Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with prior study of French may elect this course only on the basis of the Placement or by permission of the department, and in the sections specified for them. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (1 1/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests. Students who have had previous study of French may not enroll in sections l4-19.

Section 020 Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for students who want to be certain that they are better prepared for French 102 and are willing to devote the necessary effort to do so. Beyond the five hours a week (see Time Schedule) of regular classes, another hour will be provided for detailed explanations of central concepts, for additional practice, and for reviews. Also, small group tutoring will be arranged according to individual needs.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is not open to students who have begun instruction elsewhere. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to take the placement test, or enroll in French 103. For advice, see H. Neu or M. P. Hagiwara.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course on the basis of the Placement Test or by permission of the department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 1-3 years in high school or 1 term of college or University French not at University of Michigan) whose proficiency is not sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by term, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. Both courses also have listening comprehension and speaking tests, and 232, in addition, has an outside reading test.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LSA language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework and active participation in classroom activities determine the credit/no credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3); IIIb in Ann Arbor (2). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet twice a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. Also, one weekly lecture on some linguistic problems and cultural aspects of modern France for all sections together, as part of the three hours per week required. (M. Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, two novels, simulations, bi-weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This is a course in ENGLISH to FRENCH translation. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may be occasionally devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts on different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes and a final examination. The course is viewed as a continuation of French 371 with the specific constraints of an English text. (Mermier)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the language of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company: EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. There will be occasional translation exercises and one simulation. Students will write two medium length papers and take a final exam. Coursepack. No auditors. To respond to student demands, the maximum enrollment has been increased to 45. If the course is full, the second meeting will be divided into two recitation sections, meeting twice a week, while the first one will be a lecture. (M. Gabrielli)

453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with French phonology and morphology from a structural point of view. In phonology, English and French vowels, consonants, syllabic structures, and prosodic features are compared. Students learn to describe French sounds accurately, explain causes of pronunciation problems encountered by speakers of American English, transcribe prose and poems using phonetic symbols, and read phonetic transcriptions of dialogues. In morphology, the evolution of French sounds and words and the formation of words through compounding and derivational processes constitute the main topics. The course is conducted in French. No previous knowledge of phonetics is necessary. Class time is divided into lectures and travaux pratiques. There are three one-hour tests. (Hagiwara)

456/Rom. Ling. 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course consists of four main components: phonology, morphology, syntax, and psycholinguistics. In each component, discussions of theories are combined with practical problem-solving. Students are introduced to different fields of linguistics, a contrastive study of English and French phonology, a linguistic method of analyzing the French language, problems of teaching pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and an evaluation of different teaching methods, techniques, and available materials. The course is conducted in English. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and travaux pratiques. There are midterm and final examinations and a paper. High proficiency of spoken and written French is required. No previous knowledge of linguistics or phonetics is needed. (Hagiwara)

Civilization

440. Les structures socio-culturelles de la France actuelle. French 362 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The objective of the course is to study the relationship between everyday experience and culture defined as a set of ideas, values and symbolic codes. In order to understand the present situation in France, we will study the following topics: (a) the evolution of France since 1945; (b) the social stratification; (c) the role of education (acquisition of "capital scolaire"); (d) the acquisition and transmission of "capital culture"; (e) the differences between "popular culture," "mass culture" and "legitimate culture." The general approach will be based on Pierre Bourdieu's La Distinction. In order to understand his ideas we will study the cultural practices as they can be observed in France in 1986, using various texts (best sellers, literary prizes), polls and TV programs (like Apostrophes.) The course will be conducted entirely in French and will combine lectures and discussions. Undergraduates need to have taken French 385 or to have a basic knowledge of modern France. Three short analytical papers, one longer research paper. (Carduner)

Literature

387/388/389 Introduction to French Literature. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and to introduce them to the methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Active student participation will be encouraged. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, Le Cid, Molière, Le Tartuffe, Racine, Phedre, Voltaire, Candide, Rousseau, Les Reveries du promeneur solitaire. Grades will be based on a short paper on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French. (Gravdal)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of the nineteenth-century French literature. We study the themes of ambition, avarice and solitude in novels by Stendhal, Balzac and Flaubert. We also read poems from Les Fleurs du Mal by Baudelaire. Emphasis placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment consists of reading some twenty-five pages in a novel with "close reading" of some four or five paragraphs. These pages are then discussed in class. Students are required to write some five to six papers in French of three to four pages in length. Each paper is corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades are based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Muller)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

Literature reflects both the changing attitudes of society and the special insights of individual authors. Freedom and constraint, love and death, fear, alienation, moral values, and the notion of self-concept: the evolution of these fundamental concerns of twentieth-century society as understood by major French authors is the primary focus of the course. Class discussions in French will analyze the special insights and literary techniques of Gide, Proust, Valery, Sartre, Camus, and Duras through examples of the novel, short story, the theater and poetry. Four or five short papers and a final examination.

