Courses in Biology (Division 328)

Introductory Courses

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Within these areas topics such as cell structure, cell metabolism, nutrition, human genetics, genetic engineering, cancer, nature of evolution, and sociobiology will be discussed. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture, and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. (McKitrick and staff)

102(Botany 102). Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means (runners, bulbs, corms, offsets, divisions, and underground stems); breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; edible wild plants; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; fall vegetable gardening, organic gardening and composting; plant pruning, including bonsai; landscaping around the home; and how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; drying and use of plants for crafts; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; construction of solar greenhouses and coldframes; herbs and their uses. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are several field trips which emphasize ecology, edible wild plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as visits to Hidden Lake Gardens. Two of the highlights of the course are a trip to Brighton Bog and a natural foods and edible wild plants dinner which the students prepare. Several guest lecturers help to make this a very interesting class for the budding indoor gardener and outdoor gardener. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). Required book is PRACTICAL BOTANY by Peter Kaufman et al. (Kaufman)

152(Biology 112). Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

Biology 152 is the first term of a two-term introductory biology sequence (152/154). The sequence is intended for concentrators in biological and other science programs, premedical or other preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology and having suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford suitable experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of present-day biology. The topical coverage of Biology 152 is about equally divided among three areas, in the following sequence: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students are expected to attend three lectures and one three hour laboratory/discussion section. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST. There will be three course-wide examinations and a final examination, as well as supplementary films and review sessions. Students MUST be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule). In addition, regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course.

The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary materials for this course.

Enrollment for Honors work will entail time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 152 (lecture section 002 and ANY lab/discussion) plus Biology 153 (one credit hour).

NOTE CONCERNING PREREQUISITES. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 152. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful, but is not required). Although a high school biology course is helpful preparation for Biology 152, it is not required. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building.) (Kleinsmith and Adams)

SECTIONS 001 and 008 PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). These CSP sections, which cover the complete course syllabus, are designed for students who want to be certain they are highly prepared for Biology 154 and are willing to devote the effort necessary to do so. Extra class time is provided for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Therefore, enrollment in these CSP sections will entail laboratories exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

153(Biology 113). Introductory Biology Honors. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 152. Discussion materials may include classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short papers and one term paper, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. Open ONLY to students admitted to the LSA Honors Program.

154(Biology 114). Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit is granted to those who have completed 195. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 152, and includes the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 152. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION SECTION STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE, OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ELSE ON THE WAITING LIST. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. The required textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes are available at bookstores. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. Enrollment for Honors credit will entail time, effort, and written work beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, students in LSA Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to the Honors laboratory. Further information about Biology 154 can be obtained from the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 C.C. Little.

SECTION 030 and 036: PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). This CSP section, which covers the complete course syllabus, provides extra class time for in-depth analysis of central concepts. Enrollment in this CSP section will entail laboratory exercises and discussion time beyond the regular course requirements.

195(Biology 105). Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 123 or 107. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). (5). (NS).

Biology 195 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 152-154 sequence. It differs from 152-154 IN THE ACCELERATED PACE OF STUDY AND IN THE SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL FORMAT. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline. Effective writing skills are also necessary for the course. Biology 195 is divided into four units (Biology of Cells, Genetics and Development, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 195 are intended to reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and to provide in-depth perspectives in several subdisciplines of biology. The laboratory, which is central to the course, provides the opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed in weekly recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students must reserve the following Monday evenings (7-9 PM) for examinations: October 5, October 19, and November 16. Students are required to purchase the textbook Keeton and Gould's BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 4th edition, a course pack (at Ulrich's), a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille-ruled notebook. For additional information concerning the course or registration, contact Lynn Coulter, 3064 Dana Building, 763-0495. (Ikuma)

