the Turkish invasions, Perso-Islamic Civilization on the eve of the Mongol invasion and the transfer of this culture to India as an "émigré civilization" under the Delhi Sultanate. A paper or set of four critical reviews, a midterm and a final are required. Readings are from secondary materials and source translations in English from a reserve list and a course pack. (Luther)

481/Rel. 481/Engl. 401. The English Bible: Its Literary Aspects and Influences, I. (3). (HU).

See English 401. (Williams)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LSA Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or with "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (FL).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's Practical Grammar of Classical Hebrew as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes. (Schramm)

496/Rel. 404/Anthro. 450. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Rappaport)

498/Rel. 498. Ethics and Society in Early Christianity. (3). (HU).

This course (enrollment limited to the first 100 subscribers) will address the question of social justice in the early church, roughly from the time of Paul's missionary activity (ca. 40-60CE) through the fourth century and the period of the ecumenical councils. The emphasis of the course is on various issues and concerns that determine the codification of Christian manuals of conduct, legal systems and liturgical forms. Among the themes to be discussed: Sin, virtue, and righteousness; the idea of "holiness" and "depravity"; models of authority (hierarchical vs. charismatic, etc.); sexuality and asceticism; abortion; divorce and marriage; homosexuality; the family; priestly celibacy; litigation; private property; the equality of the sexes. Students will be expected to take a midterm examination and to produce a paper of about 16-20 pages on some subject of interest. (Hoffmann)

499. Senior Seminar: Christian Origins. Classical Greek 489 or equivalent. (4). (HU)

The subject for the term is: The development of liturgical and organizational patterns in the early Christian communities. A number of early liturgies will be examined (both orthodox and "heretical," Christian and pagan) in order to determine how an emerging system of belief acquired practical and theoretical expression in the life of the communities. Some attention to art-historical data and archaeology. Enrollment: Limited to 20; evaluation: prospectus and final paper. (Hoffmann)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Arabic Phonology and Script by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part One, by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course may not be taken until six hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as eight hours a week plus two optional hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part Two by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

No previous knowledge of Arabic is required for Arabic 201. This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course starts with A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script, by Ernest N. McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part I, by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets six hours per week for six credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. (Rammuny)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. Passages in Arabic are translated sometimes with and sometimes without the use of a dictionary. There are also dictionary practice drills which are intended to aid vocabulary acquisition and discussion of specific morphological problems based on extracts taken from Arabic newspapers. This is a semi-intensive course which meets six hours each week. With the aim of achieving a practical command of spoken modern standard Arabic, there is an application of the fundamentals of grammar through drill sessions with a native speaker. In order to develop a command of written Arabic, students produce (in Arabic) weekly summaries, commentaries, and composition. Arabic 401 is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for students who expect to learn the language for use in related fields. Weekly quizzes, midterm, and final. (Staff, Rammuny)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

415. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 402. (3). (Excl).

This course teaches the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar of colloquial educated Arabic as spoken in Jerusalem, Beirut, Damascus and Amman, through oral and pattern practice drill. Towards the end of the course emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content than the first lessons. For Whom : This course is recommended for students who plan to travel or to work in the Levant and those who need Arabic for immediate oral use. Evaluation and Requirements : Use of language laboratory to reinforce class work and also to do assignments which need to be recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, monthly tests, and the examination. Special Features : The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversations and the listening comprehension selections. In addition, it is taught by a native speaker of the dialect to be taught. Texts: Colloquial Levantine Arabic by Ernest McCarus et. al. (Rammuny)

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectual Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition, Ann Arbor, Mi.: Dept of Near Eastern Studies, 1986. Also Raji Rammuny Students' Guide, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications 1980. (Rammuny)

503. Survey of Arabic Literature. Arabic 502 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will trace the development of Arabic literature from the earliest times to the present and introduce the student to its major genres and authors. Lectures relating literary trends to intellectual, social and other factors will be given in Arabic by the instructor. Readings of original works from different periods will be assigned, and the students will be required to deliver oral reports for discussion, as well as written summaries and brief critiques. All activities will be conducted in Arabic. Evaluation will be based on class performance, one or two written tests, and a term paper.

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills. (Coffin)

301(401). Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. Review of morphology and syntax. Continued emphasis on oral work and writing skills. (Coffin)

302(402). Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 301 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. In addition to continued study of morphology and syntax, some reading selections in fiction and non-fiction prose will be introduced. (Coffin)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

401(501). Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The object of this course is to enhance the student's Hebrew reading and writing skills. In addition, emphasis is placed on expanding student's vocabulary. To present the various levels of Hebrew, the materials include heterogeneous texts, ranging from the biblical period to modern times. (Balaban)

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The special genre of the communications media (newspapers, radio and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadcasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. (Coffin)

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 502 or equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

Modern Hebrew Fiction: emphasis on works of Agnon and A.B. Yehoshua. (Coffin)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. Student evaluation is based on examinations-periodic quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The basic text, Modern Persian. Elementary Level, by Windfuhr and Tehranisa, will be used throughout Persian 201 and supplemented by coordinated tapes produced for enrolled students in the language lab. (Windfuhr)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Luther)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

542. Persian Texts from the Early Modern Period. Iranian 541. (3). (HU).

Readings, analysis, and discussions of Persian texts from the 19th and 20th century of Iran. (Windfuhr)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, Turkish for Foreigners (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, Turkish (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' Turkish Grammar (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. (Stewert-Robinson)

411. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 202 and permission of instructor. (3).

Part of the sequence of courses required of concentrators, MAs and PHDs in Turkish Studies and open to Near Eastern Studies with a multi-language interest and to students in other disciplines who need Ottoman for research purposes. This is a recitation-type course designed to give students speedy access to written Ottoman in the Arabic script. The texts are specially selected and xeroxed for distribution to students. Quizzes and a final examination are required in each term. (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. (Stewart-Robinson)


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