438/MARC 444. Introduction to the Reading of Old French Texts. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
The Poetic JE in Old French Texts.
Early medieval texts are said to speak anonymously. The text's voice is a collective voice, not a vehicle for an author. Later medieval works, such as those of Rutebeuf in the thirteenth century, Christine de Pisan, and Francois Villon in the fifteenth century, are considered to be autobiographical. This course will reconsider the supposed absence of the author in early texts, and the creation of a personal voice in later works, exploring who or what speaks when the medieval text says "je." Students will be encouraged to bring their knowledge of modern criticism to bear on medieval texts. The course will function also as an initiation to the Old French language (syntax, vocabulary, declensions). As much reading as possible will be in Old French, but modern translations will be available. Two or three short papers (to be summarized in class), and an extensive paper on a text not read in class, will be required. No exams. Lectures and discussions in French. The course will present a survey of important medieval writers (Marie de France, Gace Brule, Guillaume de Lorris, Rutebeuf, Christine de Pisan, Villon) as well as an introduction to the principal genres of medieval literature (chanson de geste, romance, hagiography, pastourelle, lyric poetry, the epistolary, and the theater). (Mermier)

442. Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Under this number the department offers a variety of courses taught by various instructors on specific literary topics and themes such as women in literature; the hero; etc... The purpose of this course is to offer students less traditional aspects of French literature, enabling them to study across the barrier of genres and centuries. Reading, writing and speaking are equally emphasized. The course gives the concentrator as well as others an opportunity to strengthen their language skill as well as to refine and exploit their knowledge of literature. Grades based on class work, written and oral. The course is conducted in French. (Section 001: Lire la Poesie (Gravdal) Section 002: Form in Nineteenth Century Poetry. (Muller)

444. African/Caribbean Literature in French. A literature course in French, and a knowledge of French. (3). (HU). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.
Francophone African Literature: Poetry.
This advanced introduction to the poetry of Black Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean will focus primarily on four literary figures who represent different generations and geographical areas: L. S. Senghor (Senegal), U Tam'si (Congo), J. J. Rabearivelo (Madagascar) and E. Maunick (Mauritius). The problematic relationship of this poetry to "native" traditions, to the French symbolist and surrealist movements and to the political history of Africa will be investigated. The course will put a premium on active student participation. Grades will be based on three short papers and class participation. (Ngate)

487. Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course, conducted in French, will focus on the pre-classical period, on those writers who react against the baroque incursion and who begin to define the direction that 17th century literature will finally take. To this end, attention will be paid to the transitional poets at the beginning of the century (namely, Malherbe, Regnier, Saint-Amant), and, more especially, to the tragedies of Corneille and the comedies of Molière. Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write two papers in French of three or four pages (if undergrad) and to participate in discussion. The final grade will be based on the results of written work and on student participation. There is no final exam. (Gray)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's Prego with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm or hour examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's Prego (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm or hourly examinations, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

111. First Special Reading Course. (4). (Excl.).
First Special Reading Course.
Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. All the grammar of the language is covered and extensive reading of critical materials is required. Open to graduates, juniors, seniors: and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LSA foreign language requirement. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 205 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had a least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. The mandatory use of the language laboratory will provide conversational material on various aspects of Italian life on which the students will be given the opportunity to recreate real life situations. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Occasional oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History. (3). (HU).

Through lectures, slides, and films supplemented by readings, this course presents a survey of Italy's cultural achievements in their historical context from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to the present. Students with diverse interests and backgrounds - art history, literature, Italian relatives, music, etc. will be able to pursue specialized topics within the general historical outline. Topics include Renaissance art and literature, music and the rise of opera, the unification and industrialization of modern Italy, with some attention to contemporary cinema and Italian-American history. Required are a ten-page paper, a midterm, and a final examination. The course is taught in English, but students with a background in Italian will have the opportunity of reading some texts in the original. (Marsh)

361. Intermediate Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

All the basic skills of the language will receive attention in this course, the primary goal of which is the improvement and refinement of oral, reading and writing proficiency. Review of difficult points of grammar will be taken up when necessary, but the major concentration will be on class discussion of short reading materials ranging from newspaper and magazine articles, short fiction and poetry to polemic essays on contemporary cultural, political and social topics. Short essays will be part of the regular assignments, as will occasional prepared oral presentations, translations, and dictations. The variety of the materials covered will be as broad as possible to introduce students to the several different writing styles and manner of presentation of the language. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. (Olken)