Writing, Research and Experiential Courses

301(Biology 300). Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Biology 301 was designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. With that goal in mind, we have devised a set of diverse assignments that introduce students to many of the kinds of writing they will have to employ as professional biologists. In order to make the work as realistic as possible, we insist on a high standard of biology as well as writing. Therefore, an essay that is beautifully written but has the biology wrong is no more acceptable than good biology badly written. Thus, a research paper is required that is based upon actual hands-on experiments of the kind scientists use in their own work. In addition to good writing and sound biology, we stress critical thinking by means of lectures and a critique that is designed to require students to evaluate a published research report in a way that is new to most of them. Of all our assignments, the critique is probably the most challenging and valuable, and we sometimes use a second critique as an in-class exam. Considerable emphasis is placed upon the library as a research tool throughout but especially in an assignment on the writing of a review. This requires considerable preparative work, including the development of an outline, a visit to the library, and an oral report on the subject of the paper. Throughout the course, revisions of the original writing assignments must be submitted for review by the instructor so that the need for continued editing is reinforced. By the end of the term, we hope to have improved our students' performance as both originators and users of biological literature. (Sussman)

Molecular and Cellular Biology and Physiology

209(Botany 281). Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in plant sciences (cell and molecular biology or botany). The course introduces the basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out vital functions and introduces students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The contents of the lectures fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzymes action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, water relations, transpiration and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant developments, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall terms. (Yocum and Frasch)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Rizki and Palmer)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in living cells. As an introductory course, emphasis is place on a broad view rather than a detailed knowledge of this enormously encompassing field. Thus, biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms and reactions, the chemical basis of life. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology including medicine, dentistry, and other professional pursuits. The general subject matter includes amino acids, protein structure and function, allosterism, molecular disease, enzyme properties, kinetics and mechanisms, connective tissue proteins, membrane structure and function, energetics, intermediary metabolism and its regulation, biosynthetic processes, DNA, RNA, transcription, the genetic code and protein synthesis, control of gene expression, muscle contraction and cell motility, and hormone action. This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's chosen according to interest and ability to help other undergraduates with biochemistry. The course is divided into 15 logical units of material, and students are required to MASTER the content of each unit. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which, upon completion, is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60 hours/week in a suite permanently assigned to this course. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by the professor. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. (Beyer and Douthit)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has MASTERED the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer and Douthit)

414(Botany 485). Physiology of Plant Development. Introductory biology and one additional course in botany. (3). (Excl).

An integrated approach emphasizing general principles, the adaptive value and regulation of plant development. Growth, morphogenesis, cell differentiation and cell biology of development in a variety of plants including algae and fungi will be covered in terms of environmental, genetic, hormonal and biochemical controls. Applications of this subject to agriculture, natural history and ecological adaptations of plants will be given. Special topics will include senescence and aging, dormancy, pollination mechanisms, abnormal development (e.g., galls), biological rhythms, photoperiodism, plant movements, mechanical devices, optical phenomena, cell-cell interactions, organelle assembly, and adaptations to fire, cold, drought and disease. The present and future genetic engineering of plant development will be examined. Three lectures per week, three exams, and one short paper. Selected readings. (Nooden)

418(Zoology 428). Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormones and of hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates but will also consider those of invertebrates. One-fifth of the course is devoted to a detailed description of Reproductive Endocrinology. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Instruction in Biology 418 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in chemistry through organic is essential and a course in biochemistry would be helpful. (Doneen)

419(Zoology 430). Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 418; and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This laboratory course must be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Biology 418. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation, and mechanisms of action of hormones. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled each week; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. (Doneen)

427(Biology 417). Molecular Biology. Biology 305 and Biology 411 or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl).

Three one-hour lectures and one three-hour discussion per week. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems are discussed, and topics include: physical and biochemical methods used in molecular biology; DNA structure and topology, DNA replication, and DNA-protein interactions; genetic engineering; transcription, RNA processing and transcriptional regulation; chromatin structure; genetic codes; protein synthesis, ribosomal structure and function, and the regulation of translation; regulation of gene expression. Readings include current reviews and original research papers as well as assignments from the text. Three two-hour midterm examinations. (Brown and Jones)