419. Italo Calvino: A Writer for All Seasons. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU).

The magic of Calvino is his prodigious talent as a master teller of tales; realistic, fantastic, set in centuries past or the present, his stories form a pattern of all the possible paths men have taken, and all the destinies that have befallen them. Elusively didactic, yet openly vulnerable, Calvino's characters are involved in all the great deeds and dull minutiae of life, exploring themselves and the world around them. This world as Calvino sees and appraises it, his concern with its style and meaning, will be the central topic of this course. Texts will include his first novel, The Path To The Spiders' Next; the fantasy trilogy: The Cloven Viscount, The Non-Existent Knight, The Baron in the Trees, and The Cosmicomics; and selected Neo-Realistic novellas and short stories. Class format will be based on lectures and discussion, and standard written assignments. The language of instruction will be English; the texts may be read in English or Italian. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life when spoken at a moderate speed, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. The course covers units 1-10 of Modern Portuguese by Ellison et al. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises and time in the lab. Grading will be based on one-hour quizzes given every other week, two oral exams, class participation and a final exam. A weekly "brown bag lunch" is held every Wednesday in the Commons Lounge. Everyone is welcome who wants to practice Portuguese in an informal environment. Portuguese 101 is offered only in the Fall Term. (Musso)

231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. (See description above). It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, Pasa a Frinte ! and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. Classroom work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar as made necessary from daily observation of students' writing and speaking performances, oral presentations and discussion of short stories and texts from newspapers and magazines. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes given every other week, oral presentations, essays, class participation and a final exam. Portuguese 231 is only offered Fall Term. (Musso)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

455/Spanish 455/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 455. (Wolfe)

456/French 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See French 456. (Hagiwara)

Courses in Romanian (Division 463)

101. Elementary Romanian. (4). (FL).

The principal subject is the Romanian language, its grammar and use. Also stressed is the cultural history of Romania and of Romanian civilization. In this regard, the use of film-strips and records is a prime tool. No special background is needed except interest and receptivity. Oral and written examinations will be given on an approximately monthly basis, more for the purpose of checking student progress than for assigning a hierarchy of grades. The methods of instruction will be lecture, discussion, and audiovisual materials mentioned above. (Rosu)

231. Second-Year Romanian. Romanian 102. (4). (FL).

The principal subject is the Romanian language, its grammar and use, conversation in the language, exercises, translation from Romanian into English, and vice versa. This course is intended also, to improve the student's vocabulary, speaking, reading and listening. Also stressed is the cultural history of Romania and of Romanian civilization. In this regard, the use of film-strips and records are prime tools. Oral and written examinations will be given on an approximately monthly basis, more for the purpose of checking student progress than for assigning a hierarchy of grades. The methods of instruction will be lecture, discussion, and the audiovisual materials mentioned above. (Rosu)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, two oral exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 and 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

Section 014: Permission of Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP). This CSP section is designed for native speakers of Spanish who have some degree of aural-oral fluency in the language but lack basic reading and writing skills. The class will meet five hours a week.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, two oral exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 102 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. This course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on two oral exams and a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on two oral exams, a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. (Dworkin)

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. The course cannot be used to satisfy Spanish concentration requirements.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3); IIIb in Ann Arbor: (2). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects.

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. (3); IIIb in Ann Arbor: (2). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 001 Casa; Section 002: Hafter; Section 003 Vaquero)

453. Advanced Syntax. Spanish 361 and 362. (3). (Excl).

This course aims to improve student understanding and mastery of written Spanish through:(a) detailed analysis of specific syntactic problems, such as the tense structure of Spanish, the subjunctive mood, and the pronoun system (b) extensive grammar exercises, (c) vocabulary building exercises and (d) writing and editing compositions. Student grade is based on three major exams, compositions, and class participation (discussion and correction of grammar exercises). Class meets three hours a week. (Dvorak)

455/Rom. Ling. 455/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

Theoretical and practical aspects of second language acquisition with special reference to the acquisition of Spanish by speakers of English. Principles of syntactic, semantic, morphological, and phonological analysis applied to practical problems in teaching and learning Spanish. Among the topics included in the course are: theory; analysis of learning problems; course design; textbook analysis; testing; techniques for teaching and learning (a) listening, (b) speaking, (c) reading, and (d) composition skills. Knowledge of Spanish and English is required. (Wolfe)

Literature

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, the Generation of '98, and the years around the Spanish Civil War are the periods represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, and an effort is made to show how they exemplify their historical and cultural context. Representative authors who may be studied are Larra, Zorrilla, Espronceda, Becquer, Galdos, Unamuno, and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of quizzes, a term paper, and a final examination. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)

374/Rel. 380. The Viewpoint of Liberation Theology. (3). (HU).