Animal Biology

341(Zoology 341). Parasitology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course concentrates on the biology of animal-animal interactions including parasitism, commensalism and mutualism. The focus is primarily evolutionary and ecological, with emphasis on the origins and development of such associations. The organismal approach will be stressed in studies of Protozoa, various helminth groups and arthropods, with examples including parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Discussions of host-parasite interactions will include co-evolutionary perspectives as well as traditional approaches. No specific background other than introductory biology is required, although courses in ecology and evolutionary biology will be helpful. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two hour exams, a lecture final, laboratory quizzes and a practical examination. This course consists of three lectures and one laboratory weekly. (OConnor)

351(Zoology 351). Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 152-154 or 195; or the equivalent. (6). (NS).

The course has multiple aims. The dissection in the laboratory introduces the student to the structural pattern, mainly of shark and cat, but also of a series of other vertebrates. It is intended to lead to a comparative understanding of the roles and evolution of structures in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates. Lectures are designed to put these structural observations into a broad perspective by focusing on the function, origin, and evolution of chordate structures, with particular emphasis on those of vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a visit to the Natural History Museum. (Gans)

437(Zoology 437). Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (Excl).

The diverse groups of invertebrate animals are reviewed. Their development, adaptations to the environment, and current views of their systematic and evolutionary relationships are presented. The course consists of lectures and laboratories where both living and preserved animals are studied. Evaluation is by written examination, oral examination, and by practical laboratory examination. Text: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY, R.D. Barnes, 5th ed. Saunders. Laboratory manual: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY, D.E. Beck and L.F. Braithwaite, 3rd ed. Burgess. (Cather and Eernisse)

442(Zoology 442). Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (4). (Excl).Also offered at the Biological Station during IIIb.

This is a general course which covers information concerning four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom and is intended to give some perspective on invertebrate systems as opposed to the more usual emphasis on vertebrate animals. The emphasis is on the whole animal what it is, what it does, how it does it, how it got there. In lectures, a wealth of information and generalizations gathered from insects concerning all major aspects of biology is discussed. In the laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, brief reviews of morphology and anatomy, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. This course is an introduction to specialization in all aspects of biology in which insects are appropriate experimental organisms and an introduction to the appreciation and enjoyment of living animals. The following topics are discussed in lecture, with special emphasis on aspects recently treated in research publications: synopsis of orders; general functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity and nervous organization; regulation of development and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration in insects; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization in insects; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships of insects; insect flight. The laboratory work encompasses a more unified scope. The only prerequisites for this course are an introductory college course in biology or zoology and an interest in understanding living organisms. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week. Only one text, Borror, DeLong and Triplehorn's AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF INSECTS (fifth edition), is required for both lecture and laboratory. EXCEPT FOR PREPARING AN INSECT COLLECTION AND SOME COLLECTING, OUTSIDE WORK IS AT A MINIMUM. There is at least one essay hour examination and a final essay examination in lecture, which are comprehensive in nature, and a minimum of four one-hour practical examinations in laboratory. (Moore)

451(Zoology 451). Biology of Mammals. Biol. 252 or 351 and permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The course introduces students to the evolution, ecology, behavior and structure of mammals. Topics covered include ancestry of the Mammalia; cursorial, arboreal, fossorial and aquatic adaptations; communication; population dynamics; behavior; ecology; zoogeography; and classification. The two lectures each week focus on various aspects of the biology of mammals. In laboratory sessions (two three-hour periods each week) students survey the orders and families of mammals of the world. Several weekend field trips focus on biology of local faunas. A text supplements the lectures, and a published manual is necessary for the laboratory. Two midterm examinations and a final examination cover lectures, laboratory, and assigned reading. (Myers)

Plant Biology

355(Botany 337/230)/Nat. Res. 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biology 152 or 195 or equivalent. (4). (NS).