See Religion 380. (Gutierrez)

381. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will be centered on "Testimonial Literature," one of the most recent developments of Latin American literature and closely related to the political and historical situation of Latin American countries. The goal of the course will be to understand the novels as "literature" and as "testimony" as well as understand them in the context of Latin American history and culture. Spanish 361/362 are required. Courses in Latin American history or anthropology related to Latin American countries are suggested. Reading will be in Spanish. Discussions in Spanish and/or English, depending on the composition of the group. The course is designed for Spanish concentrators as well as Latino Studies and Latin American Studies concentrators. Oral presentations, exams and one final paper. (Mignolo)

432. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

In the course we will study closely three masterpieces of the Spanish Renaissance; The Celestina, The Lazarillo de Tormes and the Don Quixote. These works are interesting not only for their value in absolute terms, but because of their deep and pervasive influence on European letters. (Fraker)

450. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

Special projects in Hispanic studies may be arranged to supplement existing departmental courses, provided the student can obtain permission from an interested professor. Students are discouraged from seeking independent study in terms when fundamental courses in fields not yet studied are already available during regular class hours. (Mignolo)

462. Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

A consideration of the major exponents of Spain's Golden Age. Topics to be covered are: the problem of Renaissance in Spain, the influence of Petrarchan poetry, the beginning of the picaresque mode, the fusion of religious and love poetry, the development of the short-story, characteristics of Golden Age drama. Students are required to write papers on three of these topics as well as take a final examination. Topics will be introduced by background lectures. Individual works will be analyzed in class discussions and student presentations. The following authors or works will be read: Garcilaso de la Vega, Alfonso Valdes, Lazarillo de Tormes, Fray Luis de Leon, San Juan de la Cruz, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca. Supplementary readings on other authors complete the course. (Casa)

471. The Modern Spanish Novel. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

The main emphasis of the course falls on close analysis of works principally by Perez Galdos, Valera, Pardo Bazan, and Clarin. Students will have an opportunity to refine their understanding of style, structure, and ideas in the novel. A second emphasis focuses on the history of a literary genre in the nineteenth century. For example: the major Spanish figures in the realistic novel did not begin to publish until the 1870's, and yet Spain was the country which gave Europe the format of modern realistic fiction in the Quijote and the picaresque novel. Why it was hard for Spanish writers to cultivate this genre for so long is one of the problems discussed in the context of Spanish culture of the nineteenth century. Another topic is the relation between changing views of what is realistic in fiction and what is considered "real" in contemporary philosophy. Classes are conducted in Spanish, the lectures well mixed with discussion. Regular attendance is required. Exercises include quizzes, a term paper and a final examination. (Hafter)

485. Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).
Don Quijote
es la obra cumbre de la literatura espanola y una de las mas importantes de la literatura universal. En ella estan presentes tanto los problemas e ideales de la epoca de su autor como los de todos los tiempos. La lectura del Quijote es un ejercicio de la mas alta calidad, reconfortante al mismo tiempo que produce una excepcional emocion estetica. El curso tiene como objeto que el estudiante haga una introduccion a la obra que le permita disfrutar tanto de los mundos ideologicos de la obra como de su grandeza artistica. El estudiante debe leer detenidamente la obra y hacer dos trabajos sobre un tema especifico, segun la me todologia que el profesor reguiere. (Lopez-Grigera)

488. Latin American Narrative of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

This course explores the Latin American novel of the 20th Century in the context of narratology. One among several kinds of narrative manifestations, the novel is perhaps the most complex of them all, in that it not only narrates a story but does it at the same time that it explores the limit and possibilities of narrating a story. Although it is frequently presented as fictional discourse, the modern Latin American novel has also established a close relationship with historical and testimonial narratives. The course is designed for Spanish, Latin American and Latino Studies concentrators. Spanish 381 or 382 is recommended. Reading will be in Spanish. Discussion will be in Spanish or English, according to the group composition. Exams will be based on oral presentations, exams and a final paper. (Mignolo)

489. Case Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
The Theology of Bartholome de las Casas.
See Religion 402. (Gutierrez)


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