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification and ecological relations are taught during one afternoon field trip per week. The plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities dry oak-hickory forests, mesic-maple forests, river floodplains, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, life histories, forest ecology, physiological ecology, genetics and variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the Tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. MICHIGAN TREES (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Lecture material is based in part on the book, FOREST ECOLOGY (Spurr and Barnes). Grading is based 60% on field quizzes and exams(5) and indoor identification exams(2); 40% on lecture (2 hour exams). (Wagner and Barnes)

468(Botany 468). Introduction to Mycology. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent), or (preferably) Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The principal themes of Biology 468 are the comparative and functional morphology and the taxonomic-evolutionary relationships of the major groups of fungi. These include the slime molds (Myxomycetes), chytrids (Chytridiomycetes), water molds and downy mildews (Oomycetes), and bread molds (Zygomycetes) as well as the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The two latter groups contain such organisms as the yeasts, many important animal and plant parasites, and the mushrooms. The lectures also include topics in fungal physiology, genetics, and ecology, and on the relation of fungi to man (plant pathology, edible and poisonous mushrooms). The course does not deal with medical aspects of mycology or with any specific fungi pathogenic to humans; however, the groups to which many such organisms belong are studied. Laboratory work involves the macroscopic and microscopic study of representatives of the various fungal groups and is based on living material as far as possible. It also provides experience in mycological techniques such as the preparation of nutrient media and of fungal material for microscopic examination. Each student does a project involving the isolation of a variety of fungi from their natural substrates, growing them in pure culture, and identifying them to genus. A kit containing minor items of equipment and supplies for laboratory is available from the Chemistry Service Unit. No laboratory notebook is required. Three field trips are scheduled in early fall to study mushrooms and other fungi in their natural habitats; interested students may also attend optional Saturday trips to further increase their knowledge of mushrooms. Several quizzes and three examinations are held during the term. The examinations are two to two and one-half hours long and include both written and practical parts. Final grades for the course are based on the quiz and examination scores and on the results of the laboratory project. A textbook and several other sources are utilized for assigned readings. (Shaffer)

472(Botany 445). Morphology and Evolution of Bryophytes. An introductory laboratory course in botany and permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed Biology 471. (4). (Excl).

In order to understand evolutionary potential of bryophytes, one must have some detailed familiarity with the organism. For this reason, course material includes the basic tools for identifying the local species and understanding their environmental adaptations. Lectures emphasize origin and evolution and provide information on morphology, cytology, taxonomy, ecology, and phytogeography, as well as other topics of current biological interest. There are two examinations; both include a practical exercise in identification. Textbooks for the course are Watson, THE STRUCTURE AND LIFE OF BRYOPHYTES; Steere, LIVERWORTS OF SOUTHERN MICHIGAN; and Crum, MOSSES OF THE GREAT LAKES FOREST. Half-day field trips are planned for the first ten weeks. (Crum)

Ecology, Evolution and Animal Behavior

381(Biology 351). General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (5). (NS).Also offered at the Biological Station during IIIb.

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 381 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Three field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. An independent project, several laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is ECOLOGY, by Begon, Harper, and Townsend. (Goldberg and Rathcke)

483(Biology 443). Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (Excl).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's LIMNOLOGY, second edition, is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 484 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

484(Biology 444). Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

491(Biology 445). Evolution and Systematics. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

Biology 491 is an overview of contemporary issues relating to patterns of organic diversity. The following topics are emphasized: (1) phylogenetic inference and classification; (2) species concepts and speciation; (3) historical biogeography; (4) coevolution; and (5) developmental constraints. Population genetics, natural selection and adaptation will not be considered in detail. There are three one-hour lectures and one three-hour laboratory per week. Two midterm tests, one final examination, a term paper and oral presentation are required. Reading assignments and discussion involve original literature. Students will gain experience with computer algorithms relating to phylogenetic inference. (Kluge)

494(Biology 475). Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (3). (NS).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior may be appropriately viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution by natural selection, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary biology are outlined, with special reference to topics like sexuality, senescence, parental care, nepotism, and social reciprocity. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed in relation to evolutionary arguments, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and the results of experimental psychology to the human background of evolution by natural selection. The significance of evolutionary considerations for concepts of ethics, morality, and justice are explored. A special discussion section will be arranged for students interested in animal behavior. (Alexander)